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1.
Aging Cell ; 21(3): e13545, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741316

ABSTRACT

Frailty affects the physical, cognitive, and social domains exposing older adults to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. The mechanisms linking frailty and cardiovascular outcomes are mostly unknown. Here, we studied the association of abundance (flow cytometry) and gene expression profile (RNAseq) of stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and molecular markers of inflammaging (ELISA) with the cardiorespiratory phenotype and prospective adverse events of individuals classified according to levels of frailty. Two cohorts of older adults were enrolled in the study. In a cohort of pre-frail 35 individuals (average age: 75 years), a physical frailty score above the median identified subjects with initial alterations in cardiorespiratory function. RNA sequencing revealed S100A8/A9 upregulation in HSPCs from the bone marrow (>10-fold) and peripheral blood (>200-fold) of individuals with greater physical frailty. Moreover higher frailty was associated with increased alarmins S100A8/A9 and inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood. We then studied a cohort of 104 more frail individuals (average age: 81 years) with multidomain health deficits. Reduced levels of circulating HSPCs and increased S100A8/A9 concentrations were independently associated with the frailty index. Remarkably, low HSPCs and high S100A8/A9 simultaneously predicted major adverse cardiovascular events at 1-year follow-up after adjustment for age and frailty index. In conclusion, inflammaging characterized by alarmin and pro-inflammatory cytokines in pre-frail individuals is mirrored by the pauperization of HSPCs in frail older people with comorbidities. S100A8/A9 is upregulated within HSPCs, identifying a phenotype that associates with poor cardiovascular outcomes.


Subject(s)
Alarmins , Frailty , Aged , Calgranulin A/genetics , Calgranulin A/metabolism , Calgranulin B/genetics , Calgranulin B/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Frailty/genetics , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/metabolism , Humans , Prospective Studies
2.
Regen Med ; 16(5): 477-494, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229139

ABSTRACT

In many countries, COVID-19 now accounts for more deaths per year than car accidents and even the deadliest wars. Combating the viral pandemics requires a coordinated effort to develop therapeutic protocols adaptable to the disease severity. In this review article, we summarize a graded approach aiming to shield cells from SARS-CoV-2 entry and infection, inhibit excess inflammation and evasion of the immune response, and ultimately prevent systemic organ failure. Moreover, we focus on mesenchymal stem cell therapy, which has shown safety and efficacy as a treatment of inflammatory and immune diseases. The cell therapy approach is now repurposed in patients with severe COVID-19. Numerous trials of mesenchymal stem cell therapy are ongoing, especially in China and the USA. Leader companies in cell therapy have also started controlled trials utilizing their quality assessed cell products. Results are too premature to reach definitive conclusions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans
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