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1.
Frontiers in medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652341

ABSTRACT

Aging and obesity independently contribute toward an endothelial dysfunction that results in an imbalanced VWF to ADAMTS13 ratio. In addition, plasma thrombin and plasmin generation are elevated and reduced, respectively, with increasing age and also with increasing body mass index (BMI). The severity risk of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) increases in adults older than 65 and in individuals with certain pre-existing health conditions, including obesity (>30 kg/m2). The present cross-sectional study focused on an analysis of the VWF/ADAMTS13 axis, including measurements of von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen (VWF:AG), VWF collagen binding activity (VWF:CBA), Factor VIII antigen, ADAMTS13 antigen, and ADAMTS13 activity, in addition to thrombin and plasmin generation potential, in a demographically diverse population of COVID-19 negative (−) (n = 288) and COVID-19 positive (+) (n = 543) patient plasmas collected at the time of hospital presentation. Data were analyzed as a whole, and then after dividing patients by age (<65 and ≥65) and independently by BMI [<18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25–29.9, >30 (kg/m2)]. These analyses suggest that VWF parameters (i.e., the VWF/ADAMTS13 activity ratio) and thrombin and plasmin generation differed in COVID-19 (+), as compared to COVID-19 (−) patient plasma. Further, age (≥65) more than BMI contributed to aberrant plasma indicators of endothelial coagulopathy. Based on these findings, evaluating both the VWF/ADAMTS13 axis, along with thrombin and plasmin generation, could provide insight into the extent of endothelial dysfunction as well as the plasmatic imbalance in coagulation and fibrinolysis potential, particularly for at-risk patient populations.

2.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: grc-750469

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 beta coronavirus is the etiological driver of COVID-19 disease, which is primarily characterized by shortness of breath, persistent dry cough, and fever. Because they transport oxygen, red blood cells (RBCs) may play a role in the severity of hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients. The present study combines state-of-the-art metabolomics, proteomics, and lipidomics approaches to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on RBCs from 23 healthy subjects and 29 molecularly-diagnosed COVID-19 patients. RBCs from COVID-19 patients had increased levels of glycolytic intermediates, accompanied by oxidation and fragmentation of ankyrin, spectrin beta, and the N-terminal cytosolic domain of band 3 (AE1). Significantly altered lipid metabolism was also observed, especially short and medium chain saturated fatty acids, acyl-carnitines, and sphingolipids. Nonetheless, there were no alterations of clinical hematological parameters, such as RBC count, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, with only minor increases in mean corpuscular volume. Taken together, these results suggest a significant impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on RBC structural membrane homeostasis at the protein and lipid levels. Increases in RBC glycolytic metabolites are consistent with a theoretically improved capacity of hemoglobin to off-load oxygen as a function of allosteric modulation by high-energy phosphate compounds, perhaps to counteract COVID-19-induced hypoxia. Conversely, because the N-terminus of AE1 stabilizes deoxyhemoglobin and finely tunes oxygen off-loading, RBCs from COVID-19 patients may be incapable of responding to environmental variations in hemoglobin oxygen saturation when traveling from the lungs to peripheral capillaries and, as such, may have a compromised capacity to transport and deliver oxygen.

3.
Vox Sang ; 116(8): 849-861, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402984

ABSTRACT

Growing evidence suggests that ABO blood group may play a role in the immunopathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with group O individuals less likely to test positive and group A conferring a higher susceptibility to infection and propensity to severe disease. The level of evidence supporting an association between ABO type and SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 ranges from small observational studies, to genome-wide-association-analyses and country-level meta-regression analyses. ABO blood group antigens are oligosaccharides expressed on red cells and other tissues (notably endothelium). There are several hypotheses to explain the differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection by ABO type. For example, anti-A and/or anti-B antibodies (e.g. present in group O individuals) could bind to corresponding antigens on the viral envelope and contribute to viral neutralization, thereby preventing target cell infection. The SARS-CoV-2 virus and SARS-CoV spike (S) proteins may be bound by anti-A isoagglutinins (e.g. present in group O and group B individuals), which may block interactions between virus and angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-receptor, thereby preventing entry into lung epithelial cells. ABO type-associated variations in angiotensin-converting enzyme-1 activity and levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII could also influence adverse outcomes, notably in group A individuals who express high VWF levels. In conclusion, group O may be associated with a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and group A may be associated with a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection along with severe disease. However, prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to verify several of the proposed associations. Based on the strength of available studies, there are insufficient data for guiding policy in this regard.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19 , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390543

ABSTRACT

The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents an ongoing worldwide challenge. The present large study sought to understand independent and overlapping metabolic features of samples from acutely ill patients (n = 831) that tested positive (n = 543) or negative (n = 288) for COVID-19. High-throughput metabolomics analyses were complemented with antigen and enzymatic activity assays on plasma from acutely ill patients collected while in the emergency department, at admission, or during hospitalization. Lipidomics analyses were also performed on COVID-19-positive or -negative subjects with the lowest and highest body mass index (n = 60/group). Significant changes in amino acid and fatty acid/acylcarnitine metabolism emerged as highly relevant markers of disease severity, progression, and prognosis as a function of biological and clinical variables in these patients. Further, machine learning models were trained by entering all metabolomics and clinical data from half of the COVID-19 patient cohort and then tested on the other half, yielding ~78% prediction accuracy. Finally, the extensive amount of information accumulated in this large, prospective, observational study provides a foundation for mechanistic follow-up studies and data sharing opportunities, which will advance our understanding of the characteristics of the plasma metabolism in COVID-19 and other acute critical illnesses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Prognosis , Acute Disease , Adult , Amino Acids/blood , Body Mass Index , Carnitine/analogs & derivatives , Carnitine/blood , Cohort Studies , Fatty Acids/blood , Female , Humans , Kynurenine/blood , Machine Learning , Metabolomics , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tryptophan/blood
5.
Vox Sang ; 116(7): 798-807, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cytokine release syndrome in COVID-19 is due to a pathological inflammatory response of raised cytokines. Removal of these cytokines by therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) prior to end-organ damage may improve clinical outcomes. This manuscript is intended to serve as a preliminary guidance document for application of TPE in patients with severe COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The available literature pertaining to the role of TPE for treatment of COVID-19 patients was reviewed to guide optimal management. It included indication, contraindication, optimal timing of initiation and termination of TPE, vascular access and anticoagulants, numbers and mode of procedures, outcome measures and adverse events. RESULTS: Out of a total of 78 articles, only 65 were directly related to the topic. From these 65, only 32 were acceptable as primary source, while 33 were used as supporting references. TPE in critically ill COVID-19 patients may be classified under ASFA category III grade 2B. The early initiation of TPE for 1-1·5 patient's plasma volume with fresh frozen plasma, or 4-5% albumin or COVID-19 convalescent plasma as replacement fluids before multiorgan failure, has better chances of recovery. The number of procedures can vary from three to nine depending on patient response. CONCLUSION: TPE in COVID-19 patients may help by removing toxic cytokines, viral particles and/or by correcting coagulopathy or restoring endothelial membrane. Severity score (SOFA & APACHE II) and cytokine levels (IL-6, C-reactive protein) can be used to execute TPE therapy and to monitor response in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plasma Exchange , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Plasmapheresis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(7): ofab144, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328928

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has upended life throughout the globe. Appropriate emphasis has been placed on developing effective therapies and vaccines to curb the pandemic. While awaiting such countermeasures, mitigation efforts coupled with robust testing remain essential to controlling spread of the disease. In particular, serological testing plays a critical role in providing important diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic information. However, this information is only useful if the results can be accurately interpreted. This pandemic placed clinical testing laboratories and requesting physicians in a precarious position because we are actively learning about the disease and how to interpret serological results. Having developed robust assays to detect antibodies generated against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and serving the hardest-hit areas within the New York City epicenter, we found 3 types of discordances in SARS-CoV-2 test results that challenge interpretation. Using representative clinical vignettes, these interpretation dilemmas are highlighted, along with suggested approaches to resolve such cases.

7.
J Clin Invest ; 131(13)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDAlthough convalescent plasma has been widely used to treat severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), data from randomized controlled trials that support its efficacy are limited.METHODSWe conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial among adults hospitalized with severe and critical COVID-19 at 5 sites in New York City (USA) and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive a single transfusion of either convalescent plasma or normal control plasma. The primary outcome was clinical status at 28 days following randomization, measured using an ordinal scale and analyzed using a proportional odds model in the intention-to-treat population.RESULTSOf 223 participants enrolled, 150 were randomized to receive convalescent plasma and 73 to receive normal control plasma. At 28 days, no significant improvement in the clinical scale was observed in participants randomized to convalescent plasma (OR 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-2.68, P = 0.180). However, 28-day mortality was significantly lower in participants randomized to convalescent plasma versus control plasma (19/150 [12.6%] versus 18/73 [24.6%], OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.22-0.91, P = 0.034). The median titer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody in infused convalescent plasma units was 1:160 (IQR 1:80-1:320). In a subset of nasopharyngeal swab samples from Brazil that underwent genomic sequencing, no evidence of neutralization-escape mutants was detected.CONCLUSIONIn adults hospitalized with severe COVID-19, use of convalescent plasma was not associated with significant improvement in day 28 clinical status. However, convalescent plasma was associated with significantly improved survival. A possible explanation is that survivors remained hospitalized at their baseline clinical status.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04359810.FUNDINGAmazon Foundation, Skoll Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
8.
Acad Pathol ; 8: 23742895211006818, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225750

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, created an unprecedented need for comprehensive laboratory testing of populations, in order to meet the needs of medical practice and to guide the management and functioning of our society. With the greater New York metropolitan area as an epicenter of this pandemic beginning in March 2020, a consortium of laboratory leaders from the assembled New York academic medical institutions was formed to help identify and solve the challenges of deploying testing. This report brings forward the experience of this consortium, based on the real-world challenges which we encountered in testing patients and in supporting the recovery effort to reestablish the health care workplace. In coordination with the Greater New York Hospital Association and with the public health laboratory of New York State, this consortium communicated with state leadership to help inform public decision-making addressing the crisis. Through the length of the pandemic, the consortium has been a critical mechanism for sharing experience and best practices in dealing with issues including the following: instrument platforms, sample sources, test performance, pre- and post-analytical issues, supply chain, institutional testing capacity, pooled testing, biospecimen science, and research. The consortium also has been a mechanism for staying abreast of state and municipal policies and initiatives, and their impact on institutional and laboratory operations. The experience of this consortium may be of value to current and future laboratory professionals and policy-makers alike, in dealing with major events that impact regional laboratory services.

9.
Vox Sang ; 116(1): 88-98, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Use of convalescent plasma for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment has gained interest worldwide. However, there is lack of evidence on its dosing, safety and effectiveness. Until data from clinical studies are available to provide solid evidence for worldwide applicable guidelines, there is a need to provide guidance to the transfusion community and researchers on this emergent therapeutic option. This paper aims to identify existing key gaps in current knowledge in the clinical application of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) initiated a multidisciplinary working group with worldwide representation from all six continents with the aim of reviewing existing practices on CCP use from donor, product and patient perspectives. A subgroup of clinical transfusion professionals was formed to draft a document for CCP clinical application to identify the gaps in knowledge in existing literature. RESULTS: Gaps in knowledge were identified in the following main domains: study design, patient eligibility, CCP dose, frequency and timing of CCP administration, parameters to assess response to CCP treatment and long-term outcome, adverse events and CCP application in less-resourced countries as well as in paediatrics and neonates. CONCLUSION: This paper outlines a framework of gaps in the knowledge of clinical deployment of CPP that were identified as being most relevant. Studies to address the identified gaps are required to provide better evidence on the effectiveness and safety of CCP use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Child , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Infant, Newborn , Research , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
11.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4417-4427, 2020 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-974858

ABSTRACT

Over 5 million people around the world have tested positive for the beta coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 as of May 29, 2020, a third of which are in the United States alone. These infections are associated with the development of a disease known as COVID-19, which is characterized by several symptoms, including persistent dry cough, shortness of breath, chills, muscle pain, headache, loss of taste or smell, and gastrointestinal distress. COVID-19 has been characterized by elevated mortality (over 100 thousand people have already died in the US alone), mostly due to thromboinflammatory complications that impair lung perfusion and systemic oxygenation in the most severe cases. While the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been associated with the severity of the disease, little is known about the impact of IL-6 levels on the proteome of COVID-19 patients. The present study provides the first proteomics analysis of sera from COVID-19 patients, stratified by circulating levels of IL-6, and correlated to markers of inflammation and renal function. As a function of IL-6 levels, we identified significant dysregulation in serum levels of various coagulation factors, accompanied by increased levels of antifibrinolytic components, including several serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs). These were accompanied by up-regulation of the complement cascade and antimicrobial enzymes, especially in subjects with the highest levels of IL-6, which is consistent with an exacerbation of the acute phase response in these subjects. Although our results are observational, they highlight a clear increase in the levels of inhibitory components of the fibrinolytic cascade in severe COVID-19 disease, providing potential clues related to the etiology of coagulopathic complications in COVID-19 and paving the way for potential therapeutic interventions, such as the use of pro-fibrinolytic agents. Raw data for this study are available through ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD020601.


Subject(s)
Blood Proteins/analysis , Complement System Proteins/analysis , Coronavirus Infections , Interleukin-6/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Proteome/analysis , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Hemolysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4455-4469, 2020 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889124

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 beta coronavirus is the etiological driver of COVID-19 disease, which is primarily characterized by shortness of breath, persistent dry cough, and fever. Because they transport oxygen, red blood cells (RBCs) may play a role in the severity of hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients. The present study combines state-of-the-art metabolomics, proteomics, and lipidomics approaches to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on RBCs from 23 healthy subjects and 29 molecularly diagnosed COVID-19 patients. RBCs from COVID-19 patients had increased levels of glycolytic intermediates, accompanied by oxidation and fragmentation of ankyrin, spectrin beta, and the N-terminal cytosolic domain of band 3 (AE1). Significantly altered lipid metabolism was also observed, in particular, short- and medium-chain saturated fatty acids, acyl-carnitines, and sphingolipids. Nonetheless, there were no alterations of clinical hematological parameters, such as RBC count, hematocrit, or mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, with only minor increases in mean corpuscular volume. Taken together, these results suggest a significant impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on RBC structural membrane homeostasis at the protein and lipid levels. Increases in RBC glycolytic metabolites are consistent with a theoretically improved capacity of hemoglobin to off-load oxygen as a function of allosteric modulation by high-energy phosphate compounds, perhaps to counteract COVID-19-induced hypoxia. Conversely, because the N-terminus of AE1 stabilizes deoxyhemoglobin and finely tunes oxygen off-loading and metabolic rewiring toward the hexose monophosphate shunt, RBCs from COVID-19 patients may be less capable of responding to environmental variations in hemoglobin oxygen saturation/oxidant stress when traveling from the lungs to peripheral capillaries and vice versa.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Erythrocytes , Membrane Lipids , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Erythrocytes/chemistry , Erythrocytes/cytology , Erythrocytes/pathology , Humans , Lipidomics , Membrane Lipids/analysis , Membrane Lipids/chemistry , Membrane Lipids/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/analysis , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Metabolome/physiology , Models, Molecular , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Proteome/analysis , Proteome/chemistry , Proteome/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Trials ; 21(1): 499, 2020 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-768581

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of human anti-SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma in hospitalized adults with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a prospective, single-center, phase 2, randomized, controlled trial that is blinded to participants and clinical outcome assessor. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible participants include adults (≥ 18 years) with evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection by PCR test of nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab within 14 days of randomization, evidence of infiltrates on chest radiography, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≤ 94% on room air, and/or need for supplemental oxygen, non-invasive mechanical ventilation, or invasive mechanical ventilation, who are willing and able to provide written informed consent prior to performing study procedures or who have a legally authorized representative available to do so. Exclusion criteria include participation in another clinical trial of anti-viral agent(s)* for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), receipt of any anti-viral agent(s)* with possible activity against SARS-CoV-2 <24 hours prior to plasma infusion, mechanical ventilation (including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation [ECMO]) for ≥ 5 days, severe multi-organ failure, history of allergic reactions to transfused blood products per NHSN/CDC criteria, known IgA deficiency, and pregnancy. Included participants will be hospitalized at the time of randomization and plasma infusion. *Use of remdesivir as treatment for COVID-19 is permitted. The study will be undertaken at Columbia University Irving Medical Center in New York, USA. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The investigational treatment is anti-SARS-CoV-2 human convalescent plasma. To procure the investigational treatment, volunteers who recovered from COVID-19 will undergo testing to confirm the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody to the spike trimer at a 1:400 dilution. Donors will also be screened for transfusion-transmitted infections (e.g. HIV, HBV, HCV, WNV, HTLV-I/II, T. cruzi, ZIKV). If donors have experienced COVID-19 symptoms within 28 days, they will be screened with a nasopharyngeal swab to confirm they are SARS-CoV-2 PCR-negative. Plasma will be collected using standard apheresis technology by the New York Blood Center. Study participants will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive one unit (200 - 250 mL) of anti-SARS-CoV-2 plasma versus one unit (200 - 250 mL) of the earliest available control plasma. The control plasma cannot be tested for presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody prior to the transfusion, but will be tested for anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibody after the transfusion to allow for a retrospective per-protocol analysis. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint is time to clinical improvement. This is defined as time from randomization to either discharge from the hospital or improvement by one point on the following seven-point ordinal scale, whichever occurs first. 1. Not hospitalized with resumption of normal activities 2. Not hospitalized, but unable to resume normal activities 3. Hospitalized, not requiring supplemental oxygen 4. Hospitalized, requiring supplemental oxygen 5. Hospitalized, requiring high-flow oxygen therapy or non-invasive mechanical ventilation 6. Hospitalized, requiring ECMO, invasive mechanical ventilation, or both 7. Death This scale, designed to assess clinical status over time, was based on that recommended by the World Health Organization for use in determining efficacy end-points in clinical trials in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. A recent clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of lopinavir- ritonavir for patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 used a similar ordinal scale, as have recent clinical trials of novel therapeutics for severe influenza, including a post-hoc analysis of a trial evaluating immune plasma. The primary safety endpoints are cumulative incidence of grade 3 and 4 adverse events and cumulative incidence of serious adverse events during the study period. RANDOMIZATION: Study participants will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive anti-SARS-CoV-2 plasma versus control plasma using a web-based randomization platform. Treatment assignments will be generated using randomly permuted blocks of different sizes to minimize imbalance while also minimizing predictability. BLINDING (MASKING): The study participants and the clinicians who will evaluate post-treatment outcomes will be blinded to group assignment. The blood bank and the clinical research team will not be blinded to group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): We plan to enroll 129 participants, with 86 in the anti-SARS-CoV-2 arm, and 43 in the control arm. Among the participants, we expect ~70% or n = 72 will achieve clinical improvement. This will yield an 80% power for a one-sided Wald test at 0.15 level of significance under the proportional hazards model with a hazard ratio of 1.5. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol AAAS9924, Version 17APR2020, 4/17/2020 Start of recruitment: April 20, 2020 Recruitment is ongoing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04359810 Date of trial registration: April 24, 2020 Retrospectively registered FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/methods , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Lab Med ; 51(5): e59-e65, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641292

ABSTRACT

Clinical laboratory testing routinely provides actionable results, which help direct patient care in the inpatient and outpatient settings. Since December 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been causing disease (COVID-19 [coronavirus disease 2019]) in patients, beginning in China and now extending worldwide. In this context of a novel viral pandemic, clinical laboratories have developed multiple novel assays for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and for managing patients afflicted with this illness. These include molecular and serologic-based tests, some with point-of-care testing capabilities. Herein, we present an overview of the types of testing available for managing patients with COVID-19, as well as for screening of potential plasma donors who have recovered from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Serologic Tests/methods , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Humans , Immunoassay/standards , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/standards , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/standards
16.
medRxiv ; 2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636842

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 beta coronavirus is the etiological driver of COVID-19 disease, which is primarily characterized by shortness of breath, persistent dry cough, and fever. Because they transport oxygen, red blood cells (RBCs) may play a role in the severity of hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients. The present study combines state-of-the-art metabolomics, proteomics, and lipidomics approaches to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on RBCs from 23 healthy subjects and 29 molecularly-diagnosed COVID-19 patients. RBCs from COVID-19 patients had increased levels of glycolytic intermediates, accompanied by oxidation and fragmentation of ankyrin, spectrin beta, and the N-terminal cytosolic domain of band 3 (AE1). Significantly altered lipid metabolism was also observed, especially short and medium chain saturated fatty acids, acyl-carnitines, and sphingolipids. Nonetheless, there were no alterations of clinical hematological parameters, such as RBC count, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, with only minor increases in mean corpuscular volume. Taken together, these results suggest a significant impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on RBC structural membrane homeostasis at the protein and lipid levels. Increases in RBC glycolytic metabolites are consistent with a theoretically improved capacity of hemoglobin to off-load oxygen as a function of allosteric modulation by high-energy phosphate compounds, perhaps to counteract COVID-19-induced hypoxia. Conversely, because the N-terminus of AE1 stabilizes deoxyhemoglobin and finely tunes oxygen off-loading, RBCs from COVID-19 patients may be incapable of responding to environmental variations in hemoglobin oxygen saturation when traveling from the lungs to peripheral capillaries and, as such, may have a compromised capacity to transport and deliver oxygen.

18.
JCI Insight ; 5(14)2020 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDReprogramming of host metabolism supports viral pathogenesis by fueling viral proliferation, by providing, for example, free amino acids and fatty acids as building blocks.METHODSTo investigate metabolic effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we evaluated serum metabolites of patients with COVID-19 (n = 33; diagnosed by nucleic acid testing), as compared with COVID-19-negative controls (n = 16).RESULTSTargeted and untargeted metabolomics analyses identified altered tryptophan metabolism into the kynurenine pathway, which regulates inflammation and immunity. Indeed, these changes in tryptophan metabolism correlated with interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Widespread dysregulation of nitrogen metabolism was also seen in infected patients, with altered levels of most amino acids, along with increased markers of oxidant stress (e.g., methionine sulfoxide, cystine), proteolysis, and renal dysfunction (e.g., creatine, creatinine, polyamines). Increased circulating levels of glucose and free fatty acids were also observed, consistent with altered carbon homeostasis. Interestingly, metabolite levels in these pathways correlated with clinical laboratory markers of inflammation (i.e., IL-6 and C-reactive protein) and renal function (i.e., blood urea nitrogen).CONCLUSIONIn conclusion, this initial observational study identified amino acid and fatty acid metabolism as correlates of COVID-19, providing mechanistic insights, potential markers of clinical severity, and potential therapeutic targets.FUNDINGBoettcher Foundation Webb-Waring Biomedical Research Award; National Institute of General and Medical Sciences, NIH; and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Kynurenine/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Amino Acids/metabolism , Betacoronavirus , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Creatine/metabolism , Creatinine/metabolism , Cystine , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Methionine/analogs & derivatives , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Polyamines/metabolism , Proteolysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tryptophan/metabolism
19.
Vox Sang ; 116(1): 18-35, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) has been used, predominantly in high-income countries (HICs) to treat COVID-19; available data suggest the safety and efficacy of use. We sought to develop guidance for procurement and use of CCP, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) for which data are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multidisciplinary, geographically representative group of individuals with expertise spanning transfusion medicine, infectious diseases and haematology was tasked with the development of a guidance document for CCP, drawing on expert opinion, survey of group members and review of available evidence. Three subgroups (i.e. donor, product and patient) were established based on self-identified expertise and interest. Here, the donor and product-related challenges are summarized and contrasted between HICs and LMICs with a view to guide related practices. RESULTS: The challenges to advance CCP therapy are different between HICs and LMICs. Early challenges in HICs related to recruitment and qualification of sufficient donors to meet the growing demand. Antibody testing also posed a specific obstacle given lack of standardization, variable performance of the assays in use and uncertain interpretation of results. In LMICs, an extant transfusion deficit, suboptimal models of donor recruitment (e.g. reliance on replacement and paid donors), limited laboratory capacity for pre-donation qualification and operational considerations could impede wide adoption. CONCLUSION: There has been wide-scale adoption of CCP in many HICs, which could increase if clinical trials show efficacy of use. By contrast, LMICs, having received little attention, require locally applicable strategies for adoption of CCP.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19/therapy , Developing Countries , Guidelines as Topic , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2
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