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1.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750472

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has escalated into a global crisis. The spike (S) protein that mediates cell entry and membrane fusion is the current focus of vaccine and therapeutic antibody development efforts. The S protein, like many other viral fusion proteins such as HIV-1 envelope (Env) and influenza hemagglutinin, is glycosylated with both complex and high mannose glycans. Here we demonstrate binding to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein by a category of Fab-dimerized glycan-reactive (FDG) HIV-1-induced broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). A 3.1 A resolution cryo-EM structure of the S protein ectodomain bound to glycan-dependent HIV-1 bnAb 2G12 revealed a quaternary glycan epitope on the spike S2 domain involving multiple protomers. These data reveal a new epitope on the SARS-CoV-2 spike that can be targeted for vaccine design. Highlights: Fab-dimerized, glycan-reactive (FDG) HIV-1 bnAbs cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 spike.3.1 A resolution cryo-EM structure reveals quaternary S2 epitope for HIV-1 bnAb 2G12.2G12 targets glycans, at positions 709, 717 and 801, in the SARS-CoV-2 spike.Our studies suggest a common epitope for FDG antibodies centered around glycan 709.

2.
Cell ; 184(11): 2955-2972.e25, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237636

ABSTRACT

Natural antibodies (Abs) can target host glycans on the surface of pathogens. We studied the evolution of glycan-reactive B cells of rhesus macaques and humans using glycosylated HIV-1 envelope (Env) as a model antigen. 2G12 is a broadly neutralizing Ab (bnAb) that targets a conserved glycan patch on Env of geographically diverse HIV-1 strains using a unique heavy-chain (VH) domain-swapped architecture that results in fragment antigen-binding (Fab) dimerization. Here, we describe HIV-1 Env Fab-dimerized glycan (FDG)-reactive bnAbs without VH-swapped domains from simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected macaques. FDG Abs also recognized cell-surface glycans on diverse pathogens, including yeast and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike. FDG precursors were expanded by glycan-bearing immunogens in macaques and were abundant in HIV-1-naive humans. Moreover, FDG precursors were predominately mutated IgM+IgD+CD27+, thus suggesting that they originated from a pool of antigen-experienced IgM+ or marginal zone B cells.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Polysaccharides/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Dimerization , Epitopes/immunology , Glycosylation , HIV Antibodies/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/chemistry , Macaca mulatta , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/chemistry , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics , Vaccines/immunology , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/chemistry , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics
3.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 28(2): 128-131, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010060

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, a primary target for COVID-19 vaccine development, presents its receptor binding domain in two conformations, the receptor-accessible 'up' or receptor-inaccessible 'down' states. Here we report that the commonly used stabilized S ectodomain construct '2P' is sensitive to cold temperatures, and this cold sensitivity is abrogated in a 'down' state-stabilized ectodomain. Our findings will impact structural, functional and vaccine studies that use the SARS-CoV-2 S ectodomain.


Subject(s)
Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Cold Temperature , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Protein Denaturation , Protein Domains , Protein Stability , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Surface Plasmon Resonance
4.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636939

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has escalated into a global crisis. The spike (S) protein that mediates cell entry and membrane fusion is the current focus of vaccine and therapeutic antibody development efforts. The S protein, like many other viral fusion proteins such as HIV-1 envelope (Env) and influenza hemagglutinin, is glycosylated with both complex and high mannose glycans. Here we demonstrate binding to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein by a category of Fab-dimerized glycan-reactive (FDG) HIV-1-induced broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). A 3.1 Å resolution cryo-EM structure of the S protein ectodomain bound to glycan-dependent HIV-1 bnAb 2G12 revealed a quaternary glycan epitope on the spike S2 domain involving multiple protomers. These data reveal a new epitope on the SARS-CoV-2 spike that can be targeted for vaccine design. HIGHLIGHTS: Fab-dimerized, glycan-reactive (FDG) HIV-1 bnAbs cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 spike.3.1 Å resolution cryo-EM structure reveals quaternary S2 epitope for HIV-1 bnAb 2G12.2G12 targets glycans, at positions 709, 717 and 801, in the SARS-CoV-2 spike.Our studies suggest a common epitope for FDG antibodies centered around glycan 709.

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