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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922210

ABSTRACT

We described bacterial/fungal co-infections and antibiotic resistant infections among inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 and compared findings with inpatients diagnosed with influenza-like-illness. Less than 10% of COVID-19 inpatients had bacterial/fungal co-infection. Longer lengths of stay, critical care stay, and mechanical ventilation contribute to increased incidence of hospital-onset infections among COVID-19 inpatients.

3.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(10): 2009-2015, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356280

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if facility-level vaccination after an initial vaccination clinic was independently associated with COVID-19 incidence adjusted for other factors in January 2021 among nursing home residents. DESIGN: Ecological analysis of data from the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) and from the CDC's Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: CMS-certified nursing homes participating in both NHSN and the Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program. METHODS: A multivariable, random intercepts, negative binomial model was applied to contrast COVID-19 incidence rates among residents living in facilities with an initial vaccination clinic during the week ending January 3, 2021 (n = 2843), vs those living in facilities with no vaccination clinic reported up to and including the week ending January 10, 2021 (n = 3216). Model covariates included bed size, resident SARS-CoV-2 testing, staff with COVID-19, cumulative COVID-19 among residents, residents admitted with COVID-19, community county incidence, and county social vulnerability index (SVI). RESULTS: In December 2020 and January 2021, incidence of COVID-19 among nursing home residents declined to the lowest point since reporting began in May, diverged from the pattern in community cases, and began dropping before vaccination occurred. Comparing week 3 following an initial vaccination clinic vs week 2, the adjusted reduction in COVID-19 rate in vaccinated facilities was 27% greater than the reduction in facilities where vaccination clinics had not yet occurred (95% confidence interval: 14%-38%, P < .05). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Vaccination of residents contributed to the decline in COVID-19 incidence in nursing homes; however, other factors also contributed. The decline in COVID-19 was evident prior to widespread vaccination, highlighting the benefit of a multifaced approach to prevention including continued use of recommended screening, testing, and infection prevention practices as well as vaccination to keep residents in nursing homes safe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Incidence , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e792-e798, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying asymptomatic individuals early through serial testing is recommended to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in nursing homes, both in response to an outbreak ("outbreak testing" of residents and healthcare personnel) and in facilities without outbreaks ("nonoutbreak testing" of healthcare personnel). The effectiveness of outbreak testing and isolation with or without nonoutbreak testing was evaluated. METHODS: Using published SARS-CoV-2 transmission parameters, the fraction of SARS-CoV-2 transmissions prevented through serial testing (weekly, every 3 days, or daily) and isolation of asymptomatic persons compared with symptom-based testing and isolation was evaluated through mathematical modeling using a Reed-Frost model to estimate the percentage of cases prevented (ie, "effectiveness") through either outbreak testing alone or outbreak plus nonoutbreak testing. The potential effect of simultaneous decreases (by 10%) in the effectiveness of isolating infected individuals when instituting testing strategies was also evaluated. RESULTS: Modeling suggests that outbreak testing could prevent 54% (weekly testing with 48-hour test turnaround) to 92% (daily testing with immediate results and 50% relative sensitivity) of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Adding nonoutbreak testing could prevent up to an additional 8% of SARS-CoV-2 infections (depending on test frequency and turnaround time). However, added benefits of nonoutbreak testing were mostly negated if accompanied by decreases in infection control practice. CONCLUSIONS: When combined with high-quality infection control practices, outbreak testing could be an effective approach to preventing COVID-19 in nursing homes, particularly if optimized through increased test frequency and use of tests with rapid turnaround.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(6): ofab236, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297404

ABSTRACT

We described antibiotic use among inpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Most COVID-19 inpatients received antibiotic therapy. We also described hospital-wide antibiotic use during 2020 compared with 2019, stratified by hospital COVID-19 burden. Although total antibiotic use decreased between years, certain antibiotic use increased with higher COVID-19 burden.

6.
Lung India ; 38(Supplement): S105-S115, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123963

ABSTRACT

During the times of the ongoing COVID pandemic, aerosol-generating procedures such as bronchoscopy have the potential of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 to the healthcare workers. The decision to perform bronchoscopy during the COVID pandemic should be taken judiciously. Over the years, the indications for bronchoscopy in the clinical practice have expanded. Experts at the Indian Association for Bronchology perceived the need to develop a concise statement that would assist a bronchoscopist in performing bronchoscopy during the COVID pandemic safely. The current Indian Association for Bronchology Consensus Statement provides specific guidelines including triaging, indications, bronchoscopy area, use of personal protective equipment, patient preparation, sedation and anesthesia, patient monitoring, bronchoscopy technique, sample collection and handling, bronchoscope disinfection, and environmental disinfection concerning the coronavirus disease-2019 situation. The suggestions provided herewith should be adopted in addition to the national bronchoscopy guidelines that were published recently. This statement summarizes the essential aspects to be considered for the performance of bronchoscopy in COVID pandemic, to ensure safety for both for patients and healthcare personnel.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e792-e798, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying asymptomatic individuals early through serial testing is recommended to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in nursing homes, both in response to an outbreak ("outbreak testing" of residents and healthcare personnel) and in facilities without outbreaks ("nonoutbreak testing" of healthcare personnel). The effectiveness of outbreak testing and isolation with or without nonoutbreak testing was evaluated. METHODS: Using published SARS-CoV-2 transmission parameters, the fraction of SARS-CoV-2 transmissions prevented through serial testing (weekly, every 3 days, or daily) and isolation of asymptomatic persons compared with symptom-based testing and isolation was evaluated through mathematical modeling using a Reed-Frost model to estimate the percentage of cases prevented (ie, "effectiveness") through either outbreak testing alone or outbreak plus nonoutbreak testing. The potential effect of simultaneous decreases (by 10%) in the effectiveness of isolating infected individuals when instituting testing strategies was also evaluated. RESULTS: Modeling suggests that outbreak testing could prevent 54% (weekly testing with 48-hour test turnaround) to 92% (daily testing with immediate results and 50% relative sensitivity) of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Adding nonoutbreak testing could prevent up to an additional 8% of SARS-CoV-2 infections (depending on test frequency and turnaround time). However, added benefits of nonoutbreak testing were mostly negated if accompanied by decreases in infection control practice. CONCLUSIONS: When combined with high-quality infection control practices, outbreak testing could be an effective approach to preventing COVID-19 in nursing homes, particularly if optimized through increased test frequency and use of tests with rapid turnaround.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(2): 52-55, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068077

ABSTRACT

During the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, nursing homes were identified as congregate settings at high risk for outbreaks of COVID-19 (1,2). Their residents also are at higher risk than the general population for morbidity and mortality associated with infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in light of the association of severe outcomes with older age and certain underlying medical conditions (1,3). CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) launched nationwide, facility-level COVID-19 nursing home surveillance on April 26, 2020. A federal mandate issued by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), required nursing homes to commence enrollment and routine reporting of COVID-19 cases among residents and staff members by May 25, 2020. This report uses the NHSN nursing home COVID-19 data reported during May 25-November 22, 2020, to describe COVID-19 rates among nursing home residents and staff members and compares these with rates in surrounding communities by corresponding U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) region.* COVID-19 cases among nursing home residents increased during June and July 2020, reaching 11.5 cases per 1,000 resident-weeks (calculated as the total number of occupied beds on the day that weekly data were reported) (week of July 26). By mid-September, rates had declined to 6.3 per 1,000 resident-weeks (week of September 13) before increasing again, reaching 23.2 cases per 1,000 resident-weeks by late November (week of November 22). COVID-19 cases among nursing home staff members also increased during June and July (week of July 26 = 10.9 cases per 1,000 resident-weeks) before declining during August-September (week of September 13 = 6.3 per 1,000 resident-weeks); rates increased by late November (week of November 22 = 21.3 cases per 1,000 resident-weeks). Rates of COVID-19 in the surrounding communities followed similar trends. Increases in community rates might be associated with increases in nursing home COVID-19 incidence, and nursing home mitigation strategies need to include a comprehensive plan to monitor local SARS-CoV-2 transmission and minimize high-risk exposures within facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Humans , Incidence , United States/epidemiology
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5): 178-182, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063531

ABSTRACT

Residents and staff members of long-term care facilities (LTCFs), because they live and work in congregate settings, are at increased risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1,2). In particular, skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), LTCFs that provide skilled nursing care and rehabilitation services for persons with complex medical needs, have been documented settings of COVID-19 outbreaks (3). In addition, residents of LTCFs might be at increased risk for severe outcomes because of their advanced age or the presence of underlying chronic medical conditions (4). As a result, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended that residents and staff members of LTCFs be offered vaccination in the initial COVID-19 vaccine allocation phase (Phase 1a) in the United States (5). In December 2020, CDC launched the Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program* to facilitate on-site vaccination of residents and staff members at enrolled LTCFs. To evaluate early receipt of vaccine during the first month of the program, the number of eligible residents and staff members in enrolled SNFs was estimated using resident census data from the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN†) and staffing data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Payroll-Based Journal.§ Among 11,460 SNFs with at least one vaccination clinic during the first month of the program (December 18, 2020-January 17, 2021), an estimated median of 77.8% of residents (interquartile range [IQR] = 61.3%- 93.1%) and a median of 37.5% (IQR = 23.2%- 56.8%) of staff members per facility received ≥1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine through the Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program. The program achieved moderately high coverage among residents; however, continued development and implementation of focused communication and outreach strategies are needed to improve vaccination coverage among staff members in SNFs and other long-term care settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Pharmacy/organization & administration , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , Skilled Nursing Facilities/organization & administration , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humans , Long-Term Care , Program Evaluation , United States/epidemiology
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