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1.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-489, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as nausea and diarrhea have been reported in patients with SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19). However, outcomes of patients with COVID-19 and GI symptoms and risk factors associated with poor outcomes in this patient population have not been assessed. METHODS: The study cohort was derived from the Cerner Real World Data (CRWD) COVID-19 Database inclusive of emergency department and hospital encounters with COVID-19 infection from December 1, 2019, to November 30, 2020. Baseline demographics, comorbidities, hospital characteristics, and GI symptoms were obtained. The outcomes of interest were mortality, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis, and ventilator requirement/oxygen dependence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess predictors of poor outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with GI symptoms. RESULTS: Of 100,902 patients with COVID-19 infection, 19.7% reported GI symptoms. Those with GI symptoms had a significantly higher prevalence of comorbidities and underlying chronic GI conditions (Table 1). In patients with COVID-19 and GI symptoms, advanced age was associated with a higher risk of overall mortality, ARDS, sepsis, and ventilator requirement/oxygen dependence (Table 2);whereas the female gender was associated with a lower risk of mortality (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.61, 0.76), ARDS (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.60, 0.77), and sepsis (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.64, 0.75). A higher Charlson Comorbidity Index was also associated with higher mortality, ARDS, sepsis, and ventilator requirement/oxygen dependence-Table 2. Finally, history of PPI and H2RA use (minimum duration 1 month) was associated with an increased risk of mortality (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.32, 1.66) and (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.57, 2.02), ARDS (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.91, 2.50) and (OR 3.75, 95% CI 3.29, 4.28), sepsis (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.73, 2.05) and (OR 2.50, 95% CI 2.28, 2.73);and ventilator requirement/oxygen dependence (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.48, 2.02) and (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.68, 2.30) respectively. CONCLUSION: GI symptoms are reported by 1 in 5 patients admitted to the hospital with COVID-19. Advanced age, male gender, a higher comorbidity score, and use of acid suppression medications (PPI/ H2RA) were associated with poor outcomes including death

2.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-364, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967299

ABSTRACT

Background: Diarrhea is present in up to 36.6% of patients with COVID-19. The mechanism of SARS-CoV-2-induced diarrhea remains unclear. We hypothesized that enterocyte-enteric neuron interactions were important in SARS-CoV-2-induced diarrhea. SARS-CoV-2 induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in enterocytes causing the release of Damage Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs). The DAMPs then stimulate the release of enteric neurotransmitters that disrupt gut electrolyte homeostasis. The influence of ER stress and enteric neuronderived vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the expression of Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3), an important transporter that mediates intestinal Na+/fluid absorption, was further examined. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 propagated in Vero-E6 cells was used to infect Caco-2, a human colon epithelial cell line that expresses SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2. The expression of ER stress markers, phospho-PERK, Xbp1s, and DAMP proteins, was examined by Western blotting. Primary mouse enteric neurons were treated with a conditioned medium of Caco- 2 cells that were infected with SARS-CoV-2 or treated with tunicamycin. VIP expression by cultured enteric neurons was assessed by RT-qPCR, Western blotting, and ELISA. Membrane expression of NHE3 was determined by surface biotinylation. Results: SARS-CoV-2 infection of Caco-2 cells led to increased expression of phospho-PERK and Xbp1s indicating increased ER stress. Infected Caco-2 cells secreted DAMP proteins, including HSP70 and calreticulin, as revealed by proteomic and Western analyses. The expression of VIP mRNA in enteric neurons was up-regulated after treatment with a conditioned medium of SARS-CoV-2- infected Caco-2 cells (Mock, 1 ± 0.0885;and SARS-CoV-2, 1.351 ± 0.020, P=.005). CD91, a receptor for HSP70 and calreticulin, is abundantly expressed in cultured mouse and human enteric neurons and was up-regulated by a conditioned medium of SARS-CoV-2-infected Caco-2 cells. Tunicamycin, an inducer of ER stress, also induced the secretion of HSP70 and calreticulin, mimicking SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, co-culture of enteric neurons with tunicamycin-treated Caco-2 cells stimulated VIP production as determined by ELISA. Co-treatment of Caco-2 cells with tunicamycin (apical) and VIP (basolateral) induced a synergistic decrease in the membrane expression of NHE3. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection of enterocytes leads to ER stress and the release of DAMPs that up-regulate the expression and release of VIP by enteric neurons. The presence of ER stress together with the secreted VIP, in turn, inhibits fluid absorption through the downregulation of brush-border membrane expression of NHE3 in the enterocytes. These data highlight epithelial-neuronal crosstalk in COVID-19 related diarrhea. (Figure Presented)

3.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-287-S-288, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967278

ABSTRACT

Background: Prior studies have shown no additional risk of severe outcomes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from COVID-19 infection unless they are experiencing disease flare or on steroids. Whether COVID-19 infected patients with IBD have worse outcomes than those without IBD is not clear. Aims: To examine risk factors for worse outcomes related to COVID-19 infection in IBD patients. Methods: The study cohort was derived from the Cerner Real World Data (CRWD) COVID-19 Database inclusive of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection from December 1, 2019 through November 30, 2020. Baseline demographics, comorbidities, and hospital characteristics were acquired. IBD patients were propensity-matched in 1:2 fashion to controls (those without IBD) to compare proportions of patients who experienced death, or worse outcomes such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), mechanical ventilation and sepsis using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The impact of immune suppressing medications (steroids and biologics) among patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) was also examined. Results: Of 100,902 COVID-19 positive hospitalized patients, 316 (0.3%) were found to have a personal history of IBD: UC=148 and CD=172 (mean age: 49.5±20.9 years, 56% females;Table 1). Overall mortality was not significantly higher in COVID-19 hospitalized patients who had IBD compared to those without IBD (10.8% vs 8.5%;p= 0.79). On propensity-matching, there was no significant difference found between IBD patients on steroids (n=124) and non-IBD patients on steroids (n=161) for mortality (p= 0.45), mechanical ventilation (p=0.68), ARDS (p=0.30) or sepsis (p=0.50) -table 2. IBD patients on biologics (and other immunosuppressors) were not found to have any significant difference in these outcomes when compared to matched non-IBD patients on other immunosuppressors: mortality (p=0.23), ARDS (p=0.056) or sepsis (p=0.19). Conclusion: In this large real-world data of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, IBD accounted for < 0.5% of total admissions and those with IBD did not have worse outcomes or increased mortality compared to those without IBD, including those takings immune suppressive medications (Table Presented) (Table Presented)

4.
INDIAN PEDIATRICS ; 59(6):508-508, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1935325
5.
British Journal of Neurosurgery ; 36(1):158, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1937538

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of virtual peer teaching in easing neurophobia among preclinical medical students at Cardiff University. Design: Quantitative research. Subjects: 94 Year two medical students at Cardiff University. Methods: An evaluative study was conducted to assess the prevalence of neurophobia and the effects of our teaching on it. This was assessed by comparing confidence, anxiety, and neurophobia levels pre-and post-session on a 5-point Likert scale. The quantitative data were collected based on thematic questions (anatomy, physiology, radiology, bone disease, and pathology) relevant to the session with only one correct answer for each question. Results: 62.7% of the students found neurological and neurosurgical concepts the most difficult to learn in medical school (3.70 ± 1.77). We found that the reported scores of neurophobia (3.22 ± 1.60 to 1.39 ± 1.72) and anxiety (3.59 ± 1.71 to 2.99 ± 1.58) decreased, while confidence (2.79 ± 1.60 to 3.71 ± 1.77) increased after one virtual teaching session. We also saw an overall average increase in knowledge across all five quantitative domains by 20.7%. Conclusions: Neurophobia remains rife amongst medical students, even in their preclinical years. Despite difficulties with face-to-face teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic, our results strongly indicate that virtual teaching sessions can effectively alleviate neurophobia and improve clinical neuroscience knowledge.1,2.

6.
AIMS PUBLIC HEALTH ; 9(3):521-541, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1911813

ABSTRACT

In order to provide meaningful and effective support to refugees in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as during post-pandemic recovery efforts, it is critical to explore the experiences of refugee mothers and families during the pandemic, and to identify sources of resilience that can be leveraged to promote individual and household wellbeing. From November 2020 to June 2021, we conducted in-depth interviews with mothers from refugee backgrounds (n = 28) who resettled in Calgary, Alberta and are currently participating in the Multicultural Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) program. Interviews were conducted virtually using Microsoft Teams;we sought to better understand the pathways and barriers to wellbeing experienced by refugee mothers during the pandemic. The results indicate that the refugee mothers and families in our study experienced widespread disruptions to education and employment and increased motherhood burden, contributing to diminished wellbeing. Mental health was further impacted by heightened levels of worry, stress and social isolation, as well as intense fear pertaining to the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Some mothers reported experiencing barriers to accessing healthcare services and reliable health information during the pandemic. In the face of these challenges, the mothers demonstrated great resilience and identified tangible individual, household and extra-household factors and resources that supported them in coping with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, our findings suggest that participation in HIPPY played a significant role in fostering the resilience of the participating mothers and families during the pandemic, speaking to the potential of home visiting intervention models in mitigating household hardship during current and future public health crises.

7.
1st International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021, ICTSGS 2021 ; 107:7899-7912, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874818

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a real life-threatening disease which has locked up the whole Globe. In spite of the rapid sharing of information and inculcating social responsibilities by multiple factor such as personal hygiene, social distancing and self-isolation the spread of COVID19 is increasing day by day. Controlling the spread of disease in early stage becomes the primary responsibility of the government. The judicial administration along with the health-care workers struggles tirelessly to flatten the curve by taking measure to reduce the spread of disease. The primary objective of this paper is to help the government in this aspect of buying time to control the spread of virus. World Health Organisation notified that “COVID-19 is transmitted via droplets and fomites during close unprotected contacts between an infector and infected.” Hence the key strategy should focus on preventing the virus before becoming a community transmission. Locating the area of very high possibilities of COVID victims becomes the highest priority to block transmission. This can be done by identifying the parameters which influence the spread of disease and applying on the large volume of data obtained by the area wise survey information. In this paper a decision tree is built using Iterative Dichotomiser (ID3) and it is further compared using Naive Bayes classification algorithm to check the accuracy of the result obtained by ID3. The obtained result of tested data is further solved and an improvised optimal decision tree is build which is used to identify and block the area of highest risk factor. © The Electrochemical Society

9.
13th International Multi-Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics, IMCIC 2022 ; 1:175-180, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1836707

ABSTRACT

Since 2020 working from home has, for many, become the norm since the outbreak of the COVID-19. Furthermore, with large public gatherings either prohibited, limited, or subject to social distancing measures live theatre performed in front of a live audience have been deeply affected. This project experiments with executing performances from home to enable theatre actors to continue to practice and connect with audiences. A series of experiments were conducted to test the possibility of having performers or actors conducting performance from their personal spaces and integrating their work using virtual reality in a combined space for an audience to engage with. This research aims to examine Virtual Reality as an assistive technology in contexts such as theatre performance and use of digital environmental design for actors and performers. The nature of this research project was to determine various scenarios in which a virtual 3D environment can enable, assist and/or enhance a theatre performance for both audience and the actors. For this project a 3D virtual theatre setup was designed, experienced and evaluated by participants drawn from theatre practitioners in the context of focus groups. This article reports on the design and practitioners’ responses and how it resulted in an informed VR solution for theatre performance. © 2022 IMCIC 2022 - 13th International Multi-Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics, Proceedings. All rights reserved.

10.
4th International Conference on Computing and Communications Technologies, ICCCT 2021 ; : 7-12, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1769593

ABSTRACT

Corona pandemic has affected the daily routine of life disturbing the trade and economic globally. Wearing a mask has become compulsory and a new tradition. within the close to future, several suppliers can raise the shoppers to wear masks properly. Therefore, detection of face mask has become one of the important tasks to assist the international society. This paper provides a easy and simplified approach to detect the face masks using some of the important Machine Learning packages like TensorFlow, Keras, OpenCV and Scikit-Learn. The projected methodology detects the face from the image properly and so identifies if it's a mask thereon or not. As a police work task performing artist, it may detect a face together with a mask in motion. the tactic gives an accurate output with an accuracy of 96.77% on dataset. The model tendency to find the optimized values of parameters are employed using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model to identify whether the masks are worn properly or not while not inflicting over-fitting. © 2021 IEEE.

11.
Non-conventional in English | National Technical Information Service, Grey literature | ID: grc-753456

ABSTRACT

Newly emerged pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 highlight the urgent need for assays that detect levels of neutralizing antibodies that may be protective. We studied the relationship between anti-spike ectodomain (ECD) and anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG titers, andSARS-CoV-2 virus neutralization (VN) titers generated by two different in vitro assays using convalescent plasma samples obtained from 68 COVID-19 patients, including 13 who donated plasma multiple times. Only 23% (16/68) of donors had been hospitalized. We also studied 16samples from subjects found to have anti-spike protein IgG during surveillance screening of asymptomatic individuals. We report a strong positive correlation between both plasma anti-RBD and anti-ECD IgG titers, and in vitro VN titer. Anti-RBD plasma IgG correlated slightly better than anti-ECD IgG titer with VN titer. The probability of a VN titer 160 was 80% or greater with anti-RBD or anti-ECD titers of 1:1350. Thirty-seven percent (25/68) of convalescent plasma donors lacked VN titers 160, the FDA-recommended level for convalescent plasma used for COVID-19 treatment. Dyspnea, hospitalization, and disease severity were significantly associated with higher VN titer. Frequent donation of convalescent plasma did not significantly decrease either VN or IgG titers. Analysis of 2,814 asymptomatic adults found 27 individuals with anti-RBD or anti-ECD IgG titers of 1:1350, and evidence of VN1:160. Taken together, we conclude that anti-RBD or anti-ECD IgG titers can serve as a surrogate for VN titers to identify suitable plasma donors. Plasma anti-RBD or anti-ECD titer of1:1350 may provide critical information about protection against COVID-19 disease.

12.
International Journal of Engineering Education ; 38(2):376-392, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1743815

ABSTRACT

In light of Covid-19, McMaster University abruptly transitioned all classes to an online format in Winter 2020, with online classes continuing through the Winter 2021 term. To improve our existing technological framework for the delivery of online courses, we surveyed undergraduate students in McMaster University's engineering program to assess their online learning preferences and their experience of the transition from in-class to strictly online learning. We identified student preferences for educational video type, number, duration and identified barriers to an online learning environment. In addition to outlining the students' perspective, we present our findings in the context of the students' learning by contrasting student learning in the online environment with the learning of earlier cohorts in the in-person environment (i.e., before the pandemic). We assess learning via student performance in exams and assignments for each course. After considering the student's perspective and learning outcomes, we provide recommendations for an optimal content delivery methodology in an online learning environment.

13.
European Respiratory Journal ; 58:2, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1705880
14.
24th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning, ICL 2021 ; 390 LNNS:702-708, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1701060

ABSTRACT

The COVID pandemic was declared in early 2020, and the winter session at the university was abruptly disrupted. The last few weeks were switched to an online format of education and the assessments, including the final exam, were done in virtual settings. In this work, we present the adjustments that were made at the W Booth School of Engineering Practice and Technology at McMaster University in adopting this change. We also outline the challenges faced in this process, the lessons learned, and the changes made in Fall 2020 when the academic session was again offered in a virtual format. Specifically, we found that in Winter 2020, the School was underprepared, just like several other departments, with respect to infrastructure, instructor, and student preparedness. Most of these issues were sorted out during the summer of 2020, and a better equipped and well-prepared faculty operated during Fall 2020. However, there are still challenges concerning assessments, content delivery, and technology disruption. Additionally, there are new and emerging challenges in mental health issues with students who are struggling to perform well in a physically isolated setting. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

15.
Physics Education ; 57(2), 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1632348

ABSTRACT

The use of technology in higher education science classrooms rose significantly in the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. In many universities, academic programs including introductory physics classes were taken online. Some institutions adopted online learning but also maintained face-to-face (F2F) laboratories when COVID-19 restrictions began to ease. Here, the effectiveness of the online learning approach in comparison with F2F learning is explored. The percentage difference in performance for students who took the online introductory physics course, Physics for Scientists and Engineers, versus that of students simultaneously taking the same course F2F is reported. This is done both across different sections taught by different instructors, and for the same course taught online versus F2F by the same professor. Furthermore, a short survey was conducted to assess the student learning experience and opinion about online and F2F learning. The results show equal or better overall performance for online learning with 4.2% higher performance when comparing results across different sections taught by different instructors. A similar 6.1% performance improvement was seen when comparing results across different sections taught by the same instructor. In contrast with the performance outcomes, the survey results indicate that about 72% of students prefer F2F compared to online learning. The findings provide a useful reference as many institutions and programs transition back to more standard F2F or hybrid learning modes. The benefits and drawbacks of each mode are discussed in the specific context of student preferences and challenges faced in online learning during COVID-19. © 2021 IOP Publishing Ltd.

16.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-233-S-234, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1594011

ABSTRACT

Background: Up to 36.6% of COVID-19 patients have diarrheal symptoms and 48.1% test positive for SARS-CoV-2 via stool test. The mechanism of SARS-CoV-2-associated diarrhea remains poorly understood. We hypothesize that crosstalk between enterocytes and the enteric nervous system (ENS) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19-associated diarrhea. We studied the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and release of Damage Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs), which act on enteric neurons and stimulate the production of neurotransmitters. The influence of ER stress and enteric neuron-derived vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the expression of electrolyte transporter Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) was also examined. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV/USA-WA1/2020) was propagated in Vero-E6 cells. Caco-2, a human colon epithelial cell line, expresses the essential SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 and was thus used for infection (MOI, ~0.01). We used Western blotting to assess the expression of ER stress (phospho-PERK and Xbp1s) and DAMP (HMGB1) markers at 48 hours post-infection. Primary mouse enteric neurons were co-cultured with Caco-2 cells, pre-treated for 24 hours with 2 μM tunicamycin to induce ER stress. Supernatants from enteric neurons were used to assess the expression of VIP by ELISA. Primary enteric neurons were treated with HMGB1 or ATP (another form of DAMPs), and the expression of c-FOS, a marker of neuronal activity, was determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Results: We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection of Caco-2 cells led to increased expression of phospho-PERK and Xbp1s. Compared to uninfected control, infected Caco-2 cells secreted HMGB1 into culture media, indicating epithelial production of DAMPs in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Tunicamycin was used to induce ER-stress and secretion of HMGB1 by Caco-2, mimicking SARS-CoV-2 infection. Importantly, enteric neurons co-cultured with tunicamycin-treated Caco-2 cells secreted significantly higher levels of VIP. Treating Caco-2 cells with tunicamycin or VIP on the basolateral side led to decreased surface NHE3 expression, suggesting a potential impairment of intestinal electrolyte/fluid absorption. More-over, HMGB1 and ATP both increased the expression of phospho-c-FOS in cultured enteric neurons, indicating DAMP-induced neuronal activation. Conclusions: Our findings demon-strate that enterocytes infected by SARS-CoV-2 release DAMPs with the capacity to induce VIP secretion by the enteric neurons, which in turn acts on enterocytes and inhibits apical localization of NHE3. These findings establish basic mechanisms relevant to diarrheal disease in COVID-19 patients and identify potential targets for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection of the gastrointestinal tract.

17.
Indian Heart Journal ; 73:S78, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1540669
18.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons ; 233(5):E170-E170, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1535725
19.
Journal of System and Management Sciences ; 11(3):27-40, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1524936

ABSTRACT

Sentimental analysis is rapidly getting inducted into businesses as a direct result of the technology growth in every sector owing to globalization and industry 4.0. Sentimental analysis which is also known as opinion mining is used in identifying and analyzing text based on the tone that was conveyed by the person which can be categorized broadly into positive, negative and neutral. Businesses can utilize sentimental analysis to tap insight important insights regarding companies, organizations, people, trends and services. With the vast amount of Big Data increasing every day, especially from social media such as Twitter, Facebook etc. businesses can utilize sentimental analysis. This paper thus focuses on implementing machine learning models in Python to perform sentimental analysis from twitter tweets as a viable approach to enhance business intelligence, improve decision marking and target effective operations. The data used in this analysis is obtained from Kaggle collections of COVID-19 twitter dataset. This paper also discusses the various types of applications for sentimental analysis in business and their benefits. The findings from this paper will help improve understanding sentimental analysis for businesses and their practicality in real world scenarios as Big Data advances whilst business intelligence of companies rigorously demands outshining competitive advantage. © 2021, Success Culture Press. All rights reserved.

20.
International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine ; 12(3):440-447, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1479193

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis, formerly known as zygomycosis, is a potentially fatal invasive fungal disease (IFD) caused by fungi in the Mucorales order and the zygomycetes class. Mucormycosis is a rare but deadly fungal infection that generally affects those who have weakened immune systems. The infection has the potential to spread throughout the body. Death is a possibility with this type of severe infection. It's important to get treatment. If left untreated, mucormycosis can be fatal. Zygomycosis has a high mortality of 70-100%. The prevalence of mucormycosis in India is approximately 80 times that of developed countries, with 0.14 cases per 1000 population. The main aim and purpose of this review related to overview and history, causative agents, epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, transmission, types, clinical features, recent advances in diagnosis and treatment of Mucormycosis. A systematic literature search was conducted in the electronic databases of PubMed, Google Scholar and relevant sources. It will be helpful for those who work in the medicine field to explore their knowledge about mucormycosis.

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