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7th International Conference on Data Science and Engineering, ICDSE 2021 ; 940:89-110, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2148667

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic led to the collapse of the healthcare systems of several countries worldwide, including the highly developed ones. The sudden rise in hospitalization requirements for the patients suffering from the disease, caused a tremendous pressure not only on the healthcare system but also on the frontline workers. So, for early diagnosis and prognosis of the patients, identification of the biomarkers pertaining to the coronavirus disease became an essential requirement. Thus, a machine learning (ML) based mortality prediction model was developed that was able to predict the mortality of the patients using a combination of only six features. The six selected features included, four identified biomarkers, namely, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), neutrophils percentage (NP), fibrin degradation products (FDP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR);and, other two features as age and the coronavirus detection test. The developed model with a novel semiautomated method of medical data handling technique, achieved an accuracy of over 98%, and was able to predict the final outcome of the patients on an average of 8 days in advance. The corresponding work was carried out with the intent to ease the burden on the healthcare system, by providing a faster and accurate clinical assessment of the patients suffering from the coronavirus disease. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

4.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(13):432-448, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2091024

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted every sphere of human life in the world. Its influenced the direction of functioning and thinking of human. The people are realizing the changed in the way of live. In this line the education sector is also most influenced sector of the world. Perhaps it was, because the education of the world are going in its own university or college system way. After the COVID-19 pandemic, education of the world turned to online mode, so the functioning style of education world influenced the learning and teaching behavior of the teacher and students. Consequently, there were pros and cons of online studies e.g., mental stress, headache, social life problems and many more. This has changed the behavior of educators as well as students. And this changed behavior of the students and teacher impacted the life style, learning approaches, learning capacity, learning interest, and ultimately extent or degree of learning of the students. The world perception about the learning of the student after it is that they are losing their learning temperament but few of them are taking the advantages. The aim of our paper is to explore the effects of COVID-19 on behavioral change both in students and faculties. Copyright © 2022, Anka Publishers. All rights reserved.

5.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(10):7320-7335, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067315

ABSTRACT

As the threat of a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic subsides, governments throughout the world are dealing with epidemic concerns due to the occurrence of monkeypox cases in various areas. Previously limited to African countries, the majority of monkeypox cases associated with the 2022 epidemic have been recorded in countries throughout Europe and the Western Hemisphere. While multiple organisations are doing contact-tracing operations, it is still unclear how this outbreak began. Monkeypox virus is one of several zoonotic viruses in the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family. Following the universal abolition of smallpox in the 1970s, monkeypox outbreaks drew international attention.The smallpox immunisation provided immunity against the monkeypox virus. Monkeypox cases rose when smallpox vaccine was halted. It wasn't until the 2003 US pandemic that monkeypox became well known. The virus did not originate in monkeys, despite the name "monkeypox." Although other rodents and small animals have been recognised as the virus's origins, the precise origin of monkeypox is uncertain. The viral infection was originally observed in macaque monkeys, thus the term monkeypox. Although human-to-human transmission of monkeypox is exceedingly rare, it is usually associated with respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected people's mucocutaneous sores. There is presently no treatment available for infected people;however, supportive therapies can be utilised to relieve symptoms;drugs such as tecovirimat may be used in severe cases. Many therapy are subjective since there are no unambiguous guidelines for symptom relief.

6.
Blockchain Applications for Healthcare Informatics: beyond 5G ; : 27-55, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2035532

ABSTRACT

Medicines play a vital role in human lives and that’s why the market size of medicines is quite large. Amid the pandemic of COVID-19 in the 21st century, the governments of many countries as well as healthcare industries, hospitals, doctors, and patients are facing a crucial threat of tampering and counterfeiting of vaccines and drugs. This is not an issue that can be ignored easily, as it troubles all of society in a significant way. New technology such as near field communication (NFC), combined with the latest technologies such as Hyperledger, blockchain, and the Internet of Things have given efficient results. The methodology used in this research manuscript (the authors named it “AKSHAT”) is that an NFC chip will be installed in the caps of medicines. When a consumer scans the label on a product with a phone or any NFC-enabled device, the device authenticates the product and informs as to whether it is a genuine product. When a consumer finds that the NFC seal is broken or if it looks intact but NFC data cannot be read, then apparently the product has been tampered with. In NFC, all data and information can be stored and cannot be changed again. The research results presented here establish that NFC is time-efficient, cost-effective, secure, and accurate. With the use of NFC tags, registered transactions on a private network and the tracing of the vaccine are very easy. The authors’ team has demonstrated this as a product that can currently store every transaction as immutable and transparent. The proposed anticounterfeiting solution “AKSHAT” uses NTAG-213 based tags, which are cost-effective as well as have a mutual understanding with all NFC-enabled smartphones. This provides the option for all product manufacturers and brand owners to integrate NFC technology at a fraction of the money. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

8.
Journal of Reliability and Statistical Studies ; 15(2):505-534, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1994537

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we consider the classical and the Bayesian inferences for unknown parameters of inverse Lomax distribution and their corresponding survival characteristics under the adaptive progressive type-II censoring scheme. In the classical setup, first we obtain the maximum likelihood estimates for the unknown shape parameter of the distribution and its corresponding survival characteristics. Further, we consider symmetric and asymmetric loss functions for the estimation of shape parameter and its corresponding survival characteristics under the Bayesian paradigm. The performances of various derived estimators were recorded using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation technique for different sample sizes. Finally,a COVID-19 mortality data set is provided to illustrate the computation of various estimators. © 2022 River Publishers.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-1250, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967436

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has been associated with elevated liver enzymes, which has seen to be associated with a higher mortality rate in COVID-19 infected patients. With a global vaccination rate under 50%, as of November 2021, we will continue to see patients admitted for COVID-19 infection. We have done this study to further evaluate the relationship between development of transaminitis and its relation to vaccination status and to see if vaccination prevented liver injury in COVID-19 patients. Methods: A retrospective study was performed between October 2019 and October 2021 on patients infected with COVID-19. A total of three hundred and fifty patient charts were included in the study. Patient data regarding age, sex, comorbidities, vaccination status, vaccine manufacturer, mortality, and length of stay data were reviewed. Patients were then divided into two groups (Vaccinated vs Unvaccinated ), data was then matched for their age, sex, and comorbidities using propensity score matching. Results: Each group had thirty-nine patients after propensity score matching. The average age in both groups was 58.4±13.3. Twenty-one females were in a non-vaccinated group and twenty females in the vaccinated group. The average number of days to infection from the last COVID-19 vaccine was 132±57. The vaccinated group showed a significant reduction in the incidence of liver injury with respect to AST (42±13 vs. 93.3±35, P< 0.02, 95% CI), ALT (50±10 vs. 97.4±45.5 P<0.04), and ALP 65±15.2 vs. 93±35.6 P<0.01) compared to unvaccinated patients. The vaccinated patient group showed a reduced length of stay compared to the unvaccinated group ( 10.6 ± 4.8 vs. 18.1 ± 8.1, P<0.05). The vaccinated patient group showed a decrease in mortality as compared to the unvaccinated group (17 vs. 8, P<0.05). Conclusion: After a thorough review of COVID infected patients, liver enzyme abnormalities were evaluated in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients. ALT, AST, and ALP in vaccinated patients were found to be significantly lower in as compared to unvaccinated patients. Hospital length of stay and mortality rate were both found to be lower in vaccinated patients compared to unvaccinated patients. Recent vaccination status leading to decreased infection severity may relate to the lack of significant and dramatic increase in liver enzyme levels and may present as confounding factors. Major limitation in the study was the small sample size and future studies with a larger sample size can deliver a better perspective.

10.
European Stroke Journal ; 7(1 SUPPL):355, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928135

ABSTRACT

Background: During the second wave of COVID-19, India suffered from a catastrophic outburst of cases and rapid transmission of disease due to the highly infectious delta strain (B.1.617.2). Patients infected with this strain underwent prolonged hospitalisations, suffered from severe symptoms. A sudden surge of fungal infections, primarily Mucormycosis was observed. Methods: We conducted a case-control study to study various risk factors and form of intracranial involvement in cases of Mucormycosis. Results: Study included 121 patients in total;out of which 61 were Mucormycosis patients with prior COVID-19 infection. 30 out of 61 Mucormycosis patients had intracranial involvement with majority having stroke in the form of the either infarct (10 patients, 34%);or haemorrhage (3 patients, 10%) and thrombosis of artery involvement (8 patients, 29%). Other intracranial form of involvement was abscess (6 patients, 20%) and meningitis (2 patients, 7%). The most frequent type of infarcts were lacunar infarcts and the most common location of infarcts were middle cerebral artery (MCA) or anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Patients were treated with administration of Amphotericin B and Posaconazole. Telephonic follow-up was conducted after a time period of about 90 days and their health condition was recorded on basis of modified ranking scale (mRS). Out of the 30 Mucormycosis infection patients displaying the occurrence of stroke, 10 patients could not survive. q Conclusion: Intracranial Mucormycosis in COVID19 patients presenting with stroke were observed frequently and had mortality in about one-third cases.

11.
European Stroke Journal ; 7(1 SUPPL):179-180, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928109

ABSTRACT

Background: The world was witness to a pandemic never experienced by this generation. The call to arms was answered by each branch of medicine, each fighting separate wars. The war, we as neurologists faced was the “Battle for the Vessels”. Health care workers are a precious resource in Low-Middle-Income-Countries. Hence, exposure to a covidpositive patient for a “full hour” during thrombolysis, isn't warranted. Hence Tenecteplase use which fits the bill “ideally” and “literally” was analysed in this study against Alteplase in strokes with covid-positivity. We analyse the factors which affect their action and the role covid had, in each scenario. Methods: This is an ambi-spective observational study of 37 patients in an apex tertiary-care centre in India. Routine stroke variables were assessed including follow-up imaging, functional outcomes at 3 months. The results were also analysed with the thrombolysis data from covidnegative individuals too in the same period. Results: Among the covid-positive patients 62.16% patients received tenecteplase while 37.83% received alteplase. Although the baseline characteristics were similar, the time-metrics for thrombolysis were significantly favourable in the tenecteplase arm. The median-hospital stay was shorter in the tenecteplase group as was the in-hospital mortality. On follow-up at 3 months, the median mRS-score was significantly favourable in the tenecteplase group. Conclusions: Thrombolysis during the pandemic has been a challenge in many ways especially in resource limited settings. This study shows that there needs to be a conscious and judicial transition towards tenecteplase during the pandemic, where healthcare workers are a precious resource too.

12.
Recent Advances in Computer Aided Drug Designing ; : 177-205, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1918953

ABSTRACT

Novel corona virus disease (COVID-19), the causative agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) has become a burning issue of 2020. The pandemic has brought the complete world to think about the solutions that can lead us to restart the journey of life in a normal way. Every country is trying all possible steps to combat the disease ranging from shutting the complete economy of the country to the repurposing of drugs and vaccine development. Manual dealing with the virus is a very tedious and highly sensitive issue that requires a high level of safety and every researcher is not sufficient enough to attain it. Regarding this situation, computational approaches have opened a new door for researchers and scientists to think against this deadly issue. The speedy data generation and its analysis through different basic to advance approaches, tools, software, and databases have made bioinformatics capable of giving new insights to the researchers to deal with the current scenario more efficiently. From understanding the underlying mechanism of the virus to the speedy discovery of therapeutic intervention, computational approaches play a significant role. Various Insilco pipelines from genomics and proteomics study, drug discovery, vaccine development, drug repurposing to system biology, network medicine, next-generation sequencing, and machine learning not only help in understanding the disease pathway and mechanism but also speed up the therapeutic process efficiently. The current review deals with the significance and usefulness of computational approaches in combating the corona pandemic. © 2021 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

13.
Indian Journal of Rheumatology ; 17(1):99-100, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1917950
14.
2021 International Conference on Technological Advancements and Innovations, ICTAI 2021 ; : 637-642, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1730982

ABSTRACT

The 3rd wave of Coronavirus is hitting the world. The doctors and scientists are also in their last phase of developing a vaccine. But it is challenging to get the vaccine for everyone due to several factors such as production, supply chain, cold chain and price. Till then, the only way to prevent infection is to wear a mark and follow social distancing. This paper describes how to identify mask and no-mask faces in public areas using image processing algorithms. One of the significant steps taken by people around the world to stay safe is wearing masks. This research-based project gets a camera-based solution to detect faces and recognize them if they exist in the database. If the live stream has unmasked faces, which aren't present in the existing database, give out an alarm to alert the administrator or user. It is a significant project for times like these because now, with the lockdown ending in the world because of financial meltdowns, most public places like malls, temples, shops, grocery stores, and medical stores are opening. A concern for the safety and well-being of everyone around us because the virus can spread at a logarithmic rate and cause mass damage in the form of large bills and some cases, death. To avoid this, we always have to wear masks when in public places, and this is what the project does. The crucial technologies used in our manuscript are Face Detection, Face Recognition Identification, and Feature Detection in the face. © 2021 IEEE.

15.
Circulation ; 144(SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1638004

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created challenges in the delivery of acute cardiovascular care. Here, we evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock (AMICS) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Hypothesis: COVID-19 time period will associate with longer door to intervention times, and increased all-cause mortality among patients presenting with AMICS. Methods: Using the National Cardiogenic Shock Initiative database, we identified 406 patients who presented with AMICS. This group was divided into those who presented prior to COVID-19 (N=346, 5/9/2016-2/29/20) and those who presented during the pandemic (N=60, 3/1/20- 11/10/20). Clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results: The median age (25 -75 percentile) of the cohort was 64 (55-72) years, and 23.7% of the group was female. There were no significant differences in age, sex, and medical comorbidities between the two groups. Patients presenting during the pandemic were less likely to be of Black race, and more likely to be of Hispanic and White race than patients presenting prior to COVID-19. Median door to balloon (89.5 vs. 88 mins, p=0.38), door to support (88 vs. 78 mins, p=0.13), and onset of shock to support (73.5 vs. 62 mins, p=0.15) times were not significantly different when comparing those who presented prior to with those who presented during the pandemic. Rates of transfer from another hospital, and cardiac arrest prior to arrival in the cardiac catheterization lab were similar between the two groups. ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction presentations were increased during the COVID-19 period (95% vs 80%, p=0.01). In adjusted logistic regression models, time period (during vs pre-COVID-19) did not significantly associate with survival to discharge (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.59-2.35, p=0.65) or with one month survival (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.42-1.61, p=0.56). Conclusions: Care of patients presenting with AMICS has remained robust among hospitals participating in the National Cardiogenic Shock Initiative during the COVID-19 pandemic. th th .

16.
Investigacion Economica ; 81(319):117-140, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1626934

ABSTRACT

This paper tracks the progression of, and the government’s response to, the COVID-19 pandemic in four South Asian countries —Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka— between February 2020 and May 2021. We look at the daily reported COVID-19 cases and deaths per million population. The data shows clear patterns of two or more waves of the pandemic in South Asia. We consider COVID-19 testing, vaccination coverage, non-pharmaceutical interventions and the COVID-19 economic stimulus. Sri Lanka performs the best, Bangladesh has low reported cases and deaths, but that is perhaps because of low testing;Pakistan has the lowest vaccination coverage;India has been hit worst by the second wave and is doing mediocre in terms of testing and vaccination. In terms of the impact of the pandemic on lives lost, Sri Lanka is the best and India the worst performer. 2022 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Economía.

17.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-848, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1596892

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE AND BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) threatened the existence of mankind in its debut in the year 2019. Although primarily affecting the pulmonary system, patients infected with COVID-19 displayed widespread systemic insult. A majority of patients exhibited hepatic injury throughout their course of infection. In this study we investigate the use of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 with acute hepatitis and its effect on overall outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of medical records was performed on 864 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection from March 13th, 2020 to May 13th, 2020 at Nassau University Medical Center in New York. The primary outcome of interest was mortality. Logistic regression analysis controlling for confounding variables was used to determine the association of NAC and mortality in patients infected with COVID-19. The review included patients with acute hepatitis demonstrated by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) greater than 120 U/L (3 times the upper level of normal) during their hospitalization. Patients received NAC in the form of oral, intravenous (IV), or both. Statistical analysis was performed to assess all-cause mortality within these three groups who received NAC and to those who did not receive NAC. RESULTS: A total of 138 patients were included in this study. Among them, 114 received oral NAC, 15 received IV, and 9 received both. Multivariate logistic regression model predicting mortality and controlling for age, CAD, Intubation, HTN, and DM was performed to determine the association of NAC and mortality. This study showed a statistically significant (p-value < 0.05) decrease in all-cause mortality in patients who received oral NAC when compared to those who received IV NAC or both. Furthermore, this study also indicated that patients who did not receive any form of NAC had a statistically significant (p-value < 0.05) increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to those who received any form of NAC. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that patients with acute hepatitis who received NAC had decreased mortality when compared to patients who did not receive NAC. Oral NAC was associated with the lowest risk of all-cause mortality amongst patients who received NAC as IV or both. In addition, patients with acute hepatitis who received any form of NAC had overall decreased all-cause mortality as compared to patients who did not receive NAC. A potential limitation to this study may be the relatively small sample size and missing lab values used to determine the effectiveness of NAC, which further reduced the size of the dataset. A greater sample size would increase the power of the study and aid in assessing outcomes in patients infected with COVID-19.

18.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 116(SUPPL):S1022, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1534800

ABSTRACT

Introduction: 35% of patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) experience extraintestinal manifestations. However, amyloidosis is a rare complication of IBD;the incidence in the US is <1% for both Crohn's disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC). We hope to shed some light in this underdiagnosed consequence with a clinical vignette. Case description/methods: A 75 year old man with recently diagnosed UC 6 weeks prior and history of thoracic laminectomy presented with bilateral lower extremity weakness that resulted in a fall in the shower and complaints of bloody diarrhea. Prior to his admission he was ambulating with a walker, he then developed loss of motor function of his lower extremities. He had been having several episodes of bloody diarrhea a day along with tenesmus and fecal incontinence for almost a year. He delayed getting medical aid until recently due to the COVID-19 pandemic. He had a colonoscopy which revealed pancolitis and he was started on aggressive steroids and mesalamine. CT and MRI imaging of the spine were inconclusive, but revealed swelling of the iliopsoas muscle with concern for polymyositis. However EMG, muscle enzymes and Immunological studies were all unremarkable. Muscle biopsy of the gastrocnemius revealed interstitial amyloid deposition. Mass spectrometry was indeterminate and could not isolate the type of amyloid protein. The patient's UC flare slowly improved after several weeks and he was transferred to acute rehab and later to a tertiary care center for further evaluation. Discussion: Primary amyloidosis is AL amyloid deposition associated with plasma cell dyscrasias such as multiple myeloma (MM). AA Amyloid can also build up as an acute phase reactant from chronic inflammatory conditions such as IBD and be deposited in extracellular tissue. Amyloidosis is more associated with CD than UC, more found in men and is often associated with renal involvement. One study found that only 15 out of 1709 (0.9%) patients with CD and 1 in 1341 (0.7%) patients with UC had amyloidosis. Our patient's long standing uncontrolled UC likely resulted in amyloid protein production and deposition. Although it is important to rule out MM in cases of amyloidosis, the timing of our patient's lower extremity weakness and diagnosis of amyloidosis in the setting of uncontrolled UC flare strongly suggests secondary amyloidosis. We hope this diagnostic walk through can guide clinicians to approach similar situations in the future.

19.
Annals of Oncology ; 32:S1076, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1432817

ABSTRACT

Background: Integrated palliative care (PC) is recommended for all cancer patients. It improves patient experience and communication, reduces symptom burden and futile medical interventions, and shortens length of hospital stay. Despite the mortality of 27-43% for cancer patients admitted to intensive care (ICU), early PC involvement has not been widely adopted. Previous studies have shown the potential for using specific “trigger” criteria to identify ICU patients for early PC referral. We show the benefits of using a novel trigger tool in practice at the time of admission to ICU in a specialist cancer hospital. Methods: We developed a novel electronic tool, combining criteria outlined by Hua et al. (2016) with a locally-developed triggers checklist already used in the outpatient setting. This tool was integrated into the ICU clerking proforma. Patients meeting any of the tool’s criteria were referred to the PC team who provided early advice for symptom control and advanced care planning. Quality improvement methodology was used between February 2020 and January 2021 as we embedded this tool into clinical practice. Results: In a timeline disrupted by two waves of COVID-19, there were 151 admissions of which 74 (49%) had a triggers form completed. Sixty-six cases (89%) were positive (≥1 criterion), leading to 16 (24%) referrals to palliative care. This represented 46% of all PC referrals made from ICU during this period. We show that many patients admitted to ICU have a poor functional baseline (47% had metastatic cancer progressing despite 1st line chemotherapy, 49% had an ECOG score ≥2). Many patients also had severe or uncontrolled symptoms (52%). Early palliative care provided vital input for those patients. Conclusions: Our tool proactively identifies patients for early PC referral, streamlines the referral process, and empowers staff to consider treatment goals in a timely manner for the benefit of patients. Technical, practical, and cultural barriers to implementation were identified and changes made to address these, for example, having PC present at the weekly ICU meeting. We demonstrate a model for collaborative working which can be adapted for use in other ICUs and facilitate early PC for a broader cohort of cancer patients. Legal entity responsible for the study: The authors (all staff at The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust). Funding: Has not received any funding. Disclosure: All authors have declared no conflicts of interest.

20.
American Business Review ; 24(1):141-165, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1405643

ABSTRACT

COVID19 is a dreadful infectious disease, morphed into an economic crisis causing extensive and longstanding ramifications across global markets. Investors continue to hear about COVID-19 and its impact in one corner of the globe or the other for a long time. Though the effects of COVID19 started in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, global markets did not respond actively till W.H.O officially declared on March 11, 2020, that the COVID19 outbreak is a global pandemic. These multi-channel events have eroded investor sentiment, tanking the global stock markets. This article uses a machine learning approach to Twitter to analyze and follow investor sentiment that has guided the market to the new low during the first 150 days of the COVID-19 era. The only respite for recovery of financial markets is the lowering of COVID-19 infected cases for the time being till a vaccine is developed for the virus. © The Authors 2021.

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