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1.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 7(3): 194-202, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239207

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the 1-year health care utilization and mortality in persons living with heart failure (HF) before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Patients and Methods: Residents of a 9-county area in southeastern Minnesota aged 18 years or older with a HF diagnosis on January 1, 2019; January 1, 2020; and January 1, 2021, were identified and followed up for 1-year for vital status, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations. Results: We identified 5631 patients with HF (mean age, 76 years; 53% men) on January 1, 2019, 5996 patients (mean age, 76 years; 52% men) on January 1, 2020, and 6162 patients (mean age, 75 years; 54% men) on January 1, 2021. After adjustment for comorbidities and risk factors, patients with HF in 2020 and patients with HF in 2021 experienced similar risks of mortality compared with those in 2019. After adjustment, patients with HF in 2020 and 2021 were less likely to experience all-cause hospitalizations (2020: rate ratio [RR], 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.95; 2021: RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83-0.97) compared with patients in 2019. Patients with HF in 2020 were also less likely to experience ED visits (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.80-0.92). Conclusion: In this large population-based study in southeastern Minnesota, we observed an approximately 10% decrease in hospitalizations among patients with HF in 2020 and 2021 and a 15% decrease in ED visits in 2020 compared with those in 2019. Despite the change in health care utilization, we found no difference in the 1-year mortality between patients with HF in 2020 and those in 2021 compared with those in 2019. It is unknown whether any longer-term consequences will be observed.

2.
Mayo Clinic proceedings Innovations, quality & outcomes ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2299493

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare 1-year health care utilization and mortality between persons living with heart failure (HF) prior to vs. during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Patients and Methods Residents of a 9-county area in southeastern Minnesota ≥18 years with a HF diagnosis on January 1, 2019, January 1, 2020, and January 1, 2021, were identified and followed 1-year for vital status, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations. Results We identified 5631 patients with HF (mean age 76, 53% male) on January 1, 2019, 5996 (mean age 76, 52% male) on January 1, 2020, and 6162 (mean age 75, 54% male) on January 1, 2021. After adjustment for comorbidities and risk factors, HF patients in 2020 had a similar risk of mortality compared to patients in 2019, as did patients in 2021. After adjustment, HF patients in 2020 and 2021 were less likely to have all-cause hospitalizations (2020 HR, 0.88;95% CI, 0.81-0.95;2021 HR, 0.90;95% CI, 0.83-0.97) compared to patients in 2019. HF patients in 2020 were also less likely to have ED visits (HR, 0.85;95% CI, 0.80-0.92). Conclusion In a large population-based study in southeastern MN, we observed an approximately 10% decrease in hospitalizations among patients with HF in 2020 and 2021, and a 15% decrease in ED visits in 2020 compared to 2019. Despite the change in health care utilization, we found no difference in 1-year mortality between patients with HF in 2020 or 2021. It is unknown if any longer-term consequences will be observed.

3.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; : 1-10, 2023 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263052

ABSTRACT

Background: Alcohol is the most abused substance among adults in the United States. The COVID-19 pandemic impacted patterns of alcohol use, but data are conflicting, and previous studies are largely limited to cross-sectional analyses.Objective: This study aimed to longitudinally assess sociodemographic and psychological correlates of changes in three patterns of alcohol use (number of alcoholic drinks, drinking regularity, and binge drinking) during COVID-19.Methods: We studied changes in self-reported drinking behaviors in 222,195 Mayo Clinic patients over 21 years of age (58.1% female and 41.9% male) between April 1, 2019, and March 30, 2021. Logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between patient characteristics and change in alcohol consumption.Results: Sociodemographically younger age, White race, having a college degree, and living in a rural area were associated with increased alcohol use regularity (all p < .05). Younger age, male, White, high-school education or less, living in a more deprived neighborhood, smoking, and living in a rural area were associated with increases in number of alcohol drinks (all p ≤ .04) and binge drinking (all p ≤ .01). Increased anxiety scores were associated with increased number of drinks, while depression severity was associated with both increased drinking regularity and increased number of drinks (all p ≤ .02) independent of sociodemographic characteristics.Conclusion: Our study showed that both sociodemographic and psychological characteristics were associated with increased alcohol consumption patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study highlights specific target groups previously not described in the literature for alcohol interventions based on sociodemographic and psychological characteristics.

4.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 6(6): 605-617, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131838

ABSTRACT

Objective: To estimate rates and identify factors associated with asymptomatic COVID-19 in the population of Olmsted County during the prevaccination era. Patients and Methods: We screened first responders (n=191) and Olmsted County employees (n=564) for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 from November 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021 to estimate seroprevalence and asymptomatic infection. Second, we retrieved all polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 diagnoses in Olmsted County from March 2020 through January 2021, abstracted symptom information, estimated rates of asymptomatic infection and examined related factors. Results: Twenty (10.5%; 95% CI, 6.9%-15.6%) first responders and 38 (6.7%; 95% CI, 5.0%-9.1%) county employees had positive antibodies; an additional 5 (2.6%) and 10 (1.8%) had prior positive PCR tests per self-report or medical record, but no antibodies detected. Of persons with symptom information, 4 of 20 (20%; 95% CI, 3.0%-37.0%) first responders and 10 of 39 (26%; 95% CI, 12.6%-40.0%) county employees were asymptomatic. Of 6020 positive PCR tests in Olmsted County with symptom information between March 1, 2020, and January 31, 2021, 6% (n=385; 95% CI, 5.8%-7.1%) were asymptomatic. Factors associated with asymptomatic disease included age (0-18 years [odds ratio {OR}, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.7-3.1] and >65 years [OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.0-2.0] compared with ages 19-44 years), body mass index (overweight [OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.44-0.77] or obese [OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.57-0.62] compared with normal or underweight) and tests after November 20, 2020 ([OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.13-1.71] compared with prior dates). Conclusion: Asymptomatic rates in Olmsted County before COVID-19 vaccine rollout ranged from 6% to 25%, and younger age, normal weight, and later tests dates were associated with asymptomatic infection.

5.
Mayo Clinic proceedings. Innovations, quality & outcomes ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073911

ABSTRACT

Objective To estimate rates and identify factors associated with asymptomatic COVID-19 in the population of Olmsted County during the pre-vaccination era. Patients and Methods We screened first responders (N=191) and Olmsted County employees (N=564) for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 from November 2020 to February 2021 to estimate seroprevalence and asymptomatic infection. Second, we retrieved all PCR confirmed COVID-19 diagnoses in Olmsted County from March 2020 through January 2021, ed symptom information, estimated rates of asymptomatic infection and examined related factors. Results Twenty (10.5%;95%CI: 6.9%-15.6%) first responders and thirty-eight (6.7%;95% CI: 5.0%-9.1%) county employees had positive antibodies;an additional 5 (2.6%) and 10 (1.8%) had prior positive PCR tests per self-report or medical record, but no antibodies detected. Of persons with symptom information, 4/20, (20%, 95% CI: 3.0%-37.0%) of first responders and 10/39 (26%, 95% CI: 12.6%-40.0%) county employees, were asymptomatic. Of 6,020 positive PCR tests in Olmsted County with symptom information between March 1, 2020, and January 31, 2021, 6% (n=385;95% CI: 5.8%-7.1%) were asymptomatic. Factors associated with asymptomatic disease included age [0-18 years (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.1) and 65+ years (OR=1.40, 95% CI: 1.0-2.0) compared to ages 19-44 years], body-mass-index [overweight OR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.44-0.77) or obese (OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.57-0.62) compared to normal or underweight] and tests after November 20, 2020 [(OR=1.35;95% CI: 1.13-1.71) compared to prior dates]. Conclusion Asymptomatic rates in Olmsted County prior to vaccine rollout ranged from 6-25%, and younger age, normal weight, and later tests dates were associated with asymptomatic infection.

6.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 2022 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051532

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this longitudinal cohort study, we examined the socio-demographic and psychological predictors of alcohol use initiation during the COVID-19 pandemic in a sample of never alcohol users aged ≥21 prior to COVID-19. METHODS: Our study population consisted of 56 930 patients aged ≥21, as of 30 March 2019 were collected from a pre-COVID period of 1 year before 31 March 2020, and during-COVID, a period between 1 April 2020 and 30 March 2021. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were utilized to examine the roles of socio-demographic variables (gender, age, education, Area Deprivation Index and rural residence) changes in anxiety and depression severity as predictors of alcohol use initiation. RESULTS: Age, gender, race, ethnicity, education and rural status were significant predictors in multivariable analysis. A subgroup analysis showed neither anxiety nor depression had a significant association with alcohol use initiation. CONCLUSION: Women, younger individuals, those living in a rural area and people who smoke cigarettes were more likely to initiate alcohol use during the pandemic. Our study has public health and clinical implications such as the need for targeted alcohol use screening and intervention for vulnerable individuals.

7.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 57(6): 648-655, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831012

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The objective of this study is to longitudinally assess sociodemographic and psychological correlates of increased alcohol use during the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) period among adolescents and young adults. METHODS: Pre-COVID period is defined as the 1-year period on or before 31 March 2020, and during-COVID period is defined as the period from 1st April 2020 to 30 March 2021. Univariable logistic regression models are used to evaluate the association of demographic characteristics, Area Deprivation Index (ADI), rurality, changes in Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale severity, and the risk of increased alcohol consumption (binge drinking, number of drinks and drinking regularity) from pre-COVID to during-COVID period. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Our study found that worsened anxiety symptoms, older age, being in college and current cigarette smoking status were associated with increased alcohol use among youth during the pandemic year. Socioeconomic position (measured by ADI) and rural status were not found to be associated with increased alcohol use among adolescents and young adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Young Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology
8.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 6(1): 77-85, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560726

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study associations between the Minnesota coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mitigation strategies on incidence rates of acute myocardial infarction (MI) or revascularization among residents of Southeast Minnesota. METHODS: Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, all adult residents of a nine-county region of Southeast Minnesota who had an incident MI or revascularization between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2020, were identified. Events were defined as primary in-patient diagnosis of MI or undergoing revascularization. We estimated age- and sex-standardized incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) stratified by key factors, comparing 2020 to 2015-2019. We also calculated IRRs by periods corresponding to Minnesota's COVID-19 mitigation timeline: "Pre-lockdown" (January 1-March 11, 2020), "First lockdown" (March 12-May 31, 2020), "Between lockdowns" (June 1-November 20, 2020), and "Second lockdown" (November 21-December 31, 2020). RESULTS: The incidence rate in 2020 was 32% lower than in 2015-2019 (24 vs 36 events/100,000 person-months; IRR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.62-0.74). Incidence rates were lower in 2020 versus 2015-2019 during the first lockdown (IRR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.44-0.66), in between lockdowns (IRR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.61-0.79), and during the second lockdown (IRR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.41-0.72). April had the lowest IRR (IRR 0.48; 95% CI, 0.34-0.68), followed by August (IRR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.40-0.76) and December (IRR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.41-0.77). Similar declines were observed across sex and all age groups, and in both urban and rural residents. CONCLUSION: Mitigation measures for COVID-19 were associated with a reduction in hospitalizations for acute MI and revascularization in Southeast Minnesota. The reduction was most pronounced during the lockdown periods but persisted between lockdowns.

9.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(10): 2528-2539, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294052

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 infection in a defined Midwestern US population overall and within different age groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project research infrastructure to identify persons residing in a defined 27-county Midwestern region who had positive results on polymerase chain reaction tests for COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and September 30, 2020 (N=9928). Age, sex, race, ethnicity, body mass index, smoking status, and 44 chronic disease categories were considered as possible risk factors for severe infection. Severe infection was defined as hospitalization or death caused by COVID-19. Associations between risk factors and severe infection were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models overall and within 3 age groups (0 to 44, 45 to 64, and 65+ years). RESULTS: Overall, 474 (4.8%) persons developed severe COVID-19 infection. Older age, male sex, non-White race, Hispanic ethnicity, obesity, and a higher number of chronic conditions were associated with increased risk of severe infection. After adjustment, 36 chronic disease categories were significantly associated with severe infection. The risk of severe infection varied significantly across age groups. In particular, persons 0 to 44 years of age with cancer, chronic neurologic disorders, hematologic disorders, ischemic heart disease, and other endocrine disorders had a greater than 3-fold increased risk of severe infection compared with persons of the same age without those conditions. Associations were attenuated in older age groups. CONCLUSION: Older persons are more likely to experience severe infections; however, severe cases occur in younger persons as well. Our data provide insight regarding younger persons at especially high risk of severe COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Ethnicity , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Midwestern United States , Risk Factors , Young Adult
10.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(3): 699-707, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002867

ABSTRACT

The success of vaccination programs is contingent upon irrefutable scientific safety data combined with high rates of public acceptance and population coverage. Vaccine hesitancy, characterized by lack of confidence in vaccination and/or complacency about vaccination that may lead to delay or refusal of vaccination despite the availability of services, threatens to undermine the success of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination programs. The rapid pace of vaccine development, misinformation in popular and social media, the polarized sociopolitical environment, and the inherent complexities of large-scale vaccination efforts may undermine vaccination confidence and increase complacency about COVID-19 vaccination. Although the experience of recent lethal surges of COVID-19 infections has underscored the value of COVID-19 vaccines, ensuring population uptake of COVID-19 vaccination will require application of multilevel, evidence-based strategies to influence behavior change and address vaccine hesitancy. Recent survey research evaluating public attitudes in the United States toward the COVID-19 vaccine reveals substantial vaccine hesitancy. Building upon efforts at the policy and community level to ensure population access to COVID-19 vaccination, a strong health care system response is critical to address vaccine hesitancy. Drawing on the evidence base in social, behavioral, communication, and implementation science, we review, summarize, and encourage use of interpersonal, individual-level, and organizational interventions within clinical organizations to address this critical gap and improve population adoption of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Social Media , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
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