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1.
Afr J Thorac Crit Care Med ; 26(2)2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302740

ABSTRACT

There have been several viral pandemics that have swept the globe over the past century. The latest one is the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this mini review, we outline the epidemiology, clinical presentation, management and prognosis of COVID-19. The pandemic is part of a rapidly changing landscape and it remains to be seen how events will unfold in South Africa, where there is a large reservoir of young people with sub-optimal lung immunity due to several causes, including HIV, post-tuberculous lung disease, smoking, biomass fuel exposure and poor socioeconomic circumstances.

2.
J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs ; 47(5): 459-469, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270772

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe medical device-related pressure injuries (MDRPIs) in hospitalized pediatric patients. DESIGN: A prospective, descriptive study. SAMPLE/SUBJECTS AND SETTING: The sample comprised 625 patients cared for in 8 US pediatric hospitals. Participants were aged preterm to 21 years, on bed rest for at least 24 hours, and had a medical device in place. METHODS: Two nursing teams, blinded to the other's assessments, worked in tandem to assess pressure injury risk, type of medical devices in use, and preventive interventions for each medical device. They also identified the presence, location, and stage of MDRPI. Subjects were observed up to 8 times over 4 weeks, or until discharge, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: Of 625 enrolled patients, 42 (7%) developed 1 or more MDRPIs. Two-thirds of patients with MDRPIs were younger than 8 years. Patients experiencing MDRPIs had higher acuity scores on hospital admission, were more frequently cognitively and/or functionally impaired, or were extreme in body mass index. Respiratory devices caused the most injuries (6.19/1000 device-days), followed by immobilizers (2.40/1000 device-days), gastric tubes (2.24/1000 device-days), and external monitoring devices (1.77/1000 device-days). Of the 6336 devices in place, 36% did not have an MDRPI preventive intervention in place. Clinical variables contributing to MDRPI development included intensive care unit care (odds ratio [OR] 8.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-43.6), use of neuromuscular blockade (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.7-7.8), and inotropic/vasopressor medications (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.7-4.3). Multivariable analysis indicated that Braden QD scores alone predicted MDRPI development. CONCLUSION: Medical devices are common in hospitalized infants and children and these medical devices place patients at risk for MDRPI.


Subject(s)
Equipment and Supplies/standards , Pressure Ulcer/therapy , Academic Medical Centers/organization & administration , Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Equipment and Supplies/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pediatrics/instrumentation , Pediatrics/statistics & numerical data , Pressure Ulcer/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors
3.
SAMJ: South African Medical Journal ; 110(9), 2020.
Article | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-782409

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in a global pandemic within months following its initial detection. South Africa (SA), like many other countries, was not prepared for the impact this novel infection would have on the healthcare system. In this paper, the authors discuss the challenges experienced while facing COVID-19 at a tertiary-level institution in Gauteng province, SA, and the dynamic strategies implemented to deal with the epidemic.

4.
International Journal of Designs for Learning ; 12(1):140-157, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1267163

ABSTRACT

Moonshot is the redesign of NASA's High School Aerospace Scholars (HAS), which traditionally engaged Texas high school juniors in a 16-week online course for credit and an intense week-long onsite experience working in teams with experts at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Due to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), our challenge was to design, develop, and deliver an online virtual experience to replace the all-expenses-paid six-day residential summer experience at JSC where HAS participants traditionally work with like-minded peers and NASA experts on authentic design challenges.

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