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3.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(10): 2003-2008.e2, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380701

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has had devastating effects on long-term care homes across much of the world, and especially within Canada, with more than 50% of the mortality from COVID-19 in 2020 in these homes. Understanding the way in which the virus spreads within these homes is critical to preventing further outbreaks. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Long-term care home residents and staff in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of a large long-term care home COVID-19 outbreak in Ontario, Canada, using electronic medical records, public health records, staff assignments, and resident room locations to spatially map the outbreak through the facility. RESULTS: By analyzing the outbreak longitudinally, we were able to draw 3 important conclusions: (1) 84.5% had typical COVID-19 symptoms and only 15.5% of residents had asymptomatic infection; (2) there was a high attack rate of 85.8%, which appeared to be explained by a high degree of interconnectedness within the home exacerbated by staffing shortages; and (3) clustering of infections within multibedded rooms was common. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Low rates of asymptomatic infection suggest that symptom-based screening in residents remains very important for detecting outbreaks, a high degree of interconnectedness explains the high attack rate, and there is a need for improved guidance for homes with multibedded rooms on optimizing resident room movement to mitigate spread of COVID-19 in long-term care homes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Long-Term Care , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Nursing Homes , Ontario/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Chest ; 160(6): 2101-2111, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271599

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The extent to which the degree of baseline frailty, as measured using standardized multidimensional health assessments before hospital admission, predicts survival among older adults after admission to an ICU remains unclear. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is baseline frailty an independent predictor of survival among older adults receiving care in an ICU? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of community-dwelling older adults (age, ≥ 65 years) receiving public home services who were admitted to any ICU in Ontario, Canada, between April 1, 2009, and March 31, 2015. All individuals underwent an interRAI Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care (RAI-HC) assessment completed within 180 days of ICU admission. These assessments were linked to hospital discharge abstract records. Patients were categorized using frailty measures each calculated from the RAI-HC: a classification tree version of the Clinical Frailty Scale; the Frailty Index-Acute Care; and the Changes in Health, End-Stage Disease, Signs, and Symptoms Scale. One-year survival models were used to compare their performance. Patients were stratified based on the receipt of mechanical ventilation in the ICU. RESULTS: Of 24,499 individuals admitted to an ICU within 180 days of a RAI-HC assessment, 26.4% (n = 6,467) received mechanical ventilation. Overall, 43.0% (95% CI, 42.4%-43.6%) survived 365 days after ICU admission. In general, among the overall cohort and both mechanical ventilation subgroups, mortality hazards increased with the severity of baseline frailty. Models predicting survival 30, 90, and 365 days after admission to an ICU that adjusted for one of the frailty measures were more discriminant than reference models that adjusted only for age, sex, major clinical category, and area income quintile. INTERPRETATION: Severity of baseline frailty is independently associated with survival after ICU admission and should be considered when determining goals of care and treatment plans for people with critical illness.

9.
CMAJ ; 193(19): E672-E680, 2021 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection in retirement homes (also known as assisted living facilities) is largely unknown. We examined the association between home-and community-level characteristics and the risk of outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 infection in retirement homes since the beginning of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of licensed retirement homes in Ontario, Canada, from Mar. 1 to Dec. 18, 2020. Our primary outcome was an outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection (≥ 1 resident or staff case confirmed by validated nucleic acid amplification assay). We used time-dependent proportional hazards methods to model the associations between retirement home- and community-level characteristics and outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Our cohort included all 770 licensed retirement homes in Ontario, which housed 56 491 residents. There were 273 (35.5%) retirement homes with 1 or more outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 infection, involving 1944 (3.5%) residents and 1101 staff (3.0%). Cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were distributed unevenly across retirement homes, with 2487 (81.7%) resident and staff cases occurring in 77 (10%) homes. The adjusted hazard of an outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a retirement home was positively associated with homes that had a large resident capacity, were co-located with a long-term care facility, were part of larger chains, offered many services onsite, saw increases in regional incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and were located in a region with a higher community-level ethnic concentration. INTERPRETATION: Readily identifiable characteristics of retirement homes are independently associated with outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 infection and can support risk identification and priority for vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Homes for the Aged , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Aged , Frail Elderly , Humans , Incidence , Ontario/epidemiology , Retirement , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
CMAJ ; 193(17): E592-E600, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nonpharmaceutical interventions remain the primary means of controlling severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) until vaccination coverage is sufficient to achieve herd immunity. We used anonymized smartphone mobility measures to quantify the mobility level needed to control SARS-CoV-2 (i.e., mobility threshold), and the difference relative to the observed mobility level (i.e., mobility gap). METHODS: We conducted a time-series study of the weekly incidence of SARS-CoV-2 in Canada from Mar. 15, 2020, to Mar. 6, 2021. The outcome was weekly growth rate, defined as the ratio of cases in a given week versus the previous week. We evaluated the effects of average time spent outside the home in the previous 3 weeks using a log-normal regression model, accounting for province, week and mean temperature. We calculated the SARS-CoV-2 mobility threshold and gap. RESULTS: Across the 51-week study period, a total of 888 751 people were infected with SARS-CoV-2. Each 10% increase in the mobility gap was associated with a 25% increase in the SARS-CoV-2 weekly case growth rate (ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.20-1.29). Compared to the prepandemic baseline mobility of 100%, the mobility threshold was highest in the summer (69%; interquartile range [IQR] 67%-70%), and dropped to 54% in winter 2021 (IQR 52%-55%); a mobility gap was present in Canada from July 2020 until the last week of December 2020. INTERPRETATION: Mobility strongly and consistently predicts weekly case growth, and low levels of mobility are needed to control SARS-CoV-2 through spring 2021. Mobility measures from anonymized smartphone data can be used to guide provincial and regional loosening and tightening of physical distancing measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Forecasting , Humans , Incidence , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Male , Physical Distancing , Public Health , Quarantine/trends
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e044517, 2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166488

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Physical distancing and stay-at-home measures implemented to slow transmission of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may intensify feelings of loneliness in older adults, especially those living alone. Our aim was to characterise the extent of loneliness during the first wave in a sample of older adults living in the community and assess characteristics associated with loneliness. DESIGN: Online cross-sectional survey between 6 May and 19 May 2020. SETTING: Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of members of a national retired educators' organisation. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported loneliness, including differences between women and men. RESULTS: 4879 respondents (71.0% women; 67.4% 65-79 years) reported that in the preceding week, 43.1% felt lonely at least some of the time, including 8.3% who felt lonely always or often. Women had increased odds of loneliness compared with men, whether living alone (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.52, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.04) or with others (2.44, 95% CI 2.04 to 2.92). Increasing age group decreased the odds of loneliness (aOR 0.69 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.81) 65-79 years and 0.50 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.65) 80+ years compared with <65 years). Living alone was associated with loneliness, with a greater association in men (aOR 4.26, 95% CI 3.15 to 5.76) than women (aOR 2.65, 95% CI 2.26 to 3.11). Other factors associated with loneliness included: fair or poor health (aOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.41), being a caregiver (aOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.37), receiving care (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.81), high concern for the pandemic (aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.84), not experiencing positive effects of pandemic distancing measures (aOR 1.94, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.32) and changes to daily routine (aOR 2.81, 95% CI 1.96 to 4.03). CONCLUSIONS: While many older adults reported feeling lonely during COVID-19, several characteristics-such as being female and living alone-increased the odds of loneliness. These characteristics may help identify priorities for targeting interventions to reduce loneliness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Loneliness , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics
17.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(3): 494-497, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065277

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess changes in the mobility of staff between nursing homes in Ontario, Canada, before and after enactment of public policy restricting staff from working at multiple homes. DESIGN: Pre-post observational study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 623 nursing homes in Ontario, Canada, between March 2020 and June 2020. METHODS: We used GPS location data from mobile devices to approximate connectivity between all 623 nursing homes in Ontario during the 7 weeks before (March 1-April 21) and after (April 22-June 13) the policy restricting staff movement was implemented. We constructed a network diagram visualizing connectivity between nursing homes in Ontario and calculated the number of homes that had a connection with another nursing home and the average number of connections per home in each period. We calculated the relative difference in these mobility metrics between the 2 time periods and compared within-home changes using McNemar test and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. RESULTS: In the period preceding restrictions, 266 (42.7%) nursing homes had a connection with at least 1 other home, compared with 79 (12.7%) homes during the period after restrictions, a drop of 70.3% (P < .001). Including all homes, the average number of connections in the before period was 3.90 compared to 0.77 in the after period, a drop of 80.3% (P < .001). In both periods, mobility between nursing homes was higher in homes located in larger communities, those with higher bed counts, and those part of a large chain. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Mobility between nursing homes in Ontario fell sharply after an emergency order by the Ontario government limiting long-term care staff to a single home, though some mobility persisted. Reducing this residual mobility should be a focus of efforts to reduce risk within the long-term care sector during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Nursing Homes , Nursing Staff/organization & administration , Public Policy , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , Ontario , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
CMAJ ; 192(44): E1391-E1392, 2020 11 02.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029786
19.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(7): 1376-1381, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991530

ABSTRACT

Nursing homes have become "ground zero" for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in North America, with homes experiencing widespread outbreaks, resulting in severe morbidity and mortality among their residents. This article describes a 371-bed acute-care hospital's emergency response to a 126-bed nursing home experiencing a COVID-19 outbreak in Toronto, Canada. Like other healthcare system responses to COVID-19 outbreaks in nursing homes, this hospital-nursing home partnership can be characterized in several phases: (1) engagement, relationship, and trust building; (2) environmental scan, team building, and immediate response; (3) early-phase response; and (4) stabilization and transition period. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:1376-1381, 2020.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration , Intersectoral Collaboration , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Ontario , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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