Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 10 de 10
Filter
1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7315, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133436

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 course and immunity differ in children and adults. We analyzed immune response dynamics in 28 families up to 12 months after mild or asymptomatic infection. Unlike adults, the initial response is plasmablast-driven in children. Four months after infection, children show an enhanced specific antibody response and lower but detectable spike 1 protein (S1)-specific B and T cell responses than their parents. While specific antibodies decline, neutralizing antibody activity and breadth increase in both groups. The frequencies of S1-specific B and T cell responses remain stable. However, in children, one year after infection, an increase in the S1-specific IgA class switch and the expression of CD27 on S1-specific B cells and T cell maturation are observed. These results, together with the enhanced neutralizing potential and breadth of the specific antibodies, suggest a progressive maturation of the S1-specific immune response. Hence, the immune response in children persists over 12 months but dynamically changes in quality, with progressive neutralizing, breadth, and memory maturation. This implies a benefit for booster vaccination in children to consolidate memory formation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibody Formation , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunization, Secondary
2.
EBioMedicine ; 84: 104245, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long COVID in children and adolescents remains poorly understood due to a lack of well-controlled studies with long-term follow-up. In particular, the impact of the family context on persistent symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unknown. We examined long COVID symptoms in a cohort of infected children, adolescents, and adults and their exposed but non-infected household members approximately 1 year after infection and investigated clustering of persistent symptoms within households. METHODS: 1267 members of 341 households (404 children aged <14 years, 140 adolescents aged 14-18 years and 723 adults) were categorized as having had either a SARS-CoV-2 infection or household exposure to SARS-CoV-2 without infection, based on three serological assays and history of laboratory-confirmed infection. Participants completed questionnaires assessing the presence of long COVID symptoms 11-12 months after infection in the household using online questionnaires. FINDINGS: The prevalence of moderate or severe persistent symptoms was statistically significantly higher in infected than in exposed women (36.4% [95% CI: 30.7-42.4%] vs 14.2% [95% CI: 8.7-21.5%]), infected men (22.9% [95% CI: 17.9-28.5%] vs 10.3% [95% CI: 5.8-16.9%]) and infected adolescent girls (32.1% 95% CI: 17.2-50.5%] vs 8.9% [95%CI: 3.1-19.8%]). However, moderate or severe persistent symptoms were not statistically more common in infected adolescent boys aged 14-18 (9.7% [95% CI: 2.8-23.6%] or in infected children <14 years (girls: 4.3% [95% CI: 1.2-11.0%]; boys: 3.7% [95% CI: 1.1-9.6%]) than in their exposed counterparts (adolescent boys: 0.0% [95% CI: 0.0-6.7%]; girls < 14 years: 2.3% [95% CI: 0·7-6·1%]; boys < 14 years: 0.0% [95% CI: 0.0-2.0%]). The number of persistent symptoms reported by individuals was associated with the number of persistent symptoms reported by their household members (IRR=1·11, p=·005, 95% CI [1.03-1.20]). INTERPRETATION: In this controlled, multi-centre study, infected men, women and adolescent girls were at increased risk of negative outcomes 11-12 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Amongst non-infected adults, prevalence of negative outcomes was also high. Prolonged symptoms tended to cluster within families, suggesting family-level interventions for long COVID could prove useful. FUNDING: Ministry of Science, Research and the Arts, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Parents , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911637

ABSTRACT

Screening of a protein kinase inhibitor library identified SB431542, targeting activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5), as a compound interfering with SARS-CoV-2 replication. Since ALK5 is implicated in transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) signaling and regulation of the cellular endoprotease furin, we pursued this research to clarify the role of this protein kinase for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We show that TGF-ß1 induces the expression of furin in a broad spectrum of cells including Huh-7 and Calu-3 that are permissive for SARS-CoV-2. The inhibition of ALK5 by incubation with SB431542 revealed a dose-dependent downregulation of both basal and TGF-ß1 induced furin expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the ALK5 inhibitors SB431542 and Vactosertib negatively affect the proteolytic processing of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein and significantly reduce spike-mediated cell-cell fusion. This correlated with an inhibitory effect of ALK5 inhibition on the production of infectious SARS-CoV-2. Altogether, our study shows that interference with ALK5 signaling attenuates SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and cell-cell spread via downregulation of furin which is most pronounced upon TGF-ß stimulation. Since a TGF-ß dominated cytokine storm is a hallmark of severe COVID-19, ALK5 inhibitors undergoing clinical trials might represent a potential therapy option for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Cell Fusion , Furin , Humans , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type I , Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
4.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 857965, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862626

ABSTRACT

An association between certain ABO/Rh blood groups and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection has been proposed for adults, although this remains controversial. In children and adolescents, the relationship is unclear due to a lack of robust data. Here, we investigated the association of ABO/Rh blood groups and SARS-CoV-2 in a multi-center study comprising 163 households with 281 children and 355 adults and at least one SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individual as determined by three independent assays as a proxy for previous infection. In line with previous findings, we found a higher frequency of blood group A (+ 6%) and a lower frequency of blood group O (-6%) among the SARS-CoV-2 seropositive adults compared to the seronegative ones. This trend was not seen in children. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 seropositive children had a significantly lower frequency of Rh-positive blood groups. ABO compatibility did not seem to play a role in SARS-CoV-2 transmission within the families. A correction for family clusters was performed and estimated fixed effects of the blood group on the risk of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and symptomatic infection were determined. Although we found a different distribution of blood groups in seropositive individuals compared to the reference population, the risk of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity or symptomatic infection was not increased in children or in adults with blood group A or AB versus O or B. Increasing age was the only parameter positively correlating with the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In conclusion, specific ABO/Rh blood groups and ABO compatibility appear not to predispose for SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility in children.

5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 128, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616978

ABSTRACT

The quality and persistence of children's humoral immune response following SARS-CoV-2 infection remains largely unknown but will be crucial to guide pediatric SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programs. Here, we examine 548 children and 717 adults within 328 households with at least one member with a previous laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We assess serological response at 3-4 months and 11-12 months after infection using a bead-based multiplex immunoassay for 23 human coronavirus antigens including SARS-CoV-2 and its Variants of Concern (VOC) and endemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs), and additionally by three commercial SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays. Neutralization against wild type SARS-CoV-2 and the Delta VOC are analysed in a pseudotyped virus assay. Children, compared to adults, are five times more likely to be asymptomatic, and have higher specific antibody levels which persist longer (96.2% versus 82.9% still seropositive 11-12 months post infection). Of note, symptomatic and asymptomatic infections induce similar humoral responses in all age groups. SARS-CoV-2 infection occurs independent of HCoV serostatus. Neutralization responses of children and adults are similar, although neutralization is reduced for both against the Delta VOC. Overall, the long-term humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is of longer duration than in adults even after asymptomatic infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(12): 3009-3019, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556406

ABSTRACT

Resolving the role of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission in households with members from different generations is crucial for containing the current pandemic. We conducted a large-scale, multicenter, cross-sectional seroepidemiologic household transmission study in southwest Germany during May 11-August 1, 2020. We included 1,625 study participants from 405 households that each had ≥1 child and 1 reverse transcription PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected index case-patient. The overall secondary attack rate was 31.6% and was significantly higher in exposed adults (37.5%) than in children (24.6%-29.2%; p = <0.015); the rate was also significantly higher when the index case-patient was >60 years of age (72.9%; p = 0.039). Other risk factors for infectiousness of the index case-patient were SARS-CoV-2-seropositivity (odds ratio [OR] 27.8, 95% CI 8.26-93.5), fever (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.14-3.31), and cough (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.21-3.53). Secondary infections in household contacts generate a substantial disease burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
7.
J Infect Dis ; 223(5): 796-801, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117034

ABSTRACT

Highly sensitive and specific platforms for the detection of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies are becoming increasingly important for evaluating potential SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma donors, studying the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections, and identifying individuals with seroconversion. This study provides a comparative validation of 4 anti-SARS-CoV-2 platforms. A unique feature of the study is the use of a representative cohort of convalescent patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and a mild to moderate disease course. All platforms showed significant correlations with a SARS-CoV-2 plaque reduction neutralization test, with highest sensitivities for the Euroimmun and the Roche platforms, suggesting their preferential use for screening persons at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/standards , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tissue Donors , Young Adult
8.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(6): 586-593, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044436

ABSTRACT

Importance: School and daycare closures were enforced as measures to confine the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, based on the assumption that young children may play a key role in severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread. Given the grave consequences of contact restrictions for children, a better understanding of their contribution to the COVID-19 pandemic is of great importance. Objective: To describe the rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections and the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in children aged 1 to 10 years, compared with a corresponding parent of each child, in a population-based sample. Design, Setting, and Participants: This large-scale, multicenter, cross-sectional investigation (the COVID-19 BaWü study) enrolled children aged 1 to 10 years and a corresponding parent between April 22 and May 15, 2020, in southwest Germany. Exposures: Potential exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were infection and seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2. Participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA from nasopharyngeal swabs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and immunofluorescence tests. Discordant results were clarified by electrochemiluminescence immunoassays, a second enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or an in-house Luminex-based assay. Results: This study included 4964 participants: 2482 children (median age, 6 [range, 1-10] years; 1265 boys [51.0%]) and 2482 parents (median age, 40 [range, 23-66] years; 615 men [24.8%]). Two participants (0.04%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The estimated SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was low in parents (1.8% [95% CI, 1.2-2.4%]) and 3-fold lower in children (0.6% [95% CI, 0.3-1.0%]). Among 56 families with at least 1 child or parent with seropositivity, the combination of a parent with seropositivity and a corresponding child with seronegativity was 4.3 (95% CI, 1.19-15.52) times higher than the combination of a parent who was seronegative and a corresponding child with seropositivity. We observed virus-neutralizing activity for 66 of 70 IgG-positive serum samples (94.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection during a period of lockdown in southwest Germany was particularly low in children aged 1 to 10 years. Accordingly, it is unlikely that children have boosted the pandemic. This SARS-CoV-2 prevalence study, which appears to be the largest focusing on children, is instructive for how ad hoc mass testing provides the basis for rational political decision-making in a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Age Distribution , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Parents , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies
9.
J Virol Methods ; 286: 113965, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741388

ABSTRACT

Pandemic SARS-CoV-2 infection has rapidly developed into a socioeconomic and humanitarian catastrophe. Basic principles to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission are social distancing, face masks, contact tracing and early detection of SARS-CoV-2. To meet these requirements, virtually unlimited test capacities delivering results in a rapid and reliable manner are a prerequisite. Here, we provide and validate such a rapid, convenient and efficient kit-independent detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, termed COVID-quick-DET. This straightforward method operates with simple proteinase K treatment and repetitive heating steps with a sensitivity of 94.6% in head-to-head comparisons with kit-based isolation methods. This result is supported by data obtained from serially diluted SARS-CoV-2 virus stocks. Given its cost- and time-effective operation, COVID-quick-DET might be best suited for countries with general shortage or temporary acute scarcity of resources and equipment.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Endopeptidase K/chemistry , Heating , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Antiviral Res ; 181: 104882, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684270

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel pandemic coronavirus that caused a global health and economic crisis. The development of efficient drugs and vaccines against COVID-19 requires detailed knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 biology. Several techniques to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection have been established, mainly based on counting infected cells by staining plaques or foci, or by quantifying the viral genome by PCR. These methods are laborious, time-consuming and expensive and therefore not suitable for a high sample throughput or rapid diagnostics. We here report a novel enzyme-based immunodetection assay that directly quantifies the amount of de novo synthesized viral spike protein within fixed and permeabilized cells. This in-cell ELISA enables a rapid and quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection in microtiter format, regardless of the virus isolate or target cell culture. It follows the established method of performing ELISA assays and does not require expensive instrumentation. Utilization of the in-cell ELISA allows to e.g. determine TCID50 of virus stocks, antiviral efficiencies (IC50 values) of drugs or neutralizing activity of sera. Thus, the in-cell spike ELISA represents a promising alternative to study SARS-CoV-2 infection and inhibition and may facilitate future research.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Plaque Assay
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL