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Rheumatology (United Kingdom) ; 61(Supplement 2):ii28, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2112430


Background Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) presents with fever, shock, rash, abdominal pain and raised inflammatory markers, as well as common features of inflammatory childhood illnesses. In the acute setting, especially in countries where infectious diseases are common differential diagnoses, it is challenging to diagnose MIS-C. Therefore, data differentiating MIS-C from other inflammatory and/or febrile diseases at presentation is needed. Methods Prospective data was collected from children admitted to the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa from May 2020 to end November 2021 where MIS-C was part of their differential diagnoses. Clinical features on the day of admission were compared between children with confirmed MIS-C (MIS-C+) and those with alternate diagnoses (MIS-C-). Results In this time period, 60 children were MIS-C+ and 34 were MIS-C-. There was no significant difference in age (p = 0.321), sex (p = 0.525), ethnicity (p = 0.279), or in the frequency of comorbidities (p = 0.151) between the two groups. The presence of conjunctivitis (OR=8.12), rash (OR=8.67), tachycardia (OR=2.8) and oral mucositis (OR=3.75) was associated with MIS-C+ while abdominal pain and hypotension were not. MIS-C+ had statistically higher median C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-brain natriuretic protein (pro-BNP) and ferritin, and lower median lymphocyte count, platelet count and sodium levels than MISC-. Ferritin discriminated MIS-C+ well (AUC=0.86) with a 94% sensitivity and 60% specificity at a cut off of>195ng/l. Sodium had an AUC of 0.72, with a 70% sensitivity and 71% specificity at a cut off of<132.5 mmol/l. CRP did not distinguish MIS-C well (AUC=0.52) and although they had good AUC, platelet count and pro-BNP had cut off values in the normal range decreasing clinical utility. Conclusion We provide evidence for the use of accessible clinical and laboratory variables for the diagnosis of MIS-C in diverse settings. Implications These data will aid clinicians to do a rapid diagnosis (and ultimately treat earlier) of patients with MIS-C in the acute setting, especially those in under-resourced settings.

Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 61(Suppl 2), 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2062982


Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome is a severe manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 in children. The incidence of MIS-C after SARS-CoV-2 infection is poorly understood. There are very few cohorts describing MIS-C in Africa despite MIS-C being more common in Black children worldwide. Methods: A cohort of children with MIS-C and healthy children was recruited from May 2020 to May 2021 from the two main paediatric hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa. Clinical and demographic data were collected, and serum was tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The incidence of MIS-C was calculated using an estimation of population exposure from seroprevalence in the healthy group. Summary data, non-parametric comparisons and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: Sixty-eight children with MIS-C were recruited with a median age of 7 years and 97 healthy children were recruited with a 30% seroprevalence. The estimated incidence of MIS-C was 22/100 000 SARS-COV-2 infections in children under 14 years old in the city at that time. Black children were over-represented in the MIS-C group (62% vs 37%, p = 0.002). The most common clinical features in MIS-C were fever (100%), tachycardia (98.5%), rash (85.3%), conjunctivitis (77.9%), abdominal pain (60.3%) and hypotension (60.3%). Median levels of haemoglobin, sodium, CRP, ferritin, cardiac (pro-BNP, trop-T) and coagulation markers (D-dimer and fibrinogen), neutrophil and white cell count were markedly deranged in MIS-C. Cardiac, pulmonary, central nervous and renal organ systems were involved in 71%, 29.4%, 27.9% and 27.9% respectively. Ninety-four point one per cent patient received intravenous immune globulin, 64.7% received methylprednisolone and 61.7% received both. ICU admission was required in 39.7% patient while 38.2% required inotropic support, 38.2% required oxygen therapy, 11.8% required invasive ventilation and 6% required peritoneal dialysis. The median hospital stay duration was 7 days with no deaths. Conclusion: The lack of reports from Southern Africa does not reflect a lack of cases of MIS-C. The clinical manifestations and outcomes of MIS-C in this region highlight the need for improved surveillance, reporting and data to inform diagnosis and treatment. Implications: To our knowledge, these are the first data on MIS-C in Africa. This shows that children in Africa are indeed presenting with MIS-C which will increase surveillance around the continent.

Cardiovascular Journal of Africa ; 33(SUPPL):61, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1766887


Introduction: Studies show that children account for only 1-5% of diagnosed COVID-19 cases, they have milder disease than adults and deaths are extremely rare. The complete clinical picture of pediatric COVID-19 has not yet been fully reported or defined. Additionally, the South African pediatric population has unique clinical characteristics and risk implications and needs investigating. We aimed to characterize COVID-19 in Cape Town children. Methods: The UCT COVID-19 pediatric repository is a prospective cohort recruited via convenience sampling at 3 Western Cape Hospitals. All patients ≤ 18 years who test COVID-19 positive are eligible for inclusion in the study. Results: To date 227 participants, 56%(125/227) male with median age 2 years (IQR:0-6), have been enrolled. Only 28(12%) participants were in contact with a confirmed COVID-19 positive case, 67% of these, were first degree relatives, 28% second degree relatives and 6% health care workers. Comorbidities were present in 125(56%) participants. Of 32 recorded comorbidities, congenital heart disease (CHD), found in 7% of participants, ranked third. CHD subtypes included PDA (4), Tetralogy of Fallot (3), AVSD (2), Pulmonary atresia with VSD (2), truncus arteriosus (1), Coarctation of the Aorta (1), Congenital aortic valve stenosis (1), and ASD (1). Other cardiac comorbidities were, cardiomyopathy (2), primary pulmonary hypertension (1) and rhabdomyoma (1). On presentation 173 (76%) were symptomatic. Predominant symptoms included cough 40%, history of fever 36%, documented fever 34%, difficulty breathing 28%, and nausea or vomiting 20%. On examination, 65% had abnormal heart rates, 47% abnormal respiratory rates, 35% were in respiratory distress and 24% were hypoxic. Of the 227 patients, 169(74%) were admitted to hospital and 33 (15%) were admitted to ICU. In the ICU 79% of patients required non-invasive and 24% invasive ventilation, median length of ICU admission was 3 days (IQR:2-7.5). During admission 38(17%) patients developed COVID-19 complications: secondary infection 10%, sepsis 4%, MIS-C 2%, and myocarditis or new onset heart failure 1%) and 2(0.9%) died, including one patient with AVSD, who presented with severe pulmonary hypertension and acute heart failure post cardiac surgery. Conclusion: We present the initial findings of the UCT pediatric COVID-19 registry. We anticipate that these data will help to complete the clinical picture of COVID-19 in the South African pediatric population.