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Glob Heart ; 17(1): 40, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217353


Background and aims: Limited data exist on the cardiovascular manifestations and risk factors in people hospitalized with COVID-19 from low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to describe cardiovascular risk factors, clinical manifestations, and outcomes among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in low, lower-middle, upper-middle- and high-income countries (LIC, LMIC, UMIC, HIC). Methods: Through a prospective cohort study, data on demographics and pre-existing conditions at hospital admission, clinical outcomes at hospital discharge (death, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), renal failure, neurological events, and pulmonary outcomes), 30-day vital status, and re-hospitalization were collected. Descriptive analyses and multivariable log-binomial regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity/income groups, and clinical characteristics, were performed. Results: Forty hospitals from 23 countries recruited 5,313 patients with COVID-19 (LIC = 7.1%, LMIC = 47.5%, UMIC = 19.6%, HIC = 25.7%). Mean age was 57.0 (±16.1) years, male 59.4%, pre-existing conditions included: hypertension 47.3%, diabetes 32.0%, coronary heart disease 10.9%, and heart failure 5.5%. The most frequently reported cardiovascular discharge diagnoses were cardiac arrest (5.5%), acute heart failure (3.8%), and myocardial infarction (1.6%). The rate of in-hospital deaths was 12.9% (N = 683), and post-discharge 30 days deaths was 2.6% (N = 118) (overall death rate 15.1%). The most common causes of death were respiratory failure (39.3%) and sudden cardiac death (20.0%). The predictors of overall mortality included older age (≥60 years), male sex, pre-existing coronary heart disease, renal disease, diabetes, ICU admission, oxygen therapy, and higher respiratory rates (p < 0.001 for each). Compared to Caucasians, Asians, Blacks, and Hispanics had almost 2-4 times higher risk of death. Further, patients from LIC, LMIC, UMIC versus. HIC had 2-3 times increased risk of death. Conclusions: The LIC, LMIC, and UMIC's have sparse data on COVID-19. We provide robust evidence on COVID-19 outcomes in these countries. This study can help guide future health care planning for the pandemic globally.

COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Heart Failure , Aftercare , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
Int J Appl Basic Med Res ; 12(3): 157-160, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040105


Aim: The aim of this study was to link the values of D-dimer and C-reactive protein (CRP), with the occurrence of pericardial effusion in patients who had coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and have preserved systolic function of the left ventricle (LV). Methods: This was a prospective study and included 146 patients who underwent echocardiographic examination 30 days after the acute phase of COVID-19. Patients who were placed on mechanical ventilation, patients who had pulmonary thromboembolism or acute coronary syndrome during the acute period of the disease, patients who had an ejection fraction of the LV <50%, patients who were diagnosed with pericarditis during acute illness or clinical signs of heart failure (or had elevated N-terminal-pro hormone B-type natriuretic peptide value), with verified renal or hepatic dysfunction were excluded from the study, including patients with diabetes mellitus Type 1, patients with cancer, connective tissue disease, or pregnant women. The existence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus Type 2, and hyperlipidemia), the presence of previous ischemic heart disease, maximum values of D-dimer, and CRP (during the first 15 days of the disease) was taken into the analysis. Results: Effusion was verified around the right atrium (RA) in 104 patients (3.85 ± 1.75 mm), in 135 patients next to the free wall of the right ventricle (RV) (5.24 ± 2.29 mm), in front of the apex of the LV in 27 patients (2.44 ± 0.97 mm), next to the lateral wall of LV in 35 patients (4.43 ± 3.21 mm), and behind the posterior wall of LV in 30 patients (2.83 ± 1.62 mm). Mean CRP values during the acute phase of the disease were 43.0 mg/L (8.6-76.2 mg/L), whereas D-dimer mean value was 880.00 µg/L (467.00 -2000.00 µg/L). CRP values correlated with effusion next to the free wall of RV (rho = 0.202; P = 0.018). The D dimer correlated with effusion around RA (rho = 0.308; P = 0.0001). Conclusion: The clinical picture of the post-COVID patients could be explained by the appearance of pericardial effusion. D-dimer value correlates with the occurrence of effusion around RA, whereas CRP value correlates with effusion next to the free wall of RV.

Acta Med Acad ; 50(2): 308-316, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547638


OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate the predictors of morbidity (age, gender, smoking habits, obesity and the presence of chronic diseases) and COVID-19 outcomes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The research was an observational descriptive study, conducted at The Family Medicine Education Center, The Primary Health Care Center, Banja Luka, in the period from 26th June to 31st December 2020. During the research period, seven family medicine teams followed their patients with COVID- 19, and recorded possible predictors for morbidity and their influence on the disease outcome. RESULTS: The study included 934 patients, 46.90% of whom were male. The majority of subjects were non-smokers and overweight. Diabetes was found in 5.57% patients, hypertension in 29.44%, chronic respiratory diseases in 5.25%, cancer in 4.39% patients. In the observed sample, 29.23% subjects contracted pneumonia, 18.52% were hospitalized, while 19 (2.03%) patients with severe clinical features had a fatal outcome. Multivariable regression analysis showed a high risk of pneumonia in male patients [OR=2.45, 95% CI (1.73- 3.46)], elderly [OR=1.07, 95% CI (1.06-1.09)] and obese patients with Body Mass Index ≥30.0 kg/m2 [OR=2.55, 95% CI (1.73- 3.77)]. Male gender [OR=2.19, 95% CI (1.11-4.31)], older age [OR=1.08, 95% CI (1.05-1.11)] and hypertension [OR=2.51, 95% CI (1.06-5.91)] were the most important predictors for the development of severe clinical features in COVID 19. The statistically significant predictors of mortality were male gender [OR=7.16, 95% CI (1.56-32.86)] and older age [OR=1.12, 95% CI (1.06-1.18]. CONCLUSION: Being familiar with the predictors of morbidity and poor outcome in COVID-19 is helpful for carrying out preventive measures, early diagnosis and treatment of risk groups of patients.

COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2