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1.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 23(1): 34-51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989711

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Critically ill children frequently receive plasma and platelet transfusions. We sought to determine evidence-based recommendations, and when evidence was insufficient, we developed expert-based consensus statements about decision-making for plasma and platelet transfusions in critically ill pediatric patients. DESIGN: Systematic review and consensus conference series involving multidisciplinary international experts in hemostasis, and plasma/platelet transfusion in critically ill infants and children (Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding [TAXI-CAB]). SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENTS: Children admitted to a PICU at risk of bleeding and receipt of plasma and/or platelet transfusions. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A panel of 29 experts in methodology, transfusion, and implementation science from five countries and nine pediatric subspecialties completed a systematic review and participated in a virtual consensus conference series to develop recommendations. The search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases, from inception to December 2020, using a combination of subject heading terms and text words for concepts of plasma and platelet transfusion in critically ill children. Four graded recommendations and 49 consensus expert statements were developed using modified Research and Development/UCLA and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. We focused on eight subpopulations of critical illness (1, severe trauma, intracranial hemorrhage, or traumatic brain injury; 2, cardiopulmonary bypass surgery; 3, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; 4, oncologic diagnosis or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; 5, acute liver failure or liver transplantation; 6, noncardiac surgery; 7, invasive procedures outside the operating room; 8, sepsis and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation) as well as laboratory assays and selection/processing of plasma and platelet components. In total, we came to consensus on four recommendations, five good practice statements, and 44 consensus-based statements. These results were further developed into consensus-based clinical decision trees for plasma and platelet transfusion in critically ill pediatric patients. CONCLUSIONS: The TAXI-CAB program provides expert-based consensus for pediatric intensivists for the administration of plasma and/or platelet transfusions in critically ill pediatric patients. There is a pressing need for primary research to provide more evidence to guide practitioners.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Critical Illness , Anemia/therapy , Child , Critical Care , Critical Illness/therapy , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Evidence-Based Medicine/methods , Humans , Infant , Platelet Transfusion
2.
Transfusion ; 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686926

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transfusion dependence on red blood cells (RBCs) is common for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) but transfusion practice and experience for outpatients with MDS are largely unknown. METHODS: We conducted a web-based cross-sectional multi-national survey to audit real-world transfusion practices and understand the experiences and preferences of patients with MDS requiring RBC transfusion. The survey comprised 57 questions and was distributed to patients in the United States of America, Canada, and the United Kingdom. RESULTS: 447 respondents (45% female) with a median age of 72 years (IQR 66-77) were eligible on the basis of receiving an RBC transfusion in the last 8 weeks. There was wide variability in the hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion with the most common being <80 g/L. 40% of patients were transfused at a lower threshold (<70-75 g/L), with the largest proportion of these patients from the United States. Patients experienced significant symptoms prior to receiving a transfusion with fatigue and dyspnea having the most negative impacts on quality of life. Finally, patients endorsed two potential alterations to transfusion care that could improve their quality of life, including self-administered point of care testing of hemoglobin and higher hemoglobin transfusion thresholds. Of these patients, 62% preferred a threshold of at least 85 g/L, and 20% preferred a threshold of at least 100 g/L. DISCUSSION: In summary, this multi-national survey of patients with MDS requiring RBC transfusions demonstrated substantial variation in patients' experiences and preferences that differed also by country, supporting the need for further comparative clinical trials of transfusion practice interventions.

4.
Implement Sci ; 17(1): 34, 2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35619097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Audit and feedback aims to improve patient care by comparing healthcare performance against explicit standards. It is used to monitor and improve patient care, including through National Clinical Audit (NCA) programmes in the UK. Variability in effectiveness of audit and feedback is attributed to intervention design; separate randomised trials to address multiple questions about how to optimise effectiveness would be inefficient. We evaluated different feedback modifications to identify leading candidates for further "real-world" evaluation. METHODS: Using an online fractional factorial screening experiment, we randomised recipients of feedback from five UK NCAs to different combinations of six feedback modifications applied within an audit report excerpt: use effective comparators, provide multimodal feedback, recommend specific actions, provide optional detail, incorporate the patient voice, and minimise cognitive load. Outcomes, assessed immediately after exposure to the online modifications, included intention to enact audit standards (primary outcome, ranked on a scale of -3 to +3, tailored to the NCA), comprehension, user experience, and engagement. RESULTS: We randomised 1241 participants (clinicians, managers, and audit staff) between April and October 2019. Inappropriate repeated participant completion occurred; we conservatively excluded participant entries during the relevant period, leaving a primary analysis population of 638 (51.4%) participants. None of the six feedback modifications had an independent effect on intention across the five NCAs. We observed both synergistic and antagonistic effects across outcomes when modifications were combined; the specific NCA and whether recipients had a clinical role had dominant influences on outcome, and there was an antagonistic interaction between multimodal feedback and optional detail. Among clinical participants, predicted intention ranged from 1.22 (95% confidence interval 0.72, 1.72) for the least effective combination in which multimodal feedback, optional detail, and reduced cognitive load were applied within the audit report, up to 2.40 (95% CI 1.88, 2.93) for the most effective combination including multimodal feedback, specific actions, patient voice, and reduced cognitive load. CONCLUSION: Potentially important synergistic and antagonistic effects were identified across combinations of feedback modifications, audit programmes, and recipients, suggesting that feedback designers must explicitly consider how different features of feedback may interact to achieve (or undermine) the desired effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN41584028.


Subject(s)
Clinical Audit , Medical Audit , Feedback , Health Services Research , Humans , Intention
5.
Br J Health Psychol ; 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543198

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Repeated blood transfusions are indicated for the management of patients with cancer or blood disorders. Patients' perceptions about transfusions may be associated with decision-making and coping, which has been under-explored in the haematology context. This study therefore aimed to explore haematology transfusion patients' and HCPs' perceptions of blood transfusion, drawing on theory and previously identified themes of transfusion perceptions. DESIGN: Semi-structured interview study with 14 adult blood transfusion patients and 14 HCPs (consultants, registrars, nurses) at two UK haematology units. METHODS: Patient- and HCP-tailored topic guides were developed based on themes of blood transfusion perceptions identified in a systematic review: 'Health benefits', 'Safety/risk', 'Negative emotions', 'Alternatives' 'Decision making' and 'Necessity'. Transcripts were analysed using deductive and thematic analysis. Patient and HCP themes were compared using triangulation methods. Conceptual models (one for patients, one for HCPs) specific to haematology portraying the association between themes were developed. RESULTS: Findings for patients and HCPs converged with transfusion reported as beneficial for patients, who were largely involved in the decision-making. Both groups also reported concerns about transfusion, including iron-overload, allergic reactions and challenges to deliver transfusions in time-pressurized services. Themes in the conceptual models included patient 'Burden' of receiving repeated transfusions and 'Supportive relationships', reflective of patients' positive interactions with other patients and HCPs in the haematology unit. CONCLUSION: Despite the challenges for patients receiving repeated transfusions, convergent perceptions suggest a shared understanding of patients' transfusion experiences. Identified challenges could inform ways to improve transfusion services and patients' experiences.

6.
JAMA ; 327(13): 1247-1259, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35315874

ABSTRACT

Importance: The efficacy of antiplatelet therapy in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is uncertain. Objective: To determine whether antiplatelet therapy improves outcomes for critically ill adults with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: In an ongoing adaptive platform trial (REMAP-CAP) testing multiple interventions within multiple therapeutic domains, 1557 critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 were enrolled between October 30, 2020, and June 23, 2021, from 105 sites in 8 countries and followed up for 90 days (final follow-up date: July 26, 2021). Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive either open-label aspirin (n = 565), a P2Y12 inhibitor (n = 455), or no antiplatelet therapy (control; n = 529). Interventions were continued in the hospital for a maximum of 14 days and were in addition to anticoagulation thromboprophylaxis. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was organ support-free days (days alive and free of intensive care unit-based respiratory or cardiovascular organ support) within 21 days, ranging from -1 for any death in hospital (censored at 90 days) to 22 for survivors with no organ support. There were 13 secondary outcomes, including survival to discharge and major bleeding to 14 days. The primary analysis was a bayesian cumulative logistic model. An odds ratio (OR) greater than 1 represented improved survival, more organ support-free days, or both. Efficacy was defined as greater than 99% posterior probability of an OR greater than 1. Futility was defined as greater than 95% posterior probability of an OR less than 1.2 vs control. Intervention equivalence was defined as greater than 90% probability that the OR (compared with each other) was between 1/1.2 and 1.2 for 2 noncontrol interventions. Results: The aspirin and P2Y12 inhibitor groups met the predefined criteria for equivalence at an adaptive analysis and were statistically pooled for further analysis. Enrollment was discontinued after the prespecified criterion for futility was met for the pooled antiplatelet group compared with control. Among the 1557 critically ill patients randomized, 8 patients withdrew consent and 1549 completed the trial (median age, 57 years; 521 [33.6%] female). The median for organ support-free days was 7 (IQR, -1 to 16) in both the antiplatelet and control groups (median-adjusted OR, 1.02 [95% credible interval {CrI}, 0.86-1.23]; 95.7% posterior probability of futility). The proportions of patients surviving to hospital discharge were 71.5% (723/1011) and 67.9% (354/521) in the antiplatelet and control groups, respectively (median-adjusted OR, 1.27 [95% CrI, 0.99-1.62]; adjusted absolute difference, 5% [95% CrI, -0.2% to 9.5%]; 97% posterior probability of efficacy). Among survivors, the median for organ support-free days was 14 in both groups. Major bleeding occurred in 2.1% and 0.4% of patients in the antiplatelet and control groups (adjusted OR, 2.97 [95% CrI, 1.23-8.28]; adjusted absolute risk increase, 0.8% [95% CrI, 0.1%-2.7%]; 99.4% probability of harm). Conclusions and Relevance: Among critically ill patients with COVID-19, treatment with an antiplatelet agent, compared with no antiplatelet agent, had a low likelihood of providing improvement in the number of organ support-free days within 21 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02735707.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Aspirin/adverse effects , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e220364, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35201305

ABSTRACT

Importance: Auditing and feedback are frequently used to improve patient care. However, it remains unclear how to optimize feedback effectiveness for the appropriate use of treatments such as blood transfusion, a common but costly procedure that is more often overused than underused. Objective: To evaluate 2 theoretically informed feedback interventions to improve the appropriate use of blood transfusions. Design, Setting, and Participants: Two sequential, linked 2 × 2 cluster randomized trials were performed in hospitals in the UK participating in national audits of transfusion for perioperative anemia and management of hematological disorders. Data were collected for a surgical trial from October 1, 2014, to October 31, 2016, with follow-up completed on October 31, 2016. Data were collected for a hematological trial through follow-up from July 1, 2015, to June 30, 2017. Trial data were analyzed from November 1, 2016, to June 1, 2019. Interventions: Hospitals were randomized to standard content or enhanced content to improve feedback clarity and usability and to standard support or enhanced support for staff to act on feedback. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was appropriateness of transfusions audited at 12 months. Secondary end points included volume of transfusions (aiming for reductions at patient and cluster levels) and transfusion-related adverse events and reactions. Results: One hundred thirty-five of 152 eligible clusters participated in the surgical audit (2714 patients; mean [SD] age, 74.9 [14.0] years; 1809 women [66.7%]), and 134 of 141 participated in the hematological audit (4439 patients; median age, 72.0 [IQR, 64.0-80.0] years; 2641 men [59.5%]). Fifty-seven of 69 clusters (82.6%) in the surgical audit randomized to enhanced content downloaded reports compared with 52 of 66 clusters (78.8%) randomized to standard reports. Fifty-nine of 68 clusters (86.8%) randomized to enhanced support logged onto the toolkit. The proportion of patients with appropriate transfusions was 0.184 for standard content and 0.176 for enhanced content (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.91 [97.5% CI, 0.61-1.36]) and 0.181 for standard support and 0.180 for enhanced support (adjusted OR, 1.05 [97.5% CI, 0.68-1.61]). For the hematological audit, 53 of 66 clusters (80.3%) randomized to enhanced content downloaded the reports compared with 53 of 68 clusters (77.9%) randomized to standard content. Forty-nine of 67 clusters sites (73.1%) assigned to enhanced support logged into the toolkit at least once. The proportion of patients with appropriate transfusions was 0.744 for standard content and 0.714 for enhanced content (adjusted OR, 0.81 [97.5% CI, 0.56-1.12]), and 0.739 for standard support and 0.721 for enhanced support (adjusted OR, 0.96 [97.5% CI, 0.67-1.38]). Conclusions and Relevance: This comparison of cluster randomized trials found that interventions to improve feedback usability and guide local action were no more effective than standard feedback in increasing the appropriate use of blood transfusions. Auditing and feedback delivered at scale is a complex and costly program; therefore, effective responses may depend on developing robust local quality improvement arrangements, which can be evaluated using rigorous experimental designs embedded within national programs. Trial Registration: isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN15490813.


Subject(s)
Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , Blood Transfusion/standards , Health Services Misuse/statistics & numerical data , Quality Improvement , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Feedback , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , United Kingdom
9.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(3): 556-564, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35112471

ABSTRACT

Platelet transfusions are a common intervention for thrombocytopenia. Although the main reason for transfusing platelets is to improve hemostasis, platelets have many additional physiological roles, including interactions with immune pathways. Much of the evidence base for safe and effective transfusions has been informed by randomized trials in adult patients with hematological malignancies. Only three randomized trials have been conducted in sick neonates. These trials have indicated evidence of harm, including a significantly higher rate of death or major bleeding within 28 days after randomization for the largest trial, which enrolled 660 infants. The overall research indicates limited effectiveness of platelet transfusions to reduce bleeding risk. It is important that the results of trials are implemented into practice, but uptake of research findings into neonatal medicine remains inconsistent, as for many areas of health care. There is a need to establish which potential implementation strategies (cost-) efficiently enact change, such as audit and feedback, automated reminder systems for ordering transfusions, and use of opinion leaders. Research is exploring potential mechanisms underlying the lack of effectiveness of platelet transfusions and the increased bleeding and mortality observed in neonatal randomized trials. One potential mechanism concerns the roles of platelets to promote excessive angiogenic signals during a vulnerable period of brain development. A further hypothesis explores the effects of transfusing "adult" platelets into "neonatal" thrombocytopenic blood on primary hemostasis and immune responses.


Subject(s)
Platelet Transfusion , Thrombocytopenia , Adult , Blood Platelets , Hemorrhage/therapy , Hemostasis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Platelet Transfusion/methods
11.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 23(13 Suppl 1 1S): e37-e49, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To present the consensus statements with supporting literature for plasma and platelet transfusions in critically ill neonates and children with malignancy, acute liver disease and/or following liver transplantation, and sepsis and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation from the Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding. DESIGN: Systematic review and consensus conference of international, multidisciplinary experts in platelet and plasma transfusion management of critically ill children. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENTS: Critically ill neonates and children with malignancy, acute liver disease and/or following liver transplantation, and sepsis and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A panel of 13 experts developed evidence-based and, when evidence was insufficient, expert-based statements for plasma and platelet transfusions in critically ill neonates and children with malignancy, acute liver disease and/or following liver transplantation, and sepsis and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation. These statements were reviewed and ratified by the 29 Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding experts. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases, from inception to December 2020. Consensus was obtained using the Research and Development/University of California, Los Angeles Appropriateness Method. Results were summarized using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation method. We developed 12 expert consensus statements. CONCLUSIONS: In the Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding program, the current absence of evidence for use of plasma and/or platelet transfusion in critically ill children with malignancy, acute liver disease and/or following liver transplantation, and sepsis means that only expert consensus statements are possible for these areas of practice.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Liver Failure, Acute , Liver Transplantation , Neoplasms , Sepsis , Anemia/therapy , Blood Component Transfusion , Child , Critical Care , Critical Illness/therapy , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Evidence-Based Medicine/methods , Hemorrhage , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Plasma , Platelet Transfusion , Sepsis/therapy
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD002042, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The optimal haemoglobin threshold for use of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in anaemic patients remains an active field of research. Blood is a scarce resource, and in some countries, transfusions are less safe than in others because of inadequate testing for viral pathogens. If a liberal transfusion policy does not improve clinical outcomes, or if it is equivalent, then adopting a more restrictive approach could be recognised as the standard of care.  OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review update was to compare 30-day mortality and other clinical outcomes for participants randomised to restrictive versus liberal red blood cell (RBC) transfusion thresholds (triggers) for all clinical conditions. The restrictive transfusion threshold uses a lower haemoglobin concentration as a threshold for transfusion (most commonly, 7.0 g/dL to 8.0 g/dL), and the liberal transfusion threshold uses a higher haemoglobin concentration as a threshold for transfusion (most commonly, 9.0 g/dL to 10.0 g/dL). SEARCH METHODS: We identified trials through updated searches: CENTRAL (2020, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1946 to November 2020), Embase (1974 to November 2020), Transfusion Evidence Library (1950 to November 2020), Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index (1990 to November 2020), and trial registries (November 2020). We  checked the reference lists of other published reviews and relevant papers to identify additional trials. We were aware of one trial identified in earlier searching that was in the process of being published (in February 2021), and we were able to include it before this review was finalised. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised trials of surgical or medical participants that recruited adults or children, or both. We excluded studies that focused on neonates. Eligible trials assigned intervention groups on the basis of different transfusion schedules or thresholds or 'triggers'. These thresholds would be defined by a haemoglobin (Hb) or haematocrit (Hct) concentration below which an RBC transfusion would be administered; the haemoglobin concentration remains the most commonly applied marker of the need for RBC transfusion in clinical practice. We included trials in which investigators had allocated participants to higher thresholds or more liberal transfusion strategies compared to more restrictive ones, which might include no transfusion. As in previous versions of this review, we did not exclude unregistered trials published after 2010 (as per the policy of the Cochrane Injuries Group, 2015), however, we did conduct analyses to consider the differential impact of results of trials for which prospective registration could not be confirmed.   DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We identified trials for inclusion and extracted data using Cochrane methods. We pooled risk ratios of clinical outcomes across trials using a random-effects model. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We conducted predefined analyses by clinical subgroups. We defined participants randomly allocated to the lower transfusion threshold as being in the 'restrictive transfusion' group and those randomly allocated to the higher transfusion threshold as being in the 'liberal transfusion' group. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 48 trials, involving data from 21,433 participants (at baseline), across a range of clinical contexts (e.g. orthopaedic, cardiac, or vascular surgery; critical care; acute blood loss (including gastrointestinal bleeding); acute coronary syndrome; cancer; leukaemia; haematological malignancies), met the eligibility criteria. The haemoglobin concentration used to define the restrictive transfusion group in most trials (36) was between 7.0 g/dL and 8.0 g/dL.  Most trials included only adults; three trials focused on children. The included studies were generally at low risk of bias for key domains including allocation concealment and incomplete outcome data. Restrictive transfusion strategies reduced the risk of receiving at least one RBC transfusion by 41% across a broad range of clinical contexts (risk ratio (RR) 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 0.66; 42 studies, 20,057 participants; high-quality evidence), with a large amount of heterogeneity between trials (I² = 96%). Overall, restrictive transfusion strategies did not increase or decrease the risk of 30-day mortality compared with liberal transfusion strategies (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.15; 31 studies, 16,729 participants; I² = 30%; moderate-quality evidence) or any of the other outcomes assessed (i.e. cardiac events (low-quality evidence), myocardial infarction, stroke, thromboembolism (all high-quality evidence)). High-quality evidence shows that the liberal transfusion threshold did not affect the risk of infection (pneumonia, wound infection, or bacteraemia). Transfusion-specific reactions are uncommon and were inconsistently reported within trials. We noted less certainty in the strength of evidence to support the safety of restrictive transfusion thresholds for the following predefined clinical subgroups: myocardial infarction, vascular surgery, haematological malignancies, and chronic bone-marrow disorders. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Transfusion at a restrictive haemoglobin concentration decreased the proportion of people exposed to RBC transfusion by 41% across a broad range of clinical contexts. Across all trials, no evidence suggests that a restrictive transfusion strategy impacted 30-day mortality, mortality at other time points, or morbidity (i.e. cardiac events, myocardial infarction, stroke, pneumonia, thromboembolism, infection) compared with a liberal transfusion strategy. Despite including 17 more randomised trials (and 8846 participants), data remain insufficient to inform the safety of transfusion policies in important and selected clinical contexts, such as myocardial infarction, chronic cardiovascular disease, neurological injury or traumatic brain injury, stroke, thrombocytopenia, and cancer or haematological malignancies, including chronic bone marrow failure.  Further work is needed to improve our understanding of outcomes other than mortality. Most trials compared only two separate thresholds for haemoglobin concentration, which may not identify the actual optimal threshold for transfusion in a particular patient. Haemoglobin concentration may not be the most informative marker of the need for transfusion in individual patients with different degrees of physiological adaptation to anaemia. Notwithstanding these issues, overall findings provide good evidence that transfusions with allogeneic RBCs can be avoided in most patients with haemoglobin thresholds between the range of 7.0 g/dL and 8.0 g/dL. Some patient subgroups might benefit from RBCs to maintain higher haemoglobin concentrations; research efforts should focus on these clinical contexts.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Anemia/therapy , Hematocrit , Hemoglobins , Humans , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
13.
Br J Anaesth ; 128(2): 272-282, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anaemia is common and associated with poor outcomes in survivors of critical illness. However, the optimal treatment strategy is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, feasibility RCT to compare either a single dose of ferric carboxymaltose 1000 mg i.v. or usual care in patients being discharged from the ICU with moderate or severe anaemia (haemoglobin ≤100 g L-1). We collected data on feasibility (recruitment, randomisation, follow-up), biological efficacy, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Ninety-eight participants were randomly allocated (49 in each arm). The overall recruitment rate was 34% with 6.5 participants recruited on average per month. Forty-seven of 49 (96%) participants received the intervention. Patient-reported outcome measures were available for 79/93 (85%) survivors at 90 days. Intravenous iron resulted in a higher mean (standard deviation [sd]) haemoglobin at 28 days (119.8 [13.3] vs 106.7 [14.9] g L-1) and 90 days (130.5 [15.1] vs 122.7 [17.3] g L-1), adjusted mean difference (10.98 g L-1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.96-17.01; P<0.001) over 90 days after randomisation. Infection rates were similar in both groups. Hospital readmissions at 90 days post-ICU discharge were lower in the i.v. iron group (7/40 vs 15/39; risk ratio=0.46; 95% CI, 0.21-0.99; P=0.037). The median (inter-quartile range) post-ICU hospital stay was shorter in the i.v. iron group but did not reach statistical significance (5.0 [3.0-13.0] vs 9.0 [5.0-16.0] days, P=0.15). CONCLUSION: A large, multicentre RCT of i.v. iron to treat anaemia in survivors of critical illness appears feasible and is necessary to determine the effects on patient-centred outcomes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN13721808 (www.isrctn.com).


Subject(s)
Anemia/drug therapy , Ferric Compounds/administration & dosage , Hematinics/administration & dosage , Maltose/analogs & derivatives , Administration, Intravenous , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Care , Feasibility Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Maltose/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Young Adult
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2133935, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767026

ABSTRACT

Importance: Intravenous iron is recommended by many clinical guidelines based largely on its effectiveness in reducing anemia. However, the association with important safety outcomes, such as infection, remains uncertain. Objective: To examine the risk of infection associated with intravenous iron compared with oral iron or no iron. Data Sources: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) from 1966 to January 31, 2021. Ongoing trials were sought from ClinicalTrials.gov, CENTRAL, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Search Registry Platform. Study Selection: Pairs of reviewers identified RCTs that compared intravenous iron with oral iron or no iron across all patient populations, excluding healthy volunteers. Nonrandomized studies published since January 1, 2007, were also included. A total of 312 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data extraction and risk of bias assessments were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) and Cochrane recommendations, and the quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach. Two reviewers extracted data independently. A random-effects model was used to synthesize data from RCTs. A narrative synthesis was performed to characterize the reporting of infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was risk of infection. Secondary outcomes included mortality, hospital length of stay, and changes in hemoglobin and red blood cell transfusion requirements. Measures of association were reported as risk ratios (RRs) or mean differences. Results: A total of 154 RCTs (32 920 participants) were included in the main analysis. Intravenous iron was associated with an increased risk of infection when compared with oral iron or no iron (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.31; I2 = 37%; moderate certainty of evidence). Intravenous iron also was associated with an increase in hemoglobin (mean difference, 0.57 g/dL; 95% CI, 0.50-0.64 g/dL; I2 = 94%) and a reduction in the risk of requiring a red blood cell transfusion (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.76-0.89; I2 = 15%) when compared with oral iron or no iron. There was no evidence of an effect on mortality or hospital length of stay. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large systematic review and meta-analysis, intravenous iron was associated with an increased risk of infection. Well-designed studies, using standardized definitions of infection, are required to understand the balance between this risk and the potential benefits.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/drug therapy , Infections/epidemiology , Iron/adverse effects , Administration, Intravenous , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/microbiology , Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Infections/chemically induced , Iron/administration & dosage , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Factors , Young Adult
15.
Transfusion ; 62(1): 173-182, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID19 pandemic highlights the need for contingency planning in the event of blood shortages. To increase platelet supply, we assessed the operational impact and effect on platelet quality of splitting units prior to storage. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using production figures, we modeled the impact on unit numbers, platelet counts, and volumes of splitting only apheresis double donations into three units (yielding ⅔ doses), or all standard dose units in half. To assess quality, eight pools of three ABO/Rh-matched apheresis (Trima Accel) double donations in plasma were split to ⅔ and ½ volumes in both Terumo and Fresenius storage bags. These were irradiated and subject to maximal permitted periods of nonagitation (3 × 8 h) before comparing platelet quality markers (including pH, CD62P expression) to Day 9 of storage. RESULTS: Splitting all double donations into three predicted inventory expansion of 23% overall whereas halving all standard dose units clearly doubles stock. In our study, ⅔ and ½ doses contained 153 ± 15 × 109 (~138 ml) and 113 ± 11 × 109 (~102 ml) platelets respectively. Following storage, higher pH was observed in ⅔ than in ½ doses and in Terumo compared to Fresenius bags. The higher pH was reflected in better quality markers, including lower CD62P expression. Despite the differences, on Day 8 (of pH monitoring at expiry) all ⅔ doses and most ½ doses were ≥pH 6.4. CONCLUSION: A strategy to split apheresis platelets in plasma to lower doses is feasible, maintains acceptable platelet quality, and should be considered by blood services in response to extreme shortages.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , COVID-19 , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Blood Preservation , Humans , Platelet Count , Plateletpheresis
16.
Stat Med ; 40(29): 6634-6650, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590333

ABSTRACT

Composite endpoints are commonly used to define primary outcomes in randomized controlled trials. A participant may be classified as meeting the endpoint if they experience an event in one or several components (eg, a favorable outcome based on a composite of being alive and attaining negative culture results in trials assessing tuberculosis treatments). Partially observed components that are not missing simultaneously complicate the analysis of the composite endpoint. An intuitive strategy frequently used in practice for handling missing values in the components is to derive the values of the composite endpoint from observed components when possible, and exclude from analysis participants whose composite endpoint cannot be derived. Alternatively, complete record analysis (CRA) (excluding participants with any missing components) or multiple imputation (MI) can be used. We compare a set of methods for analyzing a composite endpoint with partially observed components mathematically and by simulation, and apply these methods in a reanalysis of a published trial (TOPPS). We show that the derived composite endpoint can be missing not at random even when the components are missing completely at random. Consequently, the treatment effect estimated from the derived endpoint is biased while CRA results without the derived endpoint are valid. Missing at random mechanisms require MI of the components. We conclude that, although superficially attractive, deriving the composite endpoint from observed components should generally be avoided. Despite the potential risk of imputation model mis-specification, MI of missing components is the preferred approach in this study setting.


Subject(s)
Data Interpretation, Statistical , Computer Simulation , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
18.
19.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(5): e12532, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296056

ABSTRACT

This year's Congress of the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) was hosted virtually from Philadelphia July 17-21, 2021. The conference, now held annually, highlighted cutting-edge advances in basic, population and clinical sciences of relevance to the Society. Despite being held virtually, the 2021 congress was of the same scope and quality as an annual meeting held in person. An added feature of the program is that talks streamed at the designated times will then be available on-line for asynchronous viewing. The program included 77 State of the Art (SOA) talks, thematically grouped in 28 sessions, given by internationally recognized leaders in the field. The SOA speakers were invited to prepare brief illustrated reviews of their talks that were peer reviewed and are included in this article. The topics, across the main scientific themes of the congress, include Arterial Thromboembolism, Coagulation and Natural Anticoagulants, COVID-19 and Coagulation, Diagnostics and Omics, Fibrinogen, Fibrinolysis and Proteolysis, Hemophilia and Rare Bleeding Disorders, Hemostasis in Cancer, Inflammation and Immunity, Pediatrics, Platelet Disorders, von Willebrand Disease and Thrombotic Angiopathies, Platelets and Megakaryocytes, Vascular Biology, Venous Thromboembolism and Women's Health. These illustrated capsules highlight the major scientific advances with potential to impact clinical practice. Readers are invited to take advantage of the excellent educational resource provided by these illustrated capsules. They are also encouraged to use the image in social media to draw attention to the high quality and impact of the science presented at the congress.

20.
Transfusion ; 61(9): 2578-2587, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prophylactic platelet transfusions prevent bleeding in hemato-oncology patients, but it is unclear how any benefit varies between patients. Our aim was to assess if patients with different baseline risks for bleeding benefit differently from a prophylactic platelet transfusion strategy. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the data from the randomized controlled TOPPS trial (Trial of Platelet Prophylaxis), we developed a prediction model for World Health Organization grades 2, 3, and 4 bleeding risk (defined as at least one bleeding episode in a 30 days period) and grouped patients in four risk-quartiles based on this predicted baseline risk. Predictors in the model were baseline platelet count, age, diagnosis, disease modifying treatment, disease status, previous stem cell transplantation, and the randomization arm. RESULTS: The model had a c-statistic of 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.64). There was little variation in predicted risks (quartiles 46%, 47%, and 51%), but prophylactic platelet transfusions gave a risk reduction in all risk quartiles. The absolute risk difference (ARD) was 3.4% (CI -12.2 to 18.9) in the lowest risk quartile (quartile 1), 7.4% (95% CI -8.4 to 23.3) in quartile 2, 6.8% (95% CI -9.1 to 22.9) in quartile 3, and 12.8% (CI -3.1 to 28.7) in the highest risk quartile (quartile 4). CONCLUSION: In our study, generally accepted bleeding risk predictors had limited predictive power (expressed by the low c-statistic), and, given the wide confidence intervals of predicted ARD, could not aid in identifying subgroups of patients who might benefit more (or less) from prophylactic platelet transfusion.


Subject(s)
Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Platelet Transfusion , Age Factors , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Platelet Transfusion/methods , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
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