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1.
Annals of Intensive Care ; 12(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837376

ABSTRACT

BackgroundDuration of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) prior to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) affects outcome in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related ARDS, the role of pre-ECMO IMV duration is unclear. This single-centre, retrospective study included critically ill adults treated with ECMO due to severe COVID-19-related ARDS between 01/2020 and 05/2021. The primary objective was to determine whether duration of IMV prior to ECMO cannulation influenced ICU mortality.ResultsDuring the study period, 101 patients (mean age 56 [SD ± 10] years;70 [69%] men;median RESP score 2 [IQR 1–4]) were treated with ECMO for COVID-19. Sixty patients (59%) survived to ICU discharge. Median ICU length of stay was 31 [IQR 20.7–51] days, median ECMO duration was 16.4 [IQR 8.7–27.7] days, and median time from intubation to ECMO start was 7.7 [IQR 3.6–12.5] days. Fifty-three (52%) patients had a pre-ECMO IMV duration of > 7 days. Pre-ECMO IMV duration had no effect on survival (p = 0.95). No significant difference in survival was found when patients with a pre-ECMO IMV duration of < 7 days (< 10 days) were compared to ≥ 7 days (≥ 10 days) (p = 0.59 and p = 1.0).ConclusionsThe role of prolonged pre-ECMO IMV duration as a contraindication for ECMO in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS should be scrutinised. Evaluation for ECMO should be assessed on an individual and patient-centred basis.

2.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794309

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Prostaglandin E1 (alprostadil; PGE1), in addition to low-dose unfractionated heparin, increases the biocompatibility of extracorporeal systems and enhances the efficacy of artificial organs without increasing bleeding risk. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the safety and efficacy of PGE1 in adults receiving venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. METHODS: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase-II-pilot trial at two medical intensive care units at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria. Adults with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were randomly assigned to receive an intravenous infusion of 5 ng/kg/min PGE1 or placebo (0.9% saline), in addition to standard anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was the rate of transfused packed red blood cells per ECMO day. Secondary outcomes were the incidence of and the time to clinically overt bleeding and thromboembolic events. A post-hoc subgroup analysis included only patients with COVID-19. MAIN RESULTS: Between September 2016 and April 2021, of 133 screened patients, 50 patients were randomized, of whom 48 received the assigned study medication (24 per group). The transfusion rate was similar between groups (0.41vs.0.39;p=0.733). Prostaglandin E1 was associated with fewer thromboembolic events (7vs.16;p=0.020) and longer thromboembolism-free time (HR 0.302;p=0.01), fewer clinically overt bleeding events (2vs.11;p=0.017), and longer bleeding-free time (HR 0.213;p=0.047). In COVID-19 patients (n=25), the hazard ratios for clinically significant bleeding and thromboembolism were 0.276 (95% CI 0.035-2.186) and 0.521 (95% CI 0.149-1.825), respectively. CONCLUSION: Add-on treatment with PGE1 was safe but did not meet the primary endpoint of reducing the rate of red blood cell transfusions in patients on venovenous ECMO. Larger studies need to evaluate the safety and efficacy of additional PGE1 in ECMO. Clinical trial registration available at www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov, ID: NCT02895373.

3.
Eur Respir J ; 2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the number of lung transplantations (LTx) performed worldwide for COVID-19 induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is still low, there is general agreement that this treatment can save a subgroup of most severly ill patients with irreversible lung damage. However, the true proportion of patients eligible for LTx, the overall outcome and the impact of LTx to the pandemic are unknown. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed using a nationwide registry of hospitalised patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-Cov-2) infection admitted between January 1, 2020 and May 30, 2021 in Austria. Patients referred to one of the two Austrian LTx centers were analyzed and grouped into patients accepted and rejected for LTx. Detailed outcome analysis was performed for all patients who received a LTx for post-COVID-19 ARDS and compared to patients who underwent LTx for other indications. RESULTS: Between January 1, 2020 and May 30, 2021, 39.485 patients were hospitalised for COVID-19 in Austria. 2323 required mechanical ventilation, 183 received extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. 106 patients with severe COVID-19 ARDS were referred for LTx. Of these, 19 (18%) underwent LTx. 30-day mortality after LTx was 0% for COVID-19 ARDS transplant recipients. With a median follow-up of 134 (47-450) days, 14/19 patients are alive. CONCLUSIONS: Early referral of ECMO patients to a LTx center is pivotal in order to select patients eligible for LTx. Transplantation offers excellent midterm outcomes and should be incorporated in the treatment algorithm of post-COVID-19 ARDS.

4.
Wien Klin Mag ; 23(4): 168-173, 2020.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709848

ABSTRACT

The pandemic from the SARS-CoV­2 Virus is currently challenging health care systems all over the world. Maintaining appropriate staffing and resources in healthcare facilities is essential to guarantee a safe work environment for healthcare personnel and safe patient care. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) represents a valuable therapeutic option in patients with severe heart or lung failure. Although only a limited proportion of COVID-19 patients develops respiratory or circulatory failure that is refractory to conventional therapies, it is of utmost importance to clearly define criteria for the use of ECMOs in this steadily growing patient population. The ECMO working group of the Medical University of Vienna has established the following recommendations for ECMO support in COVID-19 patients.

6.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(1): 113-122, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324456

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary thrombus formation is a hallmark of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A dysregulated immune response culminating in thromboinflammation has been described, but the pathomechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: We studied 41 adult COVID-19 patients with positive results on reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction assays and 37 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Number and surface characteristics of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and citrullinated histone H3 levels were determined in plasma upon inclusion by flow cytometry and immunoassay. RESULTS: In total, 20 patients had severe and 21 nonsevere disease. The number of EV (median [25th, 75th percentile]) was significantly higher in patients compared with controls (658.8 [353.2, 876.6] vs. 435.5 [332.5, 585.3], geometric mean ratio [95% confidence intervals]: 2.6 [1.9, 3.6]; p < 0.001). Patients exhibited significantly higher numbers of EVs derived from platelets, endothelial cells, leukocytes, or neutrophils than controls. EVs from alveolar-macrophages and alveolar-epithelial cells were detectable in plasma and were significantly higher in patients. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1-positive EV levels were higher in patients, while no difference between tissue factor-positive and angiotensin-converting enzyme-positive EV was seen between both groups. Levels of EV did not differ between patients with severe and nonsevere COVID-19. Citrullinated histone H3 levels (ng/mL, median [25th, 75th percentile]) were higher in patients than in controls (1.42 [0.6, 3.4] vs. 0.31 [0.1, 0.6], geometric mean ratio: 4.44 [2.6, 7.7]; p < 0.001), and were significantly lower in patients with nonsevere disease compared with those with severe disease. CONCLUSION: EV and citrullinated histone H3 are associated with COVID-19 and could provide information regarding pathophysiology of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Extracellular Vesicles/pathology , Histones/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Citrullination , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Female , Histones/chemistry , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , /etiology
7.
Neuroradiology ; 63(10): 1651-1658, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107759

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Over the years, interesting SWI abnormalities in patients from intensive care units (ICU) were observed, not attributable to a specific cause and with uncertain clinical significance. Recently, multiple SWI-hypointense foci were mentioned related to neurological complications of SARS-COV-2 infection. The purpose of the study was to describe the patterns of susceptibility brain changes in critically-ill patients who underwent mechanical ventilation and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). METHODS: An institutional board-approved, retrospective study was conducted on 250 ICU patients in whom brain MRI was performed between January 2011 and May 2020. Out of 48 patients who underwent mechanical ventilation/ECMO, in fifteen patients (median age 47.7 years), the presence of SWI abnormalities was observed and described. RESULTS: Microsusceptibilities were located in white-gray matter interface, in subcortical white matter (U-fibers), and surrounding subcortical nuclei in 13/14 (92,8%) patients. In 8/14 (57,1%) patients, SWI foci were seen infratentorially. The corpus callosum was affected in ten (71,4%), internal capsule in five (35,7%), and midbrain/pons in six (42,8%) patients. CONCLUSION: We showed distinct patterns of diffuse brain SWI susceptibilities in critically-ill patients who underwent mechanical ventilation/ECMO. The etiology of these foci remains uncertain, but the association with mechanical ventilation, prolonged respiratory failure, and hypoxemia seems probable explanations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 132(21-22): 664-670, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005888

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) progresses mildly in most of the cases; however, about 5% of the patients develop a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Of all COVID-19 patients 3% need intensive care treatment, which becomes a great challenge for anesthesiology and intensive care medicine, medically, hygienically and for technical safety requirements. For these reasons, only experienced medical and nursing staff in the smallest grouping possible should be assigned. For these team members, a consistent use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is essential.Due to the immense medical challenges, the following treatment guidelines were developed by the ÖGARI (Österreichische Gesellschaft für Anästhesiologie, Reanimation und Intensivmedizin), FASIM (Federation of Austrian Societies of Intensive Care Medicine) and ÖGIAIN (Österreichische Gesellschaft für Internistische und Allgemeine Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin).The recommendations given in this article are to be understood as short snapshots of the moment; all basic guidelines are works in progress and will be regularly updated as evidence levels, new study results and additional experience are gathered.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Austria , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 132(21-22): 671-676, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996397

ABSTRACT

The pandemic from the SARS-CoV­2 virus is currently challenging healthcare systems all over the world. Maintaining appropriate staffing and resources in healthcare facilities is essential to guarantee a safe working environment for healthcare personnel and safe patient care. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) represents a valuable therapeutic option in patients with severe heart or lung failure. Although only a limited proportion of COVID-19 patients develop respiratory or circulatory failure that is refractory to conventional treatment, it is of utmost importance to clearly define criteria for the use of ECMO in this steadily growing patient population. The ECMO working group of the Medical University of Vienna has established the following recommendations for ECMO support in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 110, 2020 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented healthcare crisis with a high prevalence of psychological distress in healthcare providers. We sought to document the prevalence of burnout syndrome amongst intensivists facing the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey among intensivists part of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Symptoms of severe burnout, anxiety and depression were collected. Factors independently associated with severe burnout were assessed using Cox model. RESULTS: Response rate was 20% (1001 completed questionnaires were returned, 45 years [39-53], 34% women, from 85 countries, 12 regions, 50% university-affiliated hospitals). The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression or severe burnout was 46.5%, 30.2%, and 51%, respectively, and varied significantly across regions. Rating of the relationship between intensivists and other ICU stakeholders differed significantly according to the presence of anxiety, depression, or burnout. Similar figures were reported for their rating of the ethical climate or the quality of the decision-making. Factors independently associated with anxiety were female gender (HR 1.85 [1.33-2.55]), working in a university-affiliated hospital (HR 0.58 [0.42-0.80]), living in a city of > 1 million inhabitants (HR 1.40 [1.01-1.94]), and clinician's rating of the ethical climate (HR 0.83 [0.77-0.90]). Independent determinants of depression included female gender (HR 1.63 [1.15-2.31]) and clinician's rating of the ethical climate (HR 0.84 [0.78-0.92]). Factors independently associated with symptoms of severe burnout included age (HR 0.98/year [0.97-0.99]) and clinician's rating of the ethical climate (HR 0.76 [0.69-0.82]). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an overwhelming psychological impact on intensivists. Follow-up, and management are warranted to assess long-term psychological outcomes and alleviate the psychological burden of the pandemic on frontline personnel.

12.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 486, 2020 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is little evidence to support the management of severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: To document this variation in practices, we performed an online survey (April 30-May 25, 2020) on behalf of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM). A case vignette was sent to ESICM members. Questions investigated practices for a previously healthy 39-year-old patient presenting with severe hypoxemia from COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: A total of 1132 ICU specialists (response rate 20%) from 85 countries (12 regions) responded to the survey. The survey provides information on the heterogeneity in patient's management, more particularly regarding the timing of ICU admission, the first line oxygenation strategy, optimization of management, and ventilatory settings in case of refractory hypoxemia. Practices related to antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory therapies are also investigated. CONCLUSIONS: There are important practice variations in the management of severe COVID-19 patients, including differences at regional and individual levels. Large outcome studies based on multinational registries are warranted.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care , Internationality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19 , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index
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