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1.
Journal of Anesthesia, Analgesia and Critical Care ; 2(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999514

ABSTRACT

Background COVID‑19 is a novel cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that leads patients to intensive care unit (ICU) admission requiring invasive ventilation, who consequently are at risk of developing of ventilator‑associated pneumonia (VAP). The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, antimicrobial resistance, risk factors, and outcome of VAP in ICU COVID-19 patients in invasive mechanical ventilation (MV). Methods Observational prospective study including adult ICU admissions between January 1, 2021, and June 31, 2021, with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis were recorded daily, including demographics, medical history, ICU clinical data, etiology of VAPs, and the outcome. The diagnosis of VAP was based on multi-criteria decision analysis which included a combination of radiological, clinical, and microbiological criteria in ICU patients in MV for at least 48 h. Results Two hundred eighty-four COVID-19 patients in MV were admitted in ICU. Ninety-four patients (33%) had VAP during the ICU stay, of which 85 had a single episode of VAP and 9 multiple episodes. The median time of onset of VAP from intubation were 8 days (IQR, 5–13). The overall incidence of VAP was of 13.48 episodes per 1000 days in MV. The main etiological agent was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (39.8% of all VAPs) followed by Klebsiella spp. (16.5%);of them, 41.4% and 17.6% were carbapenem resistant, respectively. Patients during the mechanical ventilation in orotracheal intubation (OTI) had a higher incidence than those in tracheostomy, 16.46 and 9.8 episodes per 1000-MV day, respectively. An increased risk of VAP was reported in patients receiving blood transfusion (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.26–3.59, p = 0.005) or therapy with Tocilizumab/Sarilumab (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.12–3.84, p = 0.02). The pronation and PaO2/FiO2 ratio at ICU admission were not significantly associated with the development of VAPs. Furthermore, VAP episodes did not increase the risk of death in ICU COVID-19 patients. Conclusions COVID-19 patients have a higher incidence of VAP compared to the general ICU population, but it is similar to that of ICU ARDS patients in the pre-COVID-19 period. Interleukin-6 inhibitors and blood transfusions may increase the risk of VAP. The widespread use of empirical antibiotics in these patients should be avoided to reduce the selecting pressure on the growth of multidrug-resistant bacteria by implementing infection control measures and antimicrobial stewardship programs even before ICU admission. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s44158-022-00065-4.

2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(8)2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987888

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel cause of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is widely used in patients with ARDS across several etiologies. Indeed, with the increase of ARDS cases due to the COVID-19 pandemic, its use has grown significantly in hospital wards. However, there is a lack of evidence to support the efficacy of NIV in patients with COVID-19 ARDS. Materials and Methods: We conducted an observational cohort study including adult ARDS COVID-19 patients admitted in a third level COVID-center in Rome, Italy. The study analyzed the rate of NIV failure defined by the occurrence of orotracheal intubation and/or death within 28 days from starting NIV, its effectiveness, and the associated relative risk of death. The factors associated with the outcomes were identified through logistic regression analysis. Results: During the study period, a total of 942 COVID-19 patients were admitted to our hospital, of which 307 (32.5%) presented with ARDS at hospitalization. During hospitalization 224 (23.8%) were treated with NIV. NIV failure occurred in 84 (37.5%) patients. At 28 days from starting NIV, moderate and severe ARDS had five-fold and twenty-fold independent increased risk of NIV failure (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 5.01, 95% CI 2.08-12.09, and 19.95, 95% CI 5.31-74.94), respectively, compared to patients with mild ARDS. A total of 128 patients (13.5%) were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). At 28-day from ICU admission, intubated COVID-19 patients treated with early NIV had 40% lower mortality (aOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.25-1.46, p = 0.010) compared with patients that underwent orotracheal intubation without prior NIV. Conclusions: These findings show that NIV failure was independently correlated with the severity category of COVID-19 ARDS. The start of NIV in COVID-19 patients with mild ARDS (P/F > 200 mmHg) appears to increase NIV effectiveness and reduce the risk of orotracheal intubation and/or death. Moreover, early NIV (P/F > 200 mmHg) treatment seems to reduce the risk of ICU mortality at 28 days from ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology
3.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(10): 2683-2687, 2022 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir is the first antiviral drug against SARS-CoV-2 approved for use in COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVES: To study the pharmacokinetic inter-individual variability of remdesivir and its main metabolite GS-441524 in a real-world setting of COVID-19 inpatients and to identify possible associations with different demographic/biochemical variables. METHODS: Inpatients affected by SARS-CoV-2 infections, undergoing standard-dose remdesivir treatment, were prospectively enrolled. Blood samples were collected on day 4, immediately after (C0) and at 1 h (C1) and 24 h (C24) after infusion. Remdesivir and GS-441524 concentrations were measured using a validated UHPLC-MS/MS method and the AUC0-24 was calculated. At baseline, COVID-19 severity (ICU or no ICU), sex, age, BMI and renal and liver functions were assessed. Transaminases and estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) were also evaluated during treatment. Linear regression, logistic regression and multiple linear regression tests were used for statistical comparisons of pharmacokinetic parameters and variables. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients were included. The mean (CV%) values of remdesivir were: C0 2091 (99.1%) ng/mL, C1 139.7 (272.4%) ng/mL and AUC0-24 2791 (175.7%) ng·h/mL. The mean (CV%) values of GS-441524 were: C0 90.2 (49.5%) ng/mL, C1 104.9 (46.6%) ng/mL, C24 58.4 (66.9) ng/mL and AUC0-24 1976 (52.6%) ng·h/mL. The multiple regression analysis showed that age (P < 0.05) and e-GFR (P < 0.01) were independent predictors of GS-441524 plasma exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed a high interpatient variability of remdesivir and GS-441524 likely due to both age and renal function in COVID-19 inpatients. Further research is required to understand whether the pharmacokinetics of remdesivir and its metabolites may influence drug-related efficacy or toxic effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pyrroles , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Transaminases , Triazines
4.
J Clin Med ; 11(9)2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820313

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Although COVID-19 is largely a respiratory disease, it is actually a systemic disease that has a wide range of effects that are not yet fully known. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, predictors and outcome of non-hepatic hyperammonemia (NHH) in COVID-19 in intensive care unit (ICU); (2) Methods: This is a 3-month prospective observational study in a third-level COVID-19 hospital. The authors collected demographic, clinical, severity score and outcome data. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of NHH; (3) Results: 156 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the ICU. The incidence of NHH was 12.2% (19 patients). The univariate analysis showed that invasive mechanical ventilation had a 6.6-fold higher risk (OR 6.66, 95% CI 0.86-51.6, p = 0.039) for NHH, while in the multiple regression analysis, there was a 7-fold higher risk for NHH-but it was not statistically significant (OR 7.1, 95% CI 0.90-56.4, p = 0.062). Demographics, clinical characteristics and mortality in the ICU at 28 days did not show a significant association with NHH. (4) Conclusions: The incidence of NHH in ICU COVID-19 patients was not low. NHH did not appear to significantly increase mortality, and all patients with non-hepatic hyperammonemia were successfully treated without further complications. However, the pathogenesis of NHH in ICU patients with COVID-19 remains a topic to be explored with further research.

6.
J Clin Med ; 10(23)2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566682

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: COVID-19 is a novel cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Indeed, with the increase of ARDS cases due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there has also been an increase in the incidence of cases with pneumothorax (PNX) and pneumomediastinum (PNM). However, the incidence and the predictors of PNX/PMN in these patients are currently unclear and even conflicting. (2) Methods: The present observational study analyzed the incidence of barotrauma (PNX/PNM) in COVID-19 patients with moderate-severe ARDS hospitalized in a year of the pandemic, also focusing on the three waves occurring during the year, and treated with positive-pressure ventilation (PPV). We collected demographic and clinical data. (3) Results: During this period, 40 patients developed PNX/PNM. The overall incidence of barotrauma in all COVID-19 patients hospitalized in a year was 1.6%, and in those with moderate-severe ARDS in PPV was 7.2% and 3.8 events per 1000 positive-pressure ventilator days. The incidence of barotrauma in moderate-severe ARDS COVID-19 patients during the three waves was 7.8%, 7.4%, and 8.7%, respectively. Treatment with noninvasive respiratory support alone was associated with an incidence of barotrauma of 9.1% and 2.6 events per 1000 noninvasive ventilator days, of which 95% were admitted to the ICU after the event, due to a worsening of respiratory parameters. The incidence of barotrauma of ICU COVID-19 patients in invasive ventilation over a year was 5.8% and 2.7 events per 1000 invasive ventilator days. There was no significant difference in demographics and clinical features between the barotrauma and non-barotrauma group. The mortality was higher in the barotrauma group (17 patients died, 47.2%) than in the non-barotrauma group (170 patients died, 37%), although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.429). (4) Conclusions: The incidence of PNX/PNM in moderate-severe ARDS COVID-19 patients did not differ significantly between the three waves over a year, and does not appear to be very different from that in ARDS patients in the pre-COVID era. The barotrauma does not appear to significantly increase mortality in COVID-19 patients with moderate-severe ARDS if protective ventilation strategies are applied. Attention should be paid to the risk of barotrauma in COVID-19 patients in noninvasive ventilation because the event increases the probability of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and intubation.

7.
J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The benefits and timing of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) COVID-19 patients are still controversial. PDT is considered a high-risk procedure for the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to healthcare workers (HCWs). The present study analyzed the optimal timing of PDT, the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing PDT, and the safety of HCWs performing PDT. METHODS: Of the 133 COVID-19 patients who underwent PDT in our ICU from 1 April 2020 to 31 March 2021, 13 patients were excluded, and 120 patients were enrolled. A trained medical team was dedicated to the PDT procedure. Demographic, clinical history, and outcome data were collected. Patients who underwent PDT were stratified into two groups: an early group (PDT ≤ 12 days after orotracheal intubation (OTI) and a late group (>12 days after OTI). An HCW surveillance program was also performed. RESULTS: The early group included 61 patients and the late group included 59 patients. The early group patients had a shorter ICU length of stay and fewer days of mechanical ventilation than the late group (p < 0.001). On day 7 after tracheostomy, early group patients required fewer intravenous anesthetic drugs and experienced an improvement of the ventilation parameters PaO2/FiO2 ratio, PEEP, and FiO2 (p < 0.001). No difference in the case fatality ratio between the two groups was observed. No SARS-CoV-2 infections were reported in the HCWs performing the PDTs. CONCLUSIONS: PDT was safe and effective for COVID-19 patients since it improved respiratory support parameters, reduced ICU length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation, and optimized the weaning process. The procedure was safe for all HCWs involved in the dedicated medical team. The development of standardized early PDT protocols should be implemented, and PDT could be considered a first-line approach in ICU COVID-19 patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation.

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