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1.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(13-14): 908-910, 2021 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493269

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 continues to challenge health-care systems and ICUs around the globe more than one year into the pandemic and in spite of all advances in diagnosis and treatment of the disease caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2. Many open questions remain concerning optimal medical therapy, respiratory management and resource allocation, particuly in times of limited available health care personell. In the following short article, we summarized current knowlegde on management of COVID-19 in the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Humans , Intensive Care Units/standards , Intensive Care Units/trends
2.
Anaesthesist ; 70(7): 573-581, 2021 07.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a pandemic situation the overall mortality rate is of considerable interest; however, these data must always be seen in relation to the given healthcare system and the availability of local level of care. A recently published German data evaluation of more than 10,000 COVID-19 patients treated in 920 hospitals showed a high mortality rate of 22% in hospitalized patients and of more than 50% in patients requiring invasive ventilation. Because of the high infection rates in Bavaria, a large number of COVID-19 patients with considerable severity of disease were treated at the intensive care units of the LMU hospital. The LMU hospital is a university hospital and a specialized referral center for the treatment of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). OBJECTIVE: Data of LMU intensive care unit (ICU) patients were systematically evaluated and compared with the recently published German data. METHODS: Data of all COVID-19 patients with invasive and noninvasive ventilation and with completed admission at the ICU of the LMU hospital until 31 July 2020 were collected. Data were processed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: In total 70 critically ill patients were included in the data evaluation. The median SAPS II on admission to the ICU was 62 points. The median age was 66 years and 81% of the patients were male. More than 90% were diagnosed with ARDS and received invasive ventilation. Treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was necessary in 10% of the patients. The median duration of ventilation was 16 days, whereby 34.3% of patients required a tracheostomy. Of the patients 27.1% were transferred to the LMU hospital from external hospitals with reference to our ARDS/ECMO program. Patients from external hospitals had ARDS of higher severity than the total study population. In total, nine different substances were used for virus-specific treatment of COVID-19. The most frequently used substances were hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. Immunomodulatory treatment, such as Cytosorb® (18.6%) and methylprednisolone (25.7%) were also frequently used. The overall in-hospital mortality rate of ICU patients requiring ventilation was 28.6%. The mortality rates of patients from external hospitals, patients with renal replacement therapy and patients with ECMO therapy were 47.4%, 56.7% and 85.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The mortality rate in the ventilated COVID-19 intensive care patients was considerably different from the general rate in Germany. The data showed that treatment in an ARDS referral center could result in a lower mortality rate. Low-dose administration of steroids may be another factor to improve patient outcome in a preselected patient population. In the authors' opinion, critically ill COVID-19 patients should be treated in an ARDS center provided that sufficient resources are available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Germany , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, University , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Transfer , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
3.
Hemasphere ; 5(7): e603, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301392

ABSTRACT

The clinical and immunological impact of B-cell depletion in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear. We conducted a prospectively planned analysis of COVID-19 in patients who received B-cell depleting anti-CD20 antibodies and chemotherapy for B-cell lymphomas. The control cohort consisted of age- and sex-matched patients without lymphoma who were hospitalized because of COVID-19. We performed detailed clinical analyses, in-depth cellular and molecular immune profiling, and comprehensive virological studies in 12 patients with available biospecimens. B-cell depleted lymphoma patients had more severe and protracted clinical course (median hospitalization 88 versus 17 d). All patients actively receiving immunochemotherapy (n = 5) required ICU support including long-term mechanical ventilation. Neutrophil recovery following granulocyte colony stimulating factor stimulation coincided with hyperinflammation and clinical deterioration in 4 of the 5 patients. Immune cell profiling and gene expression analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed early activation of monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, and the complement system in B-cell depleted lymphoma patients, with subsequent exacerbation of the inflammatory response and dysfunctional interferon signaling at the time of clinical deterioration of COVID-19. Longitudinal immune cell profiling and functional in vitro assays showed SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T-effector cell responses. Finally, we observed long-term detection of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory specimens (median 84 versus 12 d) and an inability to mount lasting SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in B-cell depleted lymphoma patients. In summary, we identified clinically relevant particularities of COVID-19 in lymphoma patients receiving B-cell depleting immunochemotherapies.

4.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 178, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286811

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Point-of-care lung ultrasound (LU) is an established tool in the first assessment of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of lung ultrasound in COVID-19 intensive care unit (ICU) patients in predicting clinical course and outcome. METHODS: We analyzed lung ultrasound score (LUS) of all COVID-19 patients admitted from March 2020 to December 2020 to the Internal Intensive Care Unit, Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) of Munich. LU was performed according to a standardized protocol at ICU admission and in case of clinical deterioration with the need for intubation. A normal lung scores 0 points, the worst LUS has 24 points. Patients were stratified in a low (0-12 points) and a high (13-24 points) lung ultrasound score group. RESULTS: The study included 42 patients, 69% of them male. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (81%) and obesity (57%). The values of pH (7.42 ± 0.09 vs 7.35 ± 0.1; p = 0.047) and paO2 (107 [80-130] vs 80 [66-93] mmHg; p = 0.034) were significantly reduced in patients of the high LUS group. Furthermore, the duration of ventilation (12.5 [8.3-25] vs 36.5 [9.8-70] days; p = 0.029) was significantly prolonged in this group. Patchy subpleural thickening (n = 38; 90.5%) and subpleural consolidations (n = 23; 54.8%) were present in most patients. Pleural effusion was rare (n = 4; 9.5%). The median total LUS was 11.9 ± 3.9 points. In case of clinical deterioration with the need for intubation, LUS worsened significantly compared to baseline LU. Twelve patients died during the ICU stay (29%). There was no difference in survival in both LUS groups (75% vs 66.7%, p = 0.559). CONCLUSIONS: LU can be a useful monitoring tool to predict clinical course but not outcome of COVID-19 ICU patients and can early recognize possible deteriorations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/methods , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography/methods , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Testing , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
6.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121711

ABSTRACT

The role of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (V-V ECMO) in severe COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is still under debate and conclusive data from large cohorts are scarce. Furthermore, criteria for the selection of patients that benefit most from this highly invasive and resource-demanding therapy are yet to be defined. In this study, we assess survival in an international multicenter cohort of COVID-19 patients treated with V-V ECMO and evaluate the performance of several clinical scores to predict 30-day survival. METHODS: This is an investigator-initiated retrospective non-interventional international multicenter registry study (NCT04405973, first registered 28 May 2020). In 127 patients treated with V-V ECMO at 15 centers in Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Belgium, and the United States, we calculated the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) Score, Respiratory Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Survival Prediction (RESP) Score, Predicting Death for Severe ARDS on V­V ECMO (PRESERVE) Score, and 30-day survival. RESULTS: In our study cohort which enrolled 127 patients, overall 30-day survival was 54%. Median SOFA, SAPS II, APACHE II, RESP, and PRESERVE were 9, 36, 17, 1, and 4, respectively. The prognostic accuracy for all these scores (area under the receiver operating characteristic-AUROC) ranged between 0.548 and 0.605. CONCLUSIONS: The use of scores for the prediction of mortality cannot be recommended for treatment decisions in severe COVID-19 ARDS undergoing V-V ECMO; nevertheless, scoring results below or above a specific cut-off value may be considered as an additional tool in the evaluation of prognosis. Survival rates in this cohort of COVID-19 patients treated with V­V ECMO were slightly lower than those reported in non-COVID-19 ARDS patients treated with V-V ECMO.

7.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(15): 1057-1062, 2020 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691155

ABSTRACT

Approx. 93 % of COVID-19 infections are mild, and not all severely ill patients are transferred to the intensive care unit. But the Corona crisis implies high demands on intensive care medicine. Many treatment modalities of COVID patients are "best practice", but some aspects remain unclear at present. This article deals with diagnostics, monitoring and therapy with COVID-19 patients in intensive care units and with a suitable hygiene concepts.A hygiene concept is obligatory and must ensure - in addition to general measures - the training of employees and the hygienic discharge of material. Ideally, a cohort isolation is implemented.Monitoring of patients with COVID-19 is not different from other intensive care patients and should be adapted to the clinical situation of the individual patient. In laboratory analysis the typical abnormality of COVID-19 patients should be taken into account. In case of increasing inflammatory parameters, fungal infections should be tested.Due to the formation of aerosols, disconnection of the respiratory system must be avoided in invasive ventilation. If a disconnection from the respirator is necessary, the tube should be disconnected. After extubation, an intermittent NIV treatment for atelectase prophylaxis can be performed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Critical Care , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Personnel , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
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