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1.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord ; 15: 17562864221099472, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868990

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with increased thrombosis prevalence. However, there are insufficient data supporting the appropriate anticoagulation dose in COVID-19. Objective: We aim to systematically assess the currently available data regarding the effects of different dosing regimens of low molecular weight heparin and/or fondaparinux (LMWH/F) on mortality risk as well as the risk of arterial/venous thrombotic events and hemorrhagic complications in confirmed COVID-19 cases. Design: We conducted a living systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of different LMWH/F doses on mortality, thrombotic and hemorrhagic events in COVID-19 patients. Data Sources and Methods: MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cochrane COVID-19 study register, European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched to detect observational cohort studies and randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) comparing difference doses of LMWH/F among confirmed COVID-19 cases. Results: Thirty-one eligible studies (6 RCTs and 25 cohort studies) with 11,430 hospitalized patients were included. No association was found between LMWH/F and mortality during the following comparisons: (1) no LMWH/F versus any LMWH/F; (2) prophylactic versus higher than prophylactic LMWH/F; (3) prophylactic versus therapeutic LMWH/F; (4) intermediate versus therapeutic LMWH/F; and (5) lower than therapeutic versus therapeutic LMWH/F. Mortality was higher in patients receiving prophylactic versus intermediate LMWH/F (OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.19-3.39). However, this effect was mostly driven by observational data. No associations were detected between the intensity of LMWH/F and the risk of thrombotic and hemorrhagic events, except the lower risk for hemorrhage in patients on prophylactic compared to higher LMWH/F doses. Conclusion: The risk for all-cause mortality was higher in patients receiving prophylactic LMWH/F compared to those on an intermediate dose of LMWH/F, based on observational data. These results should be interpreted in light of the moderate quality and heterogeneity of the included studies. Registration: The study protocol has been registered in the International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews PROSPERO (Registration number: CRD42021229771).

4.
J Neurol ; 269(7): 3413-3419, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782801

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has been reported as a rare adverse event in association with thrombosis-thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) following COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS:  We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of investigator-initiated registries including confirmed CVST cases, with the aim to calculate (1) the odds ratio of TTS-CVST versus non-TTS-CVST after vector-based vaccines and (2) after non-vector-based vaccines, (3) the in-hospital mortality ratio of TTS-CVST compared to non-TTS-CVST; and (4) the dependency or death at discharge among TTS-CVST compared to non-TTS-CVST cases. RESULTS: Two eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis, comprising a total of 211 patients with CVST associated with COVID-19 vaccination. Vector-based COVID-19 vaccination was associated with a higher likelihood of TTS-associated CVST than with non-TTS-CVST (OR: 52.34, 95% CI 9.58-285.98). TTS-CVST was also associated with higher likelihood of in-hospital mortality (OR: 13.29; 95% CI 3.96-44.60) and death or dependency at discharge compared to non-TTS-CVST (OR: 6.70; 95% CI 3.15-14.26). TTS-CVST was recorded with a shorter interval between vaccination and symptom onset [Mean Difference (MD):-6.54 days; 95% CI - 12.64 to - 0.45], affecting younger patients (MD:-9.00 years; 95% CI - 14.02 to - 3.99) without risk factors for thromboses (OR:2.34; 95% CI 1.26-4.33), and was complicated more frequently with intracerebral hemorrhage (OR:3.60; 95% CI 1.31-9.87) and concomitant thromboses in other sites (OR:11.85; 95% CI 3.51-39.98) compared to non-TTS-CVST cases. CONCLUSIONS: TTS-CVST following COVID-19 vaccination has distinct risk factor profile, clinical phenotype and prognosis compared to non-TTS-CVST. Further epidemiological data are required to evaluate the impact of different treatment strategies on outcome of TTS-CVST cases following COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Risk Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
5.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(5): 363, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780105

ABSTRACT

There is accumulating evidence in the literature indicating that a number of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may experience a range of neuropsychiatric symptoms, persisting or even presenting following the resolution of acute COVID-19. Among the neuropsychiatric manifestations more frequently associated with 'long COVID' are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep disturbances, fatigue and cognitive deficits, that can potentially be debilitating and negatively affect patients' wellbeing, albeit in the majority of cases symptoms tend to improve over time. Despite variations in results obtained from studies using different methodological approaches to define 'long COVID' syndrome, the most widely accepted factors associated with a higher risk of developing neuropsychiatric manifestations include the severity of foregoing COVID-19, the female sex, the presence of comorbidities, a history of mental health disease and an elevation in the levels of inflammatory markers, albeit further research is required to establish causal associations. To date, the pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in neuropsychiatric manifestations of 'long COVID' remain only partially elucidated, while the role of the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as social isolation and uncertainty concerning social, financial and health recovery post-COVID, have also been highlighted. Given the alarming effects of 'long-COVID', interdisciplinary cooperation for the early identification of patients who are at a high risk of persistent neuropsychiatric presentations, beyond COVID-19 recovery, is crucial to ensure that appropriate integrated physical and mental health support is provided, with the aim of mitigating the risks of long-term disability at a societal and individual level.

6.
Ther Adv Chronic Dis ; 13: 20406223221076890, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779561

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence points toward a very high prevalence of prolonged neurological symptoms among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors. To date, there are no solidified criteria for 'long-COVID' diagnosis. Nevertheless, 'long-COVID' is conceptualized as a multi-organ disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that may be indicative of underlying pulmonary, cardiovascular, endocrine, hematologic, renal, gastrointestinal, dermatologic, immunological, psychiatric, or neurological disease. Involvement of the central or peripheral nervous system is noted in more than one-third of patients with antecedent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, while an approximately threefold higher incidence of neurological symptoms is recorded in observational studies including patient-reported data. The most frequent neurological manifestations of 'long-COVID' encompass fatigue; 'brain fog'; headache; cognitive impairment; sleep, mood, smell, or taste disorders; myalgias; sensorimotor deficits; and dysautonomia. Although very limited evidence exists to date on the pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the manifestation of 'long-COVID', neuroinflammatory and oxidative stress processes are thought to prevail in propagating neurological 'long-COVID' sequelae. In this narrative review, we sought to present a comprehensive overview of our current understanding of clinical features, risk factors, and pathophysiological processes of neurological 'long-COVID' sequelae. Moreover, we propose diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms that may aid in the prompt recognition and management of underlying causes of neurological symptoms that persist beyond the resolution of acute COVID-19. Furthermore, as causal treatments for 'long-COVID' are currently unavailable, we propose therapeutic approaches for symptom-oriented management of neurological 'long-COVID' symptoms. In addition, we emphasize that collaborative research initiatives are urgently needed to expedite the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies for neurological 'long-COVID' sequelae.

7.
Neurol Res Pract ; 4(1): 6, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775381

ABSTRACT

This correspondence comments on a published article presenting a case of rhombencephalitis following SARS-CoV-2-vaccination with the mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech). We also present the case of a 47-year-old man who developed Guillain-Barré-syndrome and a fulminant encephalomyelitis 28 days after immunization with Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson). Based on the presented cases, we underscore the importance of clinical awareness for early recognition of overlapping neuroimmunological syndromes following vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, we propose that that role of autoantibodies against angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the cell-surface receptor neuropilin-1, which mediate neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2, merit further investigation in patients presenting with neurological disorders following vaccination against SARS-CoV-2.

8.
Neurology ; 97(21): e2136-e2147, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is accumulating evidence supporting an association between the thrombosis and thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) and adenovirus vector-based vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Yet TTS and TTS-associated cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) remain poorly characterized. We aim to systematically evaluate the proportion of CVST among TTS cases and assess its characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials, cohorts, case series, and registry-based studies with the aim to assess (1) the pooled mortality rate of CVST, TTS-associated CVST, and TTS and (2) the pooled proportion of patients with CVST among patients with any thrombotic event and TTS. Secondary outcomes comprised clinical characteristics of patients with postvaccination thrombotic event. This meta-analysis is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and was written according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology proposal. RESULTS: Sixty-nine studies were included in the qualitative analysis comprising 370 patients with CVST out of 4,182 patients with any thrombotic event associated with SARS-CoV-2 vector-based vaccine administration. Twenty-three studies were included further in quantitative meta-analysis. Among TTS cases, the pooled proportion of CVST was 51% (95% confidence interval [CI] 36%-66%; I 2 = 61%). TTS was independently associated with a higher likelihood of CVST when compared to patients without TTS with thrombotic events after vaccination (odds ratio 13.8; 95% CI 2.0-97.3; I 2 = 78%). The pooled mortality rates of TTS and TTS-associated CVST were 28% (95% CI 21%-36%) and 38% (95% CI 27%-49%), respectively. Thrombotic complications developed within 2 weeks of exposure to vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines (mean interval 10 days; 95% CI 8-12) and affected predominantly women (69%; 95% CI 60%-77%) under age 45, even in the absence of prothrombotic risk factors. DISCUSSION: Approximately half of patients with TTS present with CVST; almost one-third of patients with TTS do not survive. Further research is required to identify independent predictors of TTS following adenovirus vector-based vaccination. REGISTRATION INFORMATION: The prespecified study protocol has been registered in the International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews PROSPERO (CRD42021250709).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology
9.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(1): 107, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580300

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been widespread concern that social isolation, financial stress, depression, limited or variable access to health care services and other pandemic-related stressors may contribute to an increase in suicidal behaviors. In patients who have recovered from COVID-19, an increased risk of developing suicidal behaviors may be noted, while post-COVID syndrome comprises another potential risk factor contributing to increased suicidal behaviors. Despite the initial alarming predictions for an increase in suicide rates due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the majority of published studies to date suggest that experienced difficulties and distress do not inevitably translate into an increased number of suicide-related deaths, at least not in the short-term. Nevertheless, the long-term mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have yet to be unfolded and are likely to remain for a long period of time. Suicide prevention and measures aiming at promoting well-being and mitigating the effects of COVID-19 on mental health, particularly among vulnerable groups, should thus be a priority for healthcare professionals and policymakers amidst the evolving COVID-19 pandemic.

10.
Neurology ; 97(21): e2136-e2147, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is accumulating evidence supporting an association between the thrombosis and thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) and adenovirus vector-based vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Yet TTS and TTS-associated cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) remain poorly characterized. We aim to systematically evaluate the proportion of CVST among TTS cases and assess its characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials, cohorts, case series, and registry-based studies with the aim to assess (1) the pooled mortality rate of CVST, TTS-associated CVST, and TTS and (2) the pooled proportion of patients with CVST among patients with any thrombotic event and TTS. Secondary outcomes comprised clinical characteristics of patients with postvaccination thrombotic event. This meta-analysis is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and was written according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology proposal. RESULTS: Sixty-nine studies were included in the qualitative analysis comprising 370 patients with CVST out of 4,182 patients with any thrombotic event associated with SARS-CoV-2 vector-based vaccine administration. Twenty-three studies were included further in quantitative meta-analysis. Among TTS cases, the pooled proportion of CVST was 51% (95% confidence interval [CI] 36%-66%; I 2 = 61%). TTS was independently associated with a higher likelihood of CVST when compared to patients without TTS with thrombotic events after vaccination (odds ratio 13.8; 95% CI 2.0-97.3; I 2 = 78%). The pooled mortality rates of TTS and TTS-associated CVST were 28% (95% CI 21%-36%) and 38% (95% CI 27%-49%), respectively. Thrombotic complications developed within 2 weeks of exposure to vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines (mean interval 10 days; 95% CI 8-12) and affected predominantly women (69%; 95% CI 60%-77%) under age 45, even in the absence of prothrombotic risk factors. DISCUSSION: Approximately half of patients with TTS present with CVST; almost one-third of patients with TTS do not survive. Further research is required to identify independent predictors of TTS following adenovirus vector-based vaccination. REGISTRATION INFORMATION: The prespecified study protocol has been registered in the International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews PROSPERO (CRD42021250709).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology
11.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3517-3529, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mounting evidence supports an association between Guillain-Barré syndrome spectrum (GBSs) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, GBSs in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains poorly characterized, whilst GBSs prevalence amongst COVID-19 patients has not been previously systematically evaluated using a meta-analytical approach. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational cohort and case series studies reporting on the occurrence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19-associated GBSs was performed. A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled estimates and odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), compared to non-COVID-19, contemporary or historical GBSs patients. RESULTS: Eighteen eligible studies (11 cohorts, seven case series) were identified including a total of 136,746 COVID-19 patients. Amongst COVID-19 patients, including hospitalized and non-hospitalized cases, the pooled GBSs prevalence was 0.15‰ (95% CI 0%-0.49‰; I2  = 96%). Compared with non-infected contemporary or historical controls, patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection had increased odds for demyelinating GBSs subtypes (OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.32%-8.09%; I2  = 0%). In SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, olfactory or concomitant cranial nerve involvement was noted in 41.4% (95% CI 3.5%-60.4%; I2  = 46%) and 42.8% (95% CI 32.8%-53%; I2  = 0%) of the patients, respectively. Clinical outcomes including in-hospital mortality were comparable between COVID-19 GBSs patients and non-infected contemporary or historical GBSs controls. CONCLUSION: GBSs prevalence was estimated at 15 cases per 100,000 SARS-CoV-2 infections. COVID-19 appears to be associated with an increased likelihood of GBSs and with demyelinating GBSs variants in particular.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7169, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160544

ABSTRACT

In current international classification systems (ICD-10, DSM5), the diagnostic criteria for psychotic disorders (e.g. schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder) are based on symptomatic descriptions since no unambiguous biomarkers are known to date. However, when underlying causes of psychotic symptoms, like inflammation, ischemia, or tumor affecting the neural tissue can be identified, a different classification is used ("psychotic disorder with delusions due to known physiological condition" (ICD-10: F06.2) or psychosis caused by medical factors (DSM5)). While CSF analysis still is considered optional in current diagnostic guidelines for psychotic disorders, CSF biomarkers could help to identify known physiological conditions. In this retrospective, partly descriptive analysis of 144 patients with psychotic symptoms and available CSF data, we analyzed CSF examinations' significance to differentiate patients with specific etiological factors (F06.2) from patients with schizophrenia, schizotypal, delusional, and other non-mood psychotic disorders (F2). In 40.3% of all patients, at least one CSF parameter was out of the reference range. Abnormal CSF-findings were found significantly more often in patients diagnosed with F06.2 (88.2%) as compared to patients diagnosed with F2 (23.8%, p < 0.00001). A total of 17 cases were identified as probably caused by specific etiological factors (F06.2), of which ten cases fulfilled the criteria for a probable autoimmune psychosis linked to the following autoantibodies: amphiphysin, CASPR2, CV2, LGl1, NMDA, zic4, and titin. Two cases presented with anti-thyroid tissue autoantibodies. In four cases, further probable causal factors were identified: COVID-19, a frontal intracranial tumor, multiple sclerosis (n = 2), and neurosyphilis. Twenty-one cases remained with "no reliable diagnostic classification". Age at onset of psychotic symptoms differed between patients diagnosed with F2 and F06.2 (p = 0.014), with the latter group being older (median: 44 vs. 28 years). Various CSF parameters were analyzed in an exploratory analysis, identifying pleocytosis and oligoclonal bands (OCBs) as discriminators (F06.2 vs. F2) with a high specificity of > 96% each. No group differences were found for gender, characteristics of psychotic symptoms, substance dependency, or family history. This study emphasizes the great importance of a detailed diagnostic workup in diagnosing psychotic disorders, including CSF analysis, to detect possible underlying pathologies and improve treatment decisions.


Subject(s)
Psychotic Disorders/cerebrospinal fluid , Adolescent , Adult , Age of Onset , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/cerebrospinal fluid , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/psychology , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins/analysis , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Middle Aged , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , Psychotic Disorders/psychology , Retrospective Studies , Schizophrenia/cerebrospinal fluid , Young Adult
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