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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e3055-e3065, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High infection rates among healthcare personnel in an uncontained pandemic can paralyze health systems due to staff shortages. Risk constellations and rates of seroconversion for healthcare workers (HCWs) during the first wave of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic are still largely unclear. METHODS: Healthcare personnel (n = 300) on different organizational units in the LMU Munich University Hospital were included and followed in this prospective longitudinal study from 24 March until 7 July 2020. Participants were monitored in intervals of 2 to 6 weeks using different antibody assays for serological testing and questionnaires to evaluate risk contacts. In a subgroup of infected participants, we obtained nasopharyngeal swabs to perform whole-genome sequencing for outbreak characterization. RESULTS: HCWs involved in patient care on dedicated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) wards or on regular non-COVID-19 wards showed a higher rate of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion than staff in the emergency department and non-frontline personnel. The landscape of risk contacts in these units was dynamic, with a decrease in unprotected risk contacts in the emergency department and an increase on non-COVID-19 wards. Both intensity and number of risk contacts were associated with higher rates of seroconversion. On regular wards, staff infections tended to occur in clusters, while infections on COVID-19 wards were less frequent and apparently independent of each other. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection for frontline HCWs was increased during the first pandemic wave in southern Germany. Stringent measures for infection control are essential to protect all patient-facing staff during the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Germany/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Hospitals, University , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
2.
Infection ; 50(2): 381-394, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351389

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in healthcare workers (HCWs), characterize symptoms, and evaluate preventive measures against SARS-CoV-2 spread in hospitals. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study conducted between May 27 and August 12, 2020, after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, we obtained serological, epidemiological, occupational as well as COVID-19-related data at a quaternary care, multicenter hospital in Munich, Germany. RESULTS: 7554 HCWs participated, 2.2% of whom tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Multivariate analysis revealed increased COVID-19 risk for nurses (3.1% seropositivity, 95% CI 2.5-3.9%, p = 0.012), staff working on COVID-19 units (4.6% seropositivity, 95% CI 3.2-6.5%, p = 0.032), males (2.4% seropositivity, 95% CI 1.8-3.2%, p = 0.019), and HCWs reporting high-risk exposures to infected patients (5.5% seropositivity, 95% CI 4.0-7.5%, p = 0.0022) or outside of work (12.0% seropositivity, 95% CI 8.0-17.4%, p < 0.0001). Smoking was a protective factor (1.1% seropositivity, 95% CI 0.7-1.8% p = 0.00018) and the symptom taste disorder was strongly associated with COVID-19 (29.8% seropositivity, 95% CI 24.3-35.8%, p < 0.0001). An unbiased decision tree identified subgroups with different risk profiles. Working from home as a preventive measure did not protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection. A PCR-testing strategy focused on symptoms and high-risk exposures detected all larger COVID-19 outbreaks. CONCLUSION: Awareness of the identified COVID-19 risk factors and successful surveillance strategies are key to protecting HCWs against SARS-CoV-2, especially in settings with limited vaccination capacities or reduced vaccine efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 242, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259199

ABSTRACT

To investigate the COVID-19 pandemic related alteration of health promoting behaviour during lockdown among medical students compared to other students.In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 1940 Bavarian students. Participants were asked to complete an online questionnaire 3 weeks after lockdown implementation, evaluating their lifestyle behaviour focusing on self-reported and objectively assessed physical activity.1154 medical (59.5%) and 786 non-medical (40.5%) students were included (median age 22.0 [IQR, 20.0-25.0], 71.5% female). Physical activity decreased in both groups after lockdown implementation. During lockdown, medical students reported higher physical activity levels compared to non-medical students. This was corroborated by daily step count data assessed by wearables (median steps per day [IQR], 6979 [5218-9348] versus 6581 [4497-8491], p = 0.02). Smoking behaviour during lockdown did not differ between medical and non-medical students (increased in 11.8% vs 13.6%, decreased in 31.9% versus 36.9%).During the COVID-19 pandemic, alteration of lifestyle behaviour among medical students was significantly different compared to non-medical students. This result suggests that medical students are more concerned about health promoting behaviour even in crisis situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Nutr J ; 20(1): 44, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in December 2019, many countries around the world have imposed lockdown measures in order to reduce virus spread. Social isolation is known to have a significant psychological impact, potentially triggering alcohol misuse in adults. In our study, we aimed to investigate the effect of COVID-19 lockdown measures on alcohol consumption in adults in Bavaria. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 2067 participants, with 1961 young adults (mean age 23.3 ± 4.1) and 106 mature adults (mean age 66.7 ± 9.7). Participants were asked to complete a standardized questionnaire, semi-quantitatively evaluating the alcohol drinking behaviour before and during the pandemic lockdown. RESULTS: After implementation of lockdown, the alteration of alcohol consumption was significantly different between young and mature adults (p <  0.001). Among young adults, 42% reported unchanged drinking behaviour compared to 76% in the mature adult group; 44% of young adults reported to drink less compared to only 7% of mature adults. An increase in alcohol consumption was only reported by 14% of young adults and 17% of mature adults. Interestingly, in the entire cohort, the change of alcohol intake was most pronounced among moderate drinkers (> 0 to < 5 drinks/week) in both age groups (p <  0.001). Ordinal logistic regression revealed female sex, low BMI and younger age to be associated with a decrease in number of self-reported drinks/week. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic lockdown significantly affected alcohol drinking behaviour. Further studies exploring long-term effects on potential alcohol misuse and the relevance on public health are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was retrospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT04361877 ) on April 24, 2020.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has affected worldwide sports competitions and training in both amateur and professional leagues. We thus aimed to investigate changes in different training modalities in elite and amateur football players following COVID-19 lockdown in March 2020. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we applied a Likert scale-based questionnaire with 20 items to quantify and classify time spent at standard training methods in 47 professional and 54 amateur football players from 12 Austrian clubs before and during lockdown. Additionally, McLean score was calculated to assess perceived training fatigue. RESULTS: Weekly amount of training time at endurance exercises (cycling) increased in both professional (37.5 [IQR 46.5] min/week vs. 187.5 [IQR 127.5] min/week, p<0.001), and amateur players (0.0 [IQR 45.0] min/week vs. 37.5 [IQR 112.5] min/week, p=0.015) during COVID-19 lockdown. Time on diverse muscle strengthening workouts was significantly elevated in both cohorts. Total training time at ball declined for professionals (from 472.5 [IQR 150] min/week to 15.0 [IQR 112.5] min/week, p<0.001) and amateurs (from 337.5 [IQR 285] min/week to 0.0 [IQR 37.5] min/week, p<0.001). Videoguided training was intensified in both groups (p<0.001 each). Location shifted from football fields and gyms to home and outdoors. Overall McLean score remained unchanged in amateurs (p=0.42) while elite players showed a trend towards an increase (p=0.056). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 lockdown compromised football training, especially training concepts with ball. Consequently, resulting changes in exercise loads and muscular burden might impact susceptibility for injuries and impair performances especially in amateur players, especially as they lacked training supervision and professional training plans. Minimum effective dose of training workload in order to maintain endurance- and neuromuscular-related performance parameters should be prescribed.

7.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 61(1): 164-166, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034292
8.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(11): 1508-1510, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994917
9.
Eur J Nutr ; 60(5): 2593-2602, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951279

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic and the implemented lockdown strongly impact on everyone's daily life. Stressful situations are known to alter eating habits and increase the risk for obesity. In our study, we aimed to investigate the effect of the lockdown measures on nutrition behavior among young adults. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 1964 voluntary participants from Bavarian universities. All participants were asked to complete an online questionnaire, semi-quantitatively evaluating the amount and type of food before and during pandemic lockdown. Study subjects were inquired to give information about acquisition and food procurement. The primary outcome was the change in food amount, secondary outcomes included alterations of food composition and procurement. RESULTS: Our study cohort (mean age 23.3 ± 4.0 years, 28.5% male) had a mean body mass index of 22.1 ± 4.5 kg/m2. The overall food amount increased in 31.2% of participants (n = 610) during lockdown and decreased in 16.8% (n = 328). A multinominal regression model revealed that an increased food intake was less likely in male participants (OR, 0.7 [CI 0.6-0.9]) and more likely with increasing BMI (OR, 1.4 [CI 1.3-2.0]), increased sports activity (OR, 1.3 [CI 1.2-1.8]), augmented mental stress (OR 1.4 [1.1-1.7]), and an alteration of alcohol consumption (reduced alcohol amount, OR, 1.4 [CI 1.1-1.7], increased alcohol, OR, 1.9 [CI 1.4-2.5]). Increase in food intake was mainly triggered by consumption of bread (increased in 46.8%, n = 284) and confectionary (increased in 64.4%, n = 389). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic lockdown significantly affected eating habits in young adults. Further investigation to evaluate long-term effects on weight change and comorbidities are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
J Investig Med ; 68(8): 1394-1396, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889922

ABSTRACT

Due to the rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, a lockdown including limitation of activity and restrictions of non-essential travel was imposed on March 21, 2020 in the State of Bavaria, Germany. The implementation of activity restrictions not only strongly affects the economy but will possibly also impact the mental and physical health status of the general population. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore psychological effects of the COVID-19 crisis on a sample of Bavarian students.In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 1943 voluntary subjects from Bavarian universities. All subjects completed an online questionnaire asking for mental health stress, as well as potential factors, influencing the state of mental stress during pandemic lockdown. In our study cohort, 17.3% (n=336) of the students indicated that they experienced less mental stress through COVID-19 pandemic, while 39.6% (n=770) stated that they had an increased psychological burden. The bivariate analysis identified sex and the level of physical activity as potential risk factors for the level of mental stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further research is necessary to investigate specific symptoms of mental stress and the overall long-term impact on mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Students/psychology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , Young Adult
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