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1.
Alpha Psychiatry ; 23(4):144-154, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1954564

ABSTRACT

Some research suggests that distress, secondary to isolation and fear following COVID-19 infection, can negatively affect the long-term more than the COVID-19 infection itself. This narrative review aims to provide a global view on the neuropsychiatric consequences of COVID-19 that can be ascribed to several factors, ranging from the direct effect of infection, to the body's responses against the infection, or to the psychological sequelae of social isolation, unemployment, and fear for one's health and livelihood. Current findings show that the more severe the respiratory infection, the more likely are central nervous system (CNS) complications regarding the infection itself. The immune reactions to the infection may result in symptoms similar to chronic fatigue as well as neurocognitive deficits, which last long after the infection is gone. An increase in symptoms of depression, anxiety, and trauma-related stress may also follow upon economic fears and isolation from friends and family. The consequences of the pandemic are not limited to adults;children learning remotely and away from classmates and routine activities may develop adjustment disorders, acute stress disorder, and a variety of manifestations of grief. A summary of case reports suggests that COVID-19-related stress, economic recession, and political unrest increase the risk of suicidal behaviors and acts of violence. However, it is unknown whether manifestations of mental disorders result from social causes or whether CNS complications may be responsible. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Alpha Psychiatry is the property of Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
J Psychiatr Res ; 153: 229-235, 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has led to increased reliance on the internet. How problematic usage of the internet (PUI) and COVID-19 related stress and other clinical variables relate, is unknown. We hypothesised that higher PUI level would be significantly associated with higher levels of: (i) pandemic-related stress; and (ii) impulsive and compulsive symptoms and traits. METHODS: An online community-based cross-sectional survey was used for data collection. Relationships between PUI level and other variables were characterised using correlational analyses. Regression analyses determined the cumulative explanatory power of variables, with partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) to explore path loadings. ANOVA was used to investigate PUI level at varying lockdown levels. RESULTS: Data from 2110 participants (64.5% female), aged 18-64 years (mean: 24.3, SD: 8.1) suggested that approximately a quarter (n = 489, 23.2%) had medium to high level internet use problems. Impulsive and compulsive symptoms and traits, pandemic-stress, and age were all significantly related to PUI (p < 0.01). These associations (medium effect sizes) cumulatively explained 29% of PUI variance. PLS-SEM indicated significant contributory effects, with the association between age and PUI level mediated by impulsivity, pandemic-stress and compulsivity. DISCUSSION: Pandemic-stress, impulsive-compulsive symptoms and traits and age were related to PUI level. Enhancing resilience to stress, particularly in vulnerable populations, through lifestyle changes and implementation of adaptive coping strategies, is key to reduce risk for PUI during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.

5.
J Psychiatr Res ; 148: 188-196, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has profoundly affected the work of mental health professionals with many transitioning to telehealth to comply with public health measures. This large international study examined the impact of the pandemic on mental health clinicians' telehealth use. METHODS: This survey study was conducted with mental health professionals, primarily psychiatrists and psychologists, registered with WHO's Global Clinical Practice Network (GCPN). 1206 clinicians from 100 countries completed the telehealth section of the online survey in one of six languages between June 4 and July 7, 2020. Participants were asked about their use, training (i.e., aspects of telehealth addressed), perceptions, and concerns. OUTCOMES: Since the pandemic onset, 1092 (90.5%) clinicians reported to have started or increased their telehealth services. Telephone and videoconferencing were the most common modalities. 592 (49.1%) participants indicated that they had not received any training. Clinicians with no training or training that only addressed a single aspect of telehealth practice were more likely to perceive their services as somewhat ineffective than those with training that addressed two or more aspects. Most clinicians indicated positive perceptions of effectiveness and patient satisfaction. Quality of care compared to in-person services and technical issues were the most common concerns. Findings varied by WHO region, country income level, and profession. INTERPRETATION: Findings suggest a global practice change with providers perceiving telehealth as a viable option for mental health care. Increasing local training opportunities and efforts to address clinical and technological concerns is important for meeting ongoing demands.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics
6.
Psychiatry ; 84(4): 362-366, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642092
7.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over the last 30 years, South Africa has experienced four 'colliding epidemics' of HIV and tuberculosis, chronic illness and mental health, injury and violence, and maternal, neonatal, and child mortality, which have had substantial effects on health and well-being. Using data from the 2019 Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors Study (GBD 2019), we evaluated national and provincial health trends and progress towards important Sustainable Development Goal targets from 1990 to 2019. METHODS: We analysed GBD 2019 estimates of mortality, non-fatal health loss, summary health measures and risk factor burden, comparing trends over 1990-2007 and 2007-2019. Additionally, we decomposed changes in life expectancy by cause of death and assessed healthcare system performance. RESULTS: Across the nine provinces, inequalities in mortality and life expectancy increased over 1990-2007, largely due to differences in HIV/AIDS, then decreased over 2007-2019. Demographic change and increases in non-communicable diseases nearly doubled the number of years lived with disability between 1990 and 2019. From 1990 to 2019, risk factor burdens generally shifted from communicable and nutritional disease risks to non-communicable disease and injury risks; unsafe sex remained the top risk factor. Despite widespread improvements in healthcare system performance, the greatest gains were generally in economically advantaged provinces. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in HIV/AIDS and related conditions have led to improved health since 2007, though most provinces still lag in key areas. To achieve health targets, provincial governments should enhance health investments and exchange of knowledge, resources and best practices alongside populations that have been left behind, especially following the COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 9(1): 8-9, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569159
9.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 740-751, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385792

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019)-related pandemic represents a global source of societal and health burden. Yet, the impact of the pandemic on people with severe mental illness, including bipolar disorder (BD), remains unclear, warranting scoping review on the matter. METHODS: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were systematically searched from inception up to April 24, 2021, adopting broad inclusion criteria to assess a variety of clinical and public health themes related to people with a primary diagnosis of BD during the COVID-19 pandemics. The present work complying with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) registered in the Open Science Framework (OSF) repository (https://osf.io/7evpx/). RESULTS: Fourteen papers informed the present scoping review. Four major themes were identified: (i) impact of COVID-19-related stressors on BD; (ii) impact of COVID-19 on mental health service utilization among people with BD; (iii) impact of BD on the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection; (iv) engagement in preventative behaviors among people with BD. Additional themes warranting further research were nonetheless detected. LIMITATIONS: Further original studies are needed. CONCLUSION: The present study confirmed the high-vulnerability hypothesis concerning people with BD versus the general population, reinforcing the need for further research related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Additional information is warranted to compare the impact of the pandemic period among BD people against pre-pandemic records, the general population, and other severe mental illnesses, namely people with schizophrenia or major depressive disorder, to inform the public health and the delivery of patient-tailored interventions.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Bipolar Disorder/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Compr Psychiatry ; 100: 152180, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-292192

ABSTRACT

As a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many governments have introduced steps such as spatial distancing and "staying at home" to curb its spread and impact. The fear resulting from the disease, the 'lockdown' situation, high levels of uncertainty regarding the future, and financial insecurity raise the level of stress, anxiety, and depression experienced by people all around the world. Psychoactive substances and other reinforcing behaviors (e.g., gambling, video gaming, watching pornography) are often used to reduce stress and anxiety and/or to alleviate depressed mood. The tendency to use such substances and engage in such behaviors in an excessive manner as putative coping strategies in crises like the COVID-19 pandemic is considerable. Moreover, the importance of information and communications technology (ICT) is even higher in the present crisis than usual. ICT has been crucial in keeping parts of the economy going, allowing large groups of people to work and study from home, enhancing social connectedness, providing greatly needed entertainment, etc. Although for the vast majority ICT use is adaptive and should not be pathologized, a subgroup of vulnerable individuals are at risk of developing problematic usage patterns. The present consensus guidance discusses these risks and makes some practical recommendations that may help diminish them.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/psychology , Internet/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Anxiety Disorders , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Video Games
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