Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
1.
Arch Toxicol ; 96(8): 2329-2339, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930384

ABSTRACT

BriLife®, a vector-based vaccine that utilizes the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) platform to express and present the spike antigen of SARS-CoV-2, is undergoing testing in a phase 2 clinical trial in Israel. A nonclinical repeated-dose (GLP) toxicity study in New Zealand white rabbits was performed to evaluate the potential toxicity, local tolerance, immunogenicity and biodistribution of the vaccine. rVSV-ΔG-SARS-CoV-2-S (or vehicle) was administered intramuscularly to two groups of animals (106, 107 PFU/animal, n = 10/sex/group) on three occasions, at 2-week intervals, followed by a 3-week recovery period. Systemic clinical signs, local reactions, body weight, body temperature, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, clinical pathology, C-reactive protein, viremia and antibody levels were monitored. Gross pathology was performed, followed by organs/tissues collection for biodistribution and histopathological evaluation. Treatment-related changes were restricted to multifocal minimal myofiber necrosis at the injection sites, and increased lymphocytic cellularity in the iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes and in the spleen. These changes were considered related to the inflammatory reaction elicited, and correlated with a trend for recovery. Detection of rVSV-ΔG-SARS-CoV-2-S vaccine RNA was noted in the regional iliac lymph node in animals assigned to the high-dose group, at both termination time points. A significant increase in binding and neutralizing antibody titers was observed following vaccination at both vaccine doses. In view of the findings, it was concluded that the rVSV-ΔG-SARS-CoV-2-S vaccine is safe. These results supported the initiation of clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Distribution
2.
JCI Insight ; 6(12)2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223641

ABSTRACT

Mice are normally unaffected by SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection since the virus does not bind effectively to the murine version of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor molecule. Here, we report that induced mild pulmonary morbidities rendered SARS-CoV-2-refractive CD-1 mice susceptible to this virus. Specifically, SARS-CoV-2 infection after application of low doses of the acute lung injury stimulants bleomycin or ricin caused severe disease in CD-1 mice, manifested by sustained body weight loss and mortality rates greater than 50%. Further studies revealed markedly higher levels of viral RNA in the lungs, heart, and serum of low-dose ricin-pretreated mice compared with non-pretreated mice. Furthermore, lung extracts prepared 2-3 days after viral infection contained subgenomic mRNA and virus particles capable of replication only when derived from the pretreated mice. The deleterious effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection were effectively alleviated by passive transfer of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies generated against the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD). Thus, viral cell entry in the sensitized mice seems to depend on viral RBD binding, albeit by a mechanism other than the canonical ACE2-mediated uptake route. This unique mode of viral entry, observed over a mildly injured tissue background, may contribute to the exacerbation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathologies in patients with preexisting morbidities.


Subject(s)
Bleomycin/toxicity , COVID-19/pathology , Lung Injury , Ricin/toxicity , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Comorbidity , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/virology , Mice , Vero Cells , Virus Attachment , Virus Internalization/drug effects
3.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 10(1)2021 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015609

ABSTRACT

We report the genome sequences and the identification of genetic variations in eight clinical samples of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Samples were collected from nasopharyngeal swabs of symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals from five care homes for elderly and infirm persons in Israel. The sequences obtained are valuable, as they carry a newly reported nonsynonymous substitution located within the nucleoprotein open reading frame.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6402, 2020 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983658

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 imposes an urgent need for rapid development of an efficient and cost-effective vaccine, suitable for mass immunization. Here, we show the development of a replication competent recombinant VSV-∆G-spike vaccine, in which the glycoprotein of VSV is replaced by the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. In-vitro characterization of this vaccine indicates the expression and presentation of the spike protein on the viral membrane with antigenic similarity to SARS-CoV-2. A golden Syrian hamster in-vivo model for COVID-19 is implemented. We show that a single-dose vaccination results in a rapid and potent induction of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. Importantly, vaccination protects hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, as demonstrated by the abrogation of body weight loss, and  alleviation of the extensive tissue damage and viral loads in lungs and nasal turbinates. Taken together, we suggest the recombinant VSV-∆G-spike as a safe, efficacious and protective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Body Weight , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Genome, Viral , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mutation/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Vaccination , Viral Load
5.
Nature ; 589(7840): 125-130, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752477

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic1. To understand the pathogenicity and antigenic potential of SARS-CoV-2 and to develop therapeutic tools, it is essential to profile the full repertoire of its expressed proteins. The current map of SARS-CoV-2 coding capacity is based on computational predictions and relies on homology with other coronaviruses. As the protein complement varies among coronaviruses, especially in regard to the variety of accessory proteins, it is crucial to characterize the specific range of SARS-CoV-2 proteins in an unbiased and open-ended manner. Here, using a suite of ribosome-profiling techniques2-4, we present a high-resolution map of coding regions in the SARS-CoV-2 genome, which enables us to accurately quantify the expression of canonical viral open reading frames (ORFs) and to identify 23 unannotated viral ORFs. These ORFs include upstream ORFs that are likely to have a regulatory role, several in-frame internal ORFs within existing ORFs, resulting in N-terminally truncated products, as well as internal out-of-frame ORFs, which generate novel polypeptides. We further show that viral mRNAs are not translated more efficiently than host mRNAs; instead, virus translation dominates host translation because of the high levels of viral transcripts. Our work provides a resource that will form the basis of future functional studies.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Profiling , Genome, Viral/genetics , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Protein Biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/biosynthesis , Viral Proteins/genetics , Animals , Cell Line , Humans , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Peptides/genetics , Peptides/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Ribosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Proteins/metabolism
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 99: 352-354, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703985

ABSTRACT

The genetic identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is based on viral RNA extraction prior to RT-qPCR assay. However, recent studies have supported the elimination of the extraction step. This study was performed to assess the necessity for the RNA extraction, by comparing the efficacy of RT-qPCR in several direct approaches versus the gold standard RNA extraction, in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in laboratory samples, as well as in clinical oro-nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 swabs. The findings showed an advantage for the extraction procedure; however a direct no-buffer approach might be an alternative, since it identified more than 60% of positive clinical specimens.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Animals , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Nasal Cavity/virology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
7.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(28)2020 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638622

ABSTRACT

We announce the genome sequences of two strains of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolated in Israel, one imported by a traveler who returned from Japan and the second strain collected from a patient infected by a traveler returning from Italy. The sequences obtained are valuable as early manifestations for future follow-up of the local spread of the virus in Israel.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL