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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(40): 1265-1270, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056549

ABSTRACT

Increases in severe respiratory illness and acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) among children and adolescents resulting from enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections occurred biennially in the United States during 2014, 2016, and 2018, primarily in late summer and fall. Although EV-D68 annual trends are not fully understood, EV-D68 levels were lower than expected in 2020, potentially because of implementation of COVID-19 mitigation measures (e.g., wearing face masks, enhanced hand hygiene, and physical distancing) (1). In August 2022, clinicians in several geographic areas notified CDC of an increase in hospitalizations of pediatric patients with severe respiratory illness and positive rhinovirus/enterovirus (RV/EV) test results.* Surveillance data were analyzed from multiple national data sources to characterize reported trends in acute respiratory illness (ARI), asthma/reactive airway disease (RAD) exacerbations, and the percentage of positive RV/EV and EV-D68 test results during 2022 compared with previous years. These data demonstrated an increase in emergency department (ED) visits by children and adolescents with ARI and asthma/RAD in late summer 2022. The percentage of positive RV/EV test results in national laboratory-based surveillance and the percentage of positive EV-D68 test results in pediatric sentinel surveillance also increased during this time. Previous increases in EV-D68 respiratory illness have led to substantial resource demands in some hospitals and have also coincided with increases in cases of AFM (2), a rare but serious neurologic disease affecting the spinal cord. Therefore, clinicians should consider AFM in patients with acute flaccid limb weakness, especially after respiratory illness or fever, and ensure prompt hospitalization and referral to specialty care for such cases. Clinicians should also test for poliovirus infection in patients suspected of having AFM because of the clinical similarity to acute flaccid paralysis caused by poliovirus. Ongoing surveillance for EV-D68 is critical to ensuring preparedness for possible future increases in ARI and AFM.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Enterovirus D, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Myelitis , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adolescent , Asthma/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Myelitis/epidemiology , Neuromuscular Diseases , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Rhinovirus , United States/epidemiology
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(24): 797-802, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903986

ABSTRACT

In November 2021, CDC was notified of a cluster of previously healthy children with hepatitis of unknown etiology evaluated at a single U.S. hospital (1). On April 21, 2022, following an investigation of this cluster and reports of similar cases in Europe (2,3), a health advisory* was issued requesting U.S. providers to report pediatric cases† of hepatitis of unknown etiology to public health authorities. In the United States and Europe, many of these patients have also received positive adenovirus test results (1,3). Typed specimens have indicated adenovirus type 41, which typically causes gastroenteritis (1,3). Although adenovirus hepatitis has been reported in immunocompromised persons, adenovirus is not a recognized cause of hepatitis in healthy children (4). Because neither acute hepatitis of unknown etiology nor adenovirus type 41 is reportable in the United States, it is unclear whether either has recently increased above historical levels. Data from four sources were analyzed to assess trends in hepatitis-associated emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations, liver transplants, and adenovirus stool testing results among children in the United States. Because of potential changes in health care-seeking behavior during 2020-2021, data from October 2021-March 2022 were compared with a pre-COVID-19 pandemic baseline. These data do not suggest an increase in pediatric hepatitis or adenovirus types 40/41 above baseline levels. Pediatric hepatitis is rare, and the relatively low weekly and monthly counts of associated outcomes limit the ability to interpret small changes in incidence. Ongoing assessment of trends, in addition to enhanced epidemiologic investigations, will help contextualize reported cases of acute hepatitis of unknown etiology in U.S. children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis , Acute Disease , Adenoviridae , Adenoviruses, Human , Child , Humans , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
3.
Vaccine ; 39(31): 4250-4255, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274452

ABSTRACT

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention explored use of emergency department (ED) visit data, during 2018-2020, from the National Syndromic Surveillance Program to monitor vaccine-associated adverse events (VAE) among all age groups. A combination of chief complaint terms and administrative diagnosis codes were used to detect VAE-related ED visits. Postvaccination fever was among the top 10 most frequently noted diagnoses. VAE annual trends demonstrated seasonality; visits trended upward starting in September of each year, coinciding with the administration of seasonal influenza vaccines. The 2020 VAE-related visit trend declined below the 2018 and 2019 baselines during March 22-September 5, 2020, before returning to the seasonal pattern. VAE-related visits declined in children aged 3-18 years in 2020 compared with 2018-2019, especially in the back-to-school months. These findings demonstrate that syndromic surveillance can complement traditional VAE reporting systems without an additional demand on data collection resources.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Sentinel Surveillance , Child , Data Collection , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Population Surveillance , United States/epidemiology
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(24): 888-894, 2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278793

ABSTRACT

Beginning in March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic and response, which included physical distancing and stay-at-home orders, disrupted daily life in the United States. Compared with the rate in 2019, a 31% increase in the proportion of mental health-related emergency department (ED) visits occurred among adolescents aged 12-17 years in 2020 (1). In June 2020, 25% of surveyed adults aged 18-24 years reported experiencing suicidal ideation related to the pandemic in the past 30 days (2). More recent patterns of ED visits for suspected suicide attempts among these age groups are unclear. Using data from the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP),* CDC examined trends in ED visits for suspected suicide attempts† during January 1, 2019-May 15, 2021, among persons aged 12-25 years, by sex, and at three distinct phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared with the corresponding period in 2019, persons aged 12-25 years made fewer ED visits for suspected suicide attempts during March 29-April 25, 2020. However, by early May 2020, ED visit counts for suspected suicide attempts began increasing among adolescents aged 12-17 years, especially among girls. During July 26-August 22, 2020, the mean weekly number of ED visits for suspected suicide attempts among girls aged 12-17 years was 26.2% higher than during the same period a year earlier; during February 21-March 20, 2021, mean weekly ED visit counts for suspected suicide attempts were 50.6% higher among girls aged 12-17 years compared with the same period in 2019. Suicide prevention measures focused on young persons call for a comprehensive approach, that is adapted during times of infrastructure disruption, involving multisectoral partnerships (e.g., public health, mental health, schools, and families) and implementation of evidence-based strategies (3) that address the range of factors influencing suicide risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(49): 1841-1847, 2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218742

ABSTRACT

Heightened stress, school closures, loss of income, and social isolation resulting from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have increased the risk for child abuse and neglect (1). Using National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP) data from January 6, 2019-September 6, 2020, CDC tabulated weekly numbers of emergency department (ED) visits related to child abuse and neglect and calculated the proportions of such visits per 100,000 ED visits, as well as the percentage of suspected or confirmed ED visits related to child abuse and neglect ending in hospitalization, overall and stratified by age group (0-4, 5-11, and 12-17 years). The total number of ED visits related to child abuse and neglect began decreasing below the corresponding 2019 period during week 11 (March 15-March 22, 2020) for all age groups examined, coinciding with the declaration of a national emergency on March 13 (2); simultaneously, the proportion of these visits per 100,000 ED visits began increasing above the 2019 baseline for all age groups. Despite decreases in the weekly number of ED visits related to child abuse and neglect, the weekly number of these visits resulting in hospitalization remained stable in 2020; however, the yearly percentage of ED visits related to child abuse and neglect resulting in hospitalization increased significantly among all age groups. Although the increased proportion of ED visits related to child abuse and neglect might be associated with a decrease in the overall number of ED visits, these findings also suggest that health care-seeking patterns have shifted during the pandemic. Hospitalizations for child abuse and neglect did not decrease in 2020, suggesting that injury severity did not decrease during the pandemic, despite decreased ED visits. Child abuse is preventable; implementation of strategies including strengthening household economic supports and creating family-friendly work policies can reduce stress during difficult times and increase children's opportunities to thrive in safe, stable, and nurturing relationships and environments (3).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Abuse/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Adolescent , Child , Humans , United States/epidemiology
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(15): 566-569, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187182

ABSTRACT

Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic), non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black), and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons have experienced disproportionately higher rates of hospitalization and death attributable to COVID-19 than have non-Hispanic White (White) persons (1-4). Emergency care data offer insight into COVID-19 incidence; however, differences in use of emergency department (ED) services for COVID-19 by racial and ethnic groups are not well understood. These data, most of which are recorded within 24 hours of the visit, might be an early indicator of changing patterns in disparities. Using ED visit data from 13 states obtained from the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP), CDC assessed the number of ED visits with a COVID-19 discharge diagnosis code per 100,000 population during October-December 2020 by age and race/ethnicity. Among 5,794,050 total ED visits during this period, 282,220 (4.9%) were for COVID-19. Racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 ED visit rates were observed across age groups. Compared with White persons, Hispanic, AI/AN, and Black persons had significantly more COVID-19-related ED visits overall (rate ratio [RR] range = 1.39-1.77) and in all age groups through age 74 years; compared with White persons aged ≥75 years, Hispanic and AI/AN persons also had more COVID-19-related ED visits (RR = 1.91 and 1.22, respectively). These differences in ED visit rates suggest ongoing racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 incidence and can be used to prioritize prevention resources, including COVID-19 vaccination, to reach disproportionately affected communities and reduce the need for emergency care for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(25): 795-800, 2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616585

ABSTRACT

On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Subsequently, states enacted stay-at-home orders to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and reduce the burden on the U.S. health care system. CDC* and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)† recommended that health care systems prioritize urgent visits and delay elective care to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in health care settings. By May 2020, national syndromic surveillance data found that emergency department (ED) visits had declined 42% during the early months of the pandemic (1). This report describes trends in ED visits for three acute life-threatening health conditions (myocardial infarction [MI, also known as heart attack], stroke, and hyperglycemic crisis), immediately before and after declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic as a national emergency. These conditions represent acute events that always necessitate immediate emergency care, even during a public health emergency such as the COVID-19 pandemic. In the 10 weeks following the emergency declaration (March 15-May 23, 2020), ED visits declined 23% for MI, 20% for stroke, and 10% for hyperglycemic crisis, compared with the preceding 10-week period (January 5-March 14, 2020). EDs play a critical role in diagnosing and treating life-threatening conditions that might result in serious disability or death. Persons experiencing signs or symptoms of serious illness, such as severe chest pain, sudden or partial loss of motor function, altered mental state, signs of extreme hyperglycemia, or other life-threatening issues, should seek immediate emergency care, regardless of the pandemic. Clear, frequent, highly visible communication from public health and health care professionals is needed to reinforce the importance of timely care for medical emergencies and to assure the public that EDs are implementing infection prevention and control guidelines that help ensure the safety of their patients and health care personnel.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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