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Sex Transm Dis ; 48(10): 798-804, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413349


BACKGROUND: To describe changes in reported sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) during the US coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, we compared the weekly number of reported nationally notifiable STDs in 2020 to 2019. METHODS: We reviewed cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis reported to the US National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System in 2020. For each STD, we compare the number of 2020 cases reported for a given Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) week to the number of 2019 cases reported in the same week, expressing 2020 cases as a percentage of 2019 cases. We also calculated the percent difference between 2020 and 2019 cumulative case totals as of MMWR week 50 (week of December 9). RESULTS: During MMWR weeks 1 to 11 (week of December 29, 2019-March 11, 2020), the weekly number of cases of STDs reported in 2020 as a percentage of the cases in the same week in 2019 was similar. However, 2020 numbers were much lower than 2019 numbers in week 15 (week of April 8; chlamydia, 49.8%; gonorrhea, 71.2%; and P&S syphilis, 63.7%). As of week 50, the 2020 cumulative totals compared with 2019 were 14.0% lower for chlamydia, 7.1% higher for gonorrhea, and 0.9% lower for P&S syphilis. CONCLUSIONS: During March-April 2020, national case reporting for STDs dramatically decreased compared with 2019. However, resurgence in reported gonorrhea and syphilis cases later in the year suggests STD reporting may have increased in 2020, underscoring the importance of continued STD prevention and care activities.

COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , Gonorrhea , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Syphilis , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Syphilis/epidemiology
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249901, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186608


BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), evolved rapidly in the United States. This report describes the demographic, clinical, and epidemiologic characteristics of 544 U.S. persons under investigation (PUI) for COVID-19 with complete SARS-CoV-2 testing in the beginning stages of the pandemic from January 17 through February 29, 2020. METHODS: In this surveillance cohort, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provided consultation to public health and healthcare professionals to identify PUI for SARS-CoV-2 testing by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Demographic, clinical, and epidemiologic characteristics of PUI were reported by public health and healthcare professionals during consultation with on-call CDC clinicians and subsequent submission of a CDC PUI Report Form. Characteristics of laboratory-negative and laboratory-positive persons were summarized as proportions for the period of January 17-February 29, and characteristics of all PUI were compared before and after February 12 using prevalence ratios. RESULTS: A total of 36 PUI tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were classified as confirmed cases. Confirmed cases and PUI testing negative for SARS-CoV-2 had similar demographic, clinical, and epidemiologic characteristics. Consistent with changes in PUI evaluation criteria, 88% (13/15) of confirmed cases detected before February 12, 2020, reported travel from China. After February 12, 57% (12/21) of confirmed cases reported no known travel- or contact-related exposures. CONCLUSIONS: These findings can inform preparedness for future pandemics, including capacity for rapid expansion of novel diagnostic tests to accommodate broad surveillance strategies to assess community transmission, including potential contributions from asymptomatic and presymptomatic infections.

COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Travel , Travel-Related Illness , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(6): 166-170, 2020 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-830


In December 2019, a cluster of cases of pneumonia emerged in Wuhan City in central China's Hubei Province. Genetic sequencing of isolates obtained from patients with pneumonia identified a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) as the etiology (1). As of February 4, 2020, approximately 20,000 confirmed cases had been identified in China and an additional 159 confirmed cases in 23 other countries, including 11 in the United States (2,3). On January 17, CDC and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Customs and Border Protection began health screenings at U.S. airports to identify ill travelers returning from Wuhan City (4). CDC activated its Emergency Operations Center on January 21 and formalized a process for inquiries regarding persons suspected of having 2019-nCoV infection (2). As of January 31, 2020, CDC had responded to clinical inquiries from public health officials and health care providers to assist in evaluating approximately 650 persons thought to be at risk for 2019-nCoV infection. Guided by CDC criteria for the evaluation of persons under investigation (PUIs) (5), 210 symptomatic persons were tested for 2019-nCoV; among these persons, 148 (70%) had travel-related risk only, 42 (20%) had close contact with an ill laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV patient or PUI, and 18 (9%) had both travel- and contact-related risks. Eleven of these persons had laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Recognizing persons at risk for 2019-nCoV is critical to identifying cases and preventing further transmission. Health care providers should remain vigilant and adhere to recommended infection prevention and control practices when evaluating patients for possible 2019-nCoV infection (6). Providers should consult with their local and state health departments when assessing not only ill travelers from 2019-nCoV-affected countries but also ill persons who have been in close contact with patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection in the United States.

Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel-Related Illness , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult