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1.
Pediatriya - Zhurnal im G.N. Speranskogo ; 101(3):85-97, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1979886

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (AB) in children in the 2nd year of the COVID-19 pandemic in Russia. Materials and methods: Prospective cohort study. The seroprevalence research was conducted among 3670 children aged 1 to 17 y/o from 26 modelling regions of Russia (that have been participating earlier in the five stages of seromonitoring during 2020-2021). The serological testing was carried out in December, 2021. The work was carried out according to a unified methodology set by the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-Being with the Pasteur Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology (Saint Petersburg, Russia). The plasma was obtained from 3 ml of venous blood, in which the level of AB to nucleocapsid (NC), and the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) was determined by immunoferment method using reagents for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Results: The analysis of AB seroprevalence to NC and RBD showed the statistically significant increase in the share of seropositivity to RBD in children of all modelling regions (p<0.05). The most seropositive volunteers contained low levels of AB: 31.3-125.6 BAU/ml NC and 22.6-220 BAU/ml RBD. An increase in the level of AB to NC and RBD was accompanied by a decrease in the percentage of seropositive patients. Evaluating the contribution of children to the level of humoral immunity, convalescents (had been ill shortly before the examination), the «anamnesis» (had been ill at previous stages of seromonitoring) and asymptomatic (had been asymptomatically ill) groups were distinguished. The maximum contribution was made by children with asymptomatic cases of COVID-19 in anamnesis: In 82.3% (95% CI 81.1-83.6), of which 76.9% (95% CI 75.5-78.3) AB detected to RBD. The contribution of children of two other groups to the overall level of humoral immunity was 33 times less. Conclusion: Statistically significant predominance of AB to RBD above AB to NC and their main contribution to the level of humoral immunity to SARS-CоV-2 (p<0.001).

2.
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity ; 12(3):563-568, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1969869

ABSTRACT

Multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae bacterial strains producing extended range of beta-lactamases or carbapenemases are of serious clinical concern. The aim of the study was to determine the resistance factors of K. pneumoniae strains isolated from the lower respiratory tract of patients diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods. The study of resistance to antimicrobial drugs included 138 strains of K. pneumoniae isolated from the sputum of patients treated in infectious diseases monohospitals in the city of Tyumen and the Tyumen region within the period from May 2020 to June 2021. Among the strains examined, 51.4% of them were isolated from SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. The presence of resistance genes was determined by PCR in 71 strains of K. pneumoniae (34 strains from COVID-19-positive and 37 strains from COVID-19-negative patients). Identification of isolated bacterial strains was carried out according to the protein spectra by using a desktop time-of-flight mass spectrometer with matrix laser desorption MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker, Germany). The belonging of the strains to the hypermucoid phenotype was determined using the string test. Sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs was assessed in the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton medium. The sensitivity of culture strains to bacteriophage preparations was determined by the drop method (spot-test). In the study, we used “Polyvalent Sextaphage Pyobacteriophage” and “Purified Polyvalent Klebsiella Bacteriophage”, JSC NPO Microgen, Russia. Detection of resistance genes to beta-lactam antibiotics by real-time PCR was carried out using the BakRezista kit (OOO DNA-technology, Russia). The results of the study evidence that K. pneumoniae bacteria isolated from COVID-19-positive and COVID-19-negative patients diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia displayed a high resistance to antimicrobial drugs and commercial phage-containing drugs. Resistance of K. pneumoniae strains was recorded from 50% (to aminoglycosides and carbapenems) to 90% (to inhibitor-protected penicillins). Sensitivity to bacteriophages was noted on average in no more than 20% of strains. It is important to emphasize that strains isolated from COVID-19-positive patients more often showed a hypermucoid phenotype, suggesting a high bacterial virulence, and also showed greater resistance to all groups of antibacterial drugs examined in the study, which is confirmed by the presence of resistance genes of the ESBL group and carbapenemase. The results of the study suggest that the high level of resistance of K. pneumoniae strains isolated from COVID-19-positive patients is associated with immunosuppression provoked by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which contributes to their colonization by more virulent strains.

3.
Zhurnal Mikrobiologii Epidemiologii i Immunobiologii ; 98(5):528-537, 2021.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1567021

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Many aspects of the pathogenesis and pathomorphology of pneumonia associated with novel coronavirus require a comprehensive study using modern diagnostic methods. The aim of the study was to study the microbiota of the lower respiratory tract in community-acquired pneumonia associated with SARS-CoV-2, to assess the antibiotic and phage resistance of circulating strains of microorganisms. Materials and methods. The analysis of biosamples from 486 patients undergoing inpatient treatment in five mono-hospitals in Tyumen and Tyumen region with a diagnosis of moderate and severe community-acquired pneumonia was carried out. In almost 90% of cases patients received oxygen therapy, about 8% of patients were connected to ventilators. The inoculation of the cultures with clinical samples was carried out for six months (from April to October 2020). The isolated bacterial strains were identified by mass spectrometry. The resistance to antimicrobial drugs and bacteriophages was assessed for identified isolated. Results. Gram-positive cocci, mainly opportunistic microorganisms of the genus Streptococcus and Candida fungi predominated in the microbiota of the lower respiratory tract of patients diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia associated with SARS-CoV-2. At the same time, bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family and nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria were less common compared to patients without coronavirus infection. In the structure of pathogens, the leading position was occupied by the bacteria K. pneumoniae and Acinetobacter spp. The analysis of the sensitivity of microorganisms to antimicrobial drugs showed the highest resistance rates in strains of Acinetobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. It has been established that in the group of patients with community-acquired pneumonia associated with SARS-CoV-2, the risk of infection with Streptococcus spp. with high level of antibiotic resistance was 1.5 times higher, and taking into account the 95% confidence interval, the value of this indicator ranged from 1.1 to 2.1 times. Conclusion. The data obtained indicate that the microbiota of the lower respiratory tract in community-acquired pneumonia associated with SARS-CoV-2 is represented mainly by bacteria of the genus Streptococcus, which have a high level of resistance to antimicrobial drugs. © 2021, Central Research Institute for Epidemiology. All rights reserved.

4.
Infektsiya I Immunitet ; 11(2):297-323, 2021.
Article in Russian | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1184081

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, dubbed COVID-19, has become one of the most serious challenges for human populations in the vast majority of countries worldwide. Rapid spreading and increased mortality related to it required new approaches to manage epidemic processes on a global scale. One of such approaches was based on analyzing SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence associated with COVID-19. Our aim was to summarize the results on assessing seroprevalence to the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen (Nc) in residents from 26 regions of the Russian Federation, carried out during the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic. Materials and methods. Seroprevalence distribution was examined in 26 model regions of the Russian Federation according to the unified method developed by the Rospotrebnadzor with the participation of the Federal State Institution Saint Petersburg Pasteur Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology. Such approach implied formation of a group of volunteer subjects in model geographic region who were tested by ELISA for anti-Nc serum antibody level in peripheral blood. Analyzed primary data obtained in separate regions were either accepted for publication or released. Results. The current paper finalizes the data obtained in all 26 regions of the Russian Federation. The total SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was 19.5 (10.0-25.6)% with the maximum and minimum value found in the Kaliningrad Region and the Republic of Crimea, respectively (50.2% vs. 4.3%). A pattern of age-related seroprevalence distribution indicates insignificant predominance of seroprevalence among subjects of 1-17 years old: 22.1 (13.1-31.8)%. Among COVID-19 convalescents positive for SARS-CoV Nc antibodies it reached 60.0 (40.0-73.3)%. The number of contact persons comprised 6285 subjects or 8.5% of total volunteer cohort, with the level of seroprevalence reaching up to 25.3 (17.95-35.8)%. A direct correlation was revealed between levels of seroprevalence in convalescent and contact volunteers. In addition, the reproductive number for SARS-CoV was calculated comprising 5.8 (4.3-8.5) suggesting that one convalescent subject can infect at least 4 healthy individuals. A high level of asymptomatic forms of COVID-19 among seropositive subjects was confirmed empirically comprising up to 93.6 (87.1-94.9)%. Conclusion. A single cross-sectional study performed during 2020 June-August timeframe allowed to assess pattern of sex- and age-related COVID-19 seroprevalence for general population in 26 Russian Federation regions. The data obtained may serve as a basis for the longitudinal cohort investigation with serial subject sampling. The timing and duration of study will be determined by dynamics of ongoing COVID-19 epidemic.

5.
Problemy Osobo Opasnykh Infektsii ; - (3):146-149, 2020.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-937812

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to identify the causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia and co-infection using PCR study of biomaterial from patients. Materials and methods. PCR testing of 268 samples from 258 patients was carried out to identify RNA/DNA of viral and bacterial pathogens of respiratory infections. Results and discussion. In 43.3 % of samples SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected, in 4.5 % – RNA/DNA of acute respiratory viral infections pathogens, in one sample – DNA of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Co-infection was detected only in patients of the anti-tuberculosis dispensary (SARS-CoV-2 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis). In the examined patients with pneumonia, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was significantly more often detected in biomaterial from the lower respiratory tract (52 %) than in respiratory smears (8.5 %). In the first week from the onset of the disease, 19.2 % of positive samples were found, in the second – 56.5 %. © 2020 Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute. All rights reserved.

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