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1.
Science ; 376(6591): eabn8897, 2022 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759268

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant and its resistance to neutralization by vaccinee and convalescent sera are driving a search for monoclonal antibodies with potent neutralization. To provide insight into effective neutralization, we determined cryo-electron microscopy structures and evaluated receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies for their ability to bind and neutralize B.1.1.529. Mutations altered 16% of the B.1.1.529 RBD surface, clustered on an RBD ridge overlapping the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-binding surface and reduced binding of most antibodies. Substantial inhibitory activity was retained by select monoclonal antibodies-including A23-58.1, B1-182.1, COV2-2196, S2E12, A19-46.1, S309, and LY-CoV1404-that accommodated these changes and neutralized B.1.1.529. We identified combinations of antibodies with synergistic neutralization. The analysis revealed structural mechanisms for maintenance of potent neutralization against emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
Science ; 373(6556)2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559379

ABSTRACT

The emergence of highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) that are resistant to therapeutic antibodies highlights the need for continuing discovery of broadly reactive antibodies. We identified four receptor binding domain-targeting antibodies from three early-outbreak convalescent donors with potent neutralizing activity against 23 variants, including the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.429, B.1.526, and B.1.617 VOCs. Two antibodies are ultrapotent, with subnanomolar neutralization titers [half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) 0.3 to 11.1 nanograms per milliliter; IC80 1.5 to 34.5 nanograms per milliliter). We define the structural and functional determinants of binding for all four VOC-targeting antibodies and show that combinations of two antibodies decrease the in vitro generation of escape mutants, suggesting their potential in mitigating resistance development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Affinity , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/metabolism , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains , Receptors, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
3.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750489

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as a global pathogen, sparking urgent vaccine development efforts with the trimeric spike. However, the inability of antibodies like CR3022, which binds a cryptic spike epitope with nanomolar affinity, to neutralize virus, suggests a spike-based means of neutralization escape. Here, we show the SARS-CoV-2 spike to have 10% the unfolding enthalpy of a globular protein at physiological pH, where it is recognized by antibodies like CR3022, and up to 10-times more unfolding enthalpy at endosomal pH, where it sheds such antibodies, suggesting that the spike evades potentially neutralizing antibody through a pH-dependent mechanism of conformational masking. To understand the compatibility of this mechanism with ACE2-receptor interactions, we carried out binding measurements and determined cryo-EM structures of the spike recognizing up to three ACE2 molecules at both physiological and endosomal pH. In the absence of ACE2, cryo-EM analyses indicated lower pH to reduce conformational heterogeneity. Single-receptor binding domain (RBD)-up conformations dominated at pH 5.5, resolving into a locked all-down conformation at lower pH through lowering of RBD and refolding of a pH-dependent switch. Notably, the emerging Asp614Gly strain partially destabilizes the switch that locks RBD down, thereby enhancing functional interactions with ACE2 while reducing evasion by conformational masking.

4.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(6): 867-879.e5, 2020 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385264

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike employs mobile receptor-binding domains (RBDs) to engage the human ACE2 receptor and to facilitate virus entry, which can occur through low-pH-endosomal pathways. To understand how ACE2 binding and low pH affect spike conformation, we determined cryo-electron microscopy structures-at serological and endosomal pH-delineating spike recognition of up to three ACE2 molecules. RBDs freely adopted "up" conformations required for ACE2 interaction, primarily through RBD movement combined with smaller alterations in neighboring domains. In the absence of ACE2, single-RBD-up conformations dominated at pH 5.5, resolving into a solitary all-down conformation at lower pH. Notably, a pH-dependent refolding region (residues 824-858) at the spike-interdomain interface displayed dramatic structural rearrangements and mediated RBD positioning through coordinated movements of the entire trimer apex. These structures provide a foundation for understanding prefusion-spike mechanics governing endosomal entry; we suggest that the low pH all-down conformation potentially facilitates immune evasion from RBD-up binding antibody.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Endosomes/ultrastructure , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/ultrastructure , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
5.
J Biol Chem ; 297(4): 101127, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373108

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike is the primary target of virus-neutralizing antibodies and critical to the development of effective vaccines against COVID-19. Here, we demonstrate that the prefusion-stabilized two-proline "S2P" spike-widely employed for laboratory work and clinical studies-unfolds when stored at 4 °C, physiological pH, as observed by electron microscopy (EM) and differential scanning calorimetry, but that its trimeric, native-like conformation can be reacquired by low pH treatment. When stored for approximately 1 week, this unfolding does not significantly alter antigenic characteristics; however, longer storage diminishes antibody binding, and month-old spike elicits virtually no neutralization in mice despite inducing high ELISA-binding titers. Cryo-EM structures reveal the folded fraction of spike to decrease with aging; however, its structure remains largely similar, although with varying mobility of the receptor-binding domain. Thus, the SARS-CoV-2 spike is susceptible to unfolding, which affects immunogenicity, highlighting the need to monitor its integrity.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Female , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Protein Unfolding , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Time Factors
6.
Science ; 373(6556)2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295159

ABSTRACT

The emergence of highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) that are resistant to therapeutic antibodies highlights the need for continuing discovery of broadly reactive antibodies. We identified four receptor binding domain-targeting antibodies from three early-outbreak convalescent donors with potent neutralizing activity against 23 variants, including the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.429, B.1.526, and B.1.617 VOCs. Two antibodies are ultrapotent, with subnanomolar neutralization titers [half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) 0.3 to 11.1 nanograms per milliliter; IC80 1.5 to 34.5 nanograms per milliliter). We define the structural and functional determinants of binding for all four VOC-targeting antibodies and show that combinations of two antibodies decrease the in vitro generation of escape mutants, suggesting their potential in mitigating resistance development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Affinity , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/metabolism , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains , Receptors, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
7.
Nature ; 595(7866): 278-282, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258586

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 has caused millions of deaths worldwide. Although a number of vaccines have been deployed, the continual evolution of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the virus has challenged their efficacy. In particular, the emerging variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and P.1 (first detected in the UK, South Africa and Brazil, respectively) have compromised the efficacy of sera from patients who have recovered from COVID-19 and immunotherapies that have received emergency use authorization1-3. One potential alternative to avert viral escape is the use of camelid VHHs (variable heavy chain domains of heavy chain antibody (also known as nanobodies)), which can recognize epitopes that are often inaccessible to conventional antibodies4. Here, we isolate anti-RBD nanobodies from llamas and from mice that we engineered to produce VHHs cloned from alpacas, dromedaries and Bactrian camels. We identified two groups of highly neutralizing nanobodies. Group 1 circumvents antigenic drift by recognizing an RBD region that is highly conserved in coronaviruses but rarely targeted by human antibodies. Group 2 is almost exclusively focused to the RBD-ACE2 interface and does not neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants that carry E484K or N501Y substitutions. However, nanobodies in group 2 retain full neutralization activity against these variants when expressed as homotrimers, and-to our knowledge-rival the most potent antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 that have been produced to date. These findings suggest that multivalent nanobodies overcome SARS-CoV-2 mutations through two separate mechanisms: enhanced avidity for the ACE2-binding domain and recognition of conserved epitopes that are largely inaccessible to human antibodies. Therefore, although new SARS-CoV-2 mutants will continue to emerge, nanobodies represent promising tools to prevent COVID-19 mortality when vaccines are compromised.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Camelids, New World/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/chemistry , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Camelids, New World/genetics , Female , Gene Editing , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Single-Domain Antibodies/genetics , Single-Domain Antibodies/isolation & purification , Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin/genetics
8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045354

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic highlights an urgent need for vaccines that confer protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection. One approach to an effective COVID-19 vaccine may be through the display of SARS-CoV-2 spikes on the surface of virus-like particles, in a manner structurally mimicking spikes on a native virus. Here we report the development of Newcastle disease virus-like particles (NDVLPs) displaying the prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike ectodomain (S2P). Immunoassays with SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies revealed the antigenicity of S2P-NDVLP to be generally similar to that of soluble S2P, and negative-stain electron microscopy showed S2P on the NDVLP surface to be displayed with a morphology corresponding to its prefusion conformation. Mice immunized with S2P-NDVLP showed substantial neutralization titers (geometric mean ID50 = 386) two weeks after prime immunization, significantly higher than those elicited by a molar equivalent amount of soluble S2P (geometric mean ID50 = 17). Neutralizing titers at Week 5, two weeks after a boost immunization with S2P-NDVLP doses ranging from 2.0 to 250 µg, extended from 2125 to 4552, and these generally showed a higher ratio of neutralization versus ELISA than observed with soluble S2P. Overall, S2P-NDVLP appears to be a promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate capable of eliciting substantial neutralizing activity.

9.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637504

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike employs mobile receptor-binding domains (RBDs) to engage the ACE2 receptor and to facilitate virus entry. Antibodies can engage RBD but some, such as CR3022, fail to inhibit entry despite nanomolar spike affinity. Here we show the SARS-CoV-2 spike to have low unfolding enthalpy at serological pH and up to 10-times more unfolding enthalpy at endosomal pH, where we observe significantly reduced CR3022 affinity. Cryo-EM structures -at serological and endosomal pH- delineated spike recognition of up to three ACE2 molecules, revealing RBD to freely adopt the 'up' conformation. In the absence of ACE2, single-RBD-up conformations dominated at pH 5.5, resolving into a locked all-down conformation at lower pH. Notably, a pH-dependent refolding region (residues 824-858) at the spike-interdomain interface displayed dramatic structural rearrangements and mediated RBD positioning and spike shedding of antibodies like CR3022. An endosomal mechanism involving spike-conformational change can thus facilitate immune evasion from RBD-'up'-recognizing antibody.

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