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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(5)2023 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240459

ABSTRACT

Hospitals in England experience extremely high levels of bed occupancy in the winter. In these circumstances, vaccine-preventable hospitalisations due to seasonal respiratory infections have a high cost because of the missed opportunity to treat other patients on the waiting list. This paper estimates the number of hospitalisations that current vaccines against influenza, pneumococcal disease (PD), COVID-19, and a hypothetical Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) vaccine, could prevent in the winter among older adults in England. Their costs were quantified using a conventional reference costing method and a novel opportunity costing approach considering the net monetary benefit (NMB) obtained from alternative uses of the hospital beds freed-up by vaccines. The influenza, PD and RSV vaccines could collectively prevent 72,813 bed days and save over £45 million in hospitalisation costs. The COVID-19 vaccine could prevent over 2 million bed days and save £1.3 billion. However, the value of hospital beds freed up by vaccination is likely to be 1.1-2 times larger (£48-93 million for flu, PD and RSV; £1.4-2.8 billion for COVID-19) when quantified in opportunity cost terms. Considering opportunity costs is key to ensuring maximum value is obtained from preventative budgets, as reference costing may significantly underestimate the true value of vaccines.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(2)2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200984

ABSTRACT

Health technology assessments (HTAs) of vaccines typically focus on the direct health benefits to individuals and healthcare systems. COVID-19 highlighted the widespread societal impact of infectious diseases and the value of vaccines in averting adverse clinical consequences and in maintaining or resuming social and economic activities. Using COVID-19 as a case study, this research work aimed to set forth a conceptual framework capturing the broader value elements of vaccines and to identify appropriate methods to quantify value elements not routinely considered in HTAs. A two-step approach was adopted, combining a targeted literature review and three rounds of expert elicitation based on a modified Delphi method, leading to a conceptual framework of 30 value elements related to broader health effects, societal and economic impact, public finances, and uncertainty value. When applying the framework to COVID-19 vaccines in post-pandemic settings, 13 value elements were consensually rated highly important by the experts for consideration in HTAs. The experts reviewed over 10 methods that could be leveraged to quantify broader value elements and provided technical forward-looking recommendations. Limitations of the framework and the identified methods were discussed. This study supplements ongoing efforts aimed towards a broader recognition of the full societal value of vaccines.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988063

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this research were to produce a macro-level overview of the global COVID-19 burden and estimate the value of access to COVID-19 vaccines. A targeted literature review collated evidence of the burden. Linear modelling and data analysis estimated the health and economic effects of COVID-19 vaccines delivered in 2021, and whether additional value could have been achieved with broader and more equitable access. By 1 December 2020, there had been an estimated 17 million excess deaths due to COVID-19. Low-income countries allocated more than 30% of their healthcare budgets to COVID-19, compared to 8% in high-income countries. All country income groups experienced gross domestic product (GDP) growth lower than predicted in 2020. If all 92 countries eligible for COVAX Advance Market Committee (AMC), access had reached 40% vaccination coverage in 2021, 120% more excess deaths would have been averted, equivalent to USD 5 billion (109) in savings to healthcare systems. Every USD spent by advanced economies on vaccinations for less advanced economies averted USD 28 of economic losses in advanced economies and USD 29 in less advanced economies. The cost to high-income countries when not all countries are vaccinated far outweighs the cost of manufacturing and distributing vaccines globally.

5.
International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care ; 37(S1):31, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1550205

ABSTRACT

IntroductionCOVID-19 has exposed population and health systems’ vulnerability to a highly infectious disease. People with diabetes have a higher risk of COVID-19 hospitalization and death than those without. Medicines that control blood glucose reduce this risk. We quantified COVID-19 hospital admissions and deaths averted by diabetes medicines in the UK during the March-May 2020 wave.MethodsWe estimated COVID-19 hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions averted and COVID-19 hospital deaths avoided by diabetes medicines, considering a counterfactual where those medicines were not available. We used published UK-data sources on diabetes prevalence, proportion of patients achieving diabetes control with medicines, COVID-19 infection risk, probabilities for COVID-19 hospital admission, subsequent ICU admission and hospital death. We calculated the relative risk reduction of controlled vs. uncontrolled diabetes on COVID-19 hospital or ICU admission (71% and 66%, respectively), and hospital death (38%) from the UK Open Safely data.ResultsDiabetes medicines are estimated to have averted 17,417 hospital admissions, 2,752 ICU-admissions and 438 hospital deaths due to COVID-19 compared to a counterfactual where those medicines had not been available in the UK.ConclusionsEffective medicines to control diabetes contribute to population and health systems resilience against COVID-19. Health technology assessment and policy makers should recognize that adoption and usage of health technology reduces societies’ vulnerability to similar shocks.

6.
International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care ; 37(S1):9-10, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1550195

ABSTRACT

IntroductionThe COVID-19 pandemic shows that the impact of effective vaccines extends well beyond vaccinated individuals and healthcare systems. Yet, these externalities are not typically considered in health technology assessments (HTA) which may underestimate vaccines’ broader value. We explored to what extent future vaccines relevant to England might exhibit such broader value.MethodsWe compared the ten value elements of an existing vaccine evaluation framework to the value elements considered in England according to the Joint Committee on Vaccine and Immunisation (JCVI) and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's (NICE) guidelines. Using literature and expert opinion we then explored, for a selection of ten vaccines with an expected UK-launch within five years, on which value elements each vaccine might potentially show added value.ResultsUp to five of ten value elements are unlikely to be considered by JCVI or NICE, including patient and carer productivity, enablement value, impact on antimicrobial resistance and transmission value. Of vaccines studied, 100 percent will potentially generate value on at least one broader value element that is currently ignored;60 percent to 80 percent may increase vaccinee/patient or carer productivity respectively.ConclusionsThere is a substantial gap between value generation and value recognition of vaccines in HTA in England. This might lead to undervaluation and underutilization of vaccines, leaving societies more vulnerable than needed when faced with infectious diseases.

7.
Appl Health Econ Health Policy ; 20(1): 105-117, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic shows that the impact of effective vaccines can extend well beyond vaccinated individuals and healthcare systems. Yet, these broader value elements are not typically considered in Health Technology Assessment (HTA) which may underestimate vaccines' broader value. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to (1) describe the gap between broader value elements identified in value frameworks for vaccines and those recognised in HTA of vaccines in nine developed markets, and (2) develop expert-informed, consensus-based recommendations on how hurdles for broader value recognition could be overcome. METHODS: We used a four-step modified Delphi method consisting of literature research (phase I, pearl-growing approach using PubMed Web of Science and Google covering the years 2000-2019), two consecutive phases of expert elicitation (phase II and III, including two email surveys and one virtual round table with 10 experts from 9 countries) and synthesis of recommendations (phase IV). RESULTS: Results show that about half of the broader value elements relevant to vaccines are not (consistently) considered in HTA processes of multiple higher-income countries. Experts identified five priority areas for broader value recognition, including considering (1) more comprehensive cost offsets within the health care system, (2) carer quality of life, (3) transmission value, (4) prevention of antimicrobial resistance and (5) macroeconomic effects. CONCLUSION: To achieve a broader recognition of the value of vaccines, a three-pronged approach was recommended, focusing on (1) Evidence: proactively steering generation of high-quality evidence to quantify the broader value of vaccines to society; (2) Ability: leveraging and further developing existing methodological and analytic expertise to appropriately recognise the broad value of vaccines within HTA processes; (3) Willingness: Stimulating stakeholder engagement to change the status quo and move towards more transparent and comprehensive value assessment processes for vaccines globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology Assessment, Biomedical
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