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1.
Kidney360 ; 2(7): 1087-1094, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776846

ABSTRACT

Background: Although electrolyte abnormalities are common among patients with COVID-19, very little has been reported on magnesium homeostasis in these patients. Here we report the incidence of hypermagnesemia, and its association with outcomes among patients admitted with COVID-19. Methods: We retrospectively identified all patients with a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2 who were admitted to a large quaternary care center in New York City in spring 2020. Details of the patients' demographics and hospital course were obtained retrospectively from medical records. Patients were defined as having hypermagnesemia if their median magnesium over the course of their hospitalization was >2.4 mg/dl. Results: A total of 1685 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 had their magnesium levels checked during their hospitalization, and were included in the final study cohort, among whom 355 (21%) had hypermagnesemia. Patients who were hypermagnesemic had a higher incidence of shock requiring pressors (35% vs 27%, P<0.01), respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation (28% vs 21%, P=0.01), AKI (65% vs 50%, P<0.001), and AKI severe enough to require renal replacement therapy (18% vs 5%, P<0.001). In an adjusted multivariable model, hypermagnesemia was observed more commonly with increasing age, male sex, AKI requiring RRT, hyperkalemia, and higher CPK. Survival probability at 30 days was 34% for the patients with hypermagnesemia, compared with 65% for patients without hypermagnesemia. An adjusted multivariable time to event analysis identified an increased risk of mortality with older age, need for vasopressors, higher C-reactive protein levels, and hypermagnesemia (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.63 to 2.54, P<0.001). Conclusions: In conclusion, we identified an association between hypermagnesemia among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and increased mortality. Although the exact mechanism of this relationship remains unclear, hypermagnesemia potentially represents increased cell turnover and higher severity of illness, which is frequently associated with more severe forms of AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Magnesium , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Kidney360 ; 2(7): 1152-1155, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776829

ABSTRACT

AKI frequently occurs in patients with COVID-19, and kidney injury severe enough to require RRT is a common complication among patients who are critically ill. During the surge of the pandemic, there was a high demand for dialysate for continuous RRT, and this increase in demand, coupled with vulnerabilities in the supply chain, necessitated alternative approaches, including internal production of dialysate. Using a standard hemodialysis machine and off-the-shelf supplies, as per Food and Drug Administration guidelines, we developed a method for on-site dialysate production that is adaptable and can be used to fill multiple bags at once. The use of a central reverse osmosis unit, dedicated hemodialysis machine, sterile bags with separate ports for fill and use, and frequent testing will ensure stability, sterility, and-therefore-safety of the produced dialysate. The dialysate made in house was tested and it showed both stability and sterility for at least 30 hours. This detailed description of our process for generating dialysate can serve as a guide for other programs experiencing similar vulnerabilities in the demand versus supply of dialysate.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Dialysis Solutions , Humans , Pandemics , United States
3.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 601-615, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517636

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has resulted in global healthcare crises and strained health resources. As the population of patients recovering from COVID-19 grows, it is paramount to establish an understanding of the healthcare issues surrounding them. COVID-19 is now recognized as a multi-organ disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Similarly to post-acute viral syndromes described in survivors of other virulent coronavirus epidemics, there are increasing reports of persistent and prolonged effects after acute COVID-19. Patient advocacy groups, many members of which identify themselves as long haulers, have helped contribute to the recognition of post-acute COVID-19, a syndrome characterized by persistent symptoms and/or delayed or long-term complications beyond 4 weeks from the onset of symptoms. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on post-acute COVID-19, its pathophysiology and its organ-specific sequelae. Finally, we discuss relevant considerations for the multidisciplinary care of COVID-19 survivors and propose a framework for the identification of those at high risk for post-acute COVID-19 and their coordinated management through dedicated COVID-19 clinics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Patient Advocacy , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
4.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 601-615, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147038

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has resulted in global healthcare crises and strained health resources. As the population of patients recovering from COVID-19 grows, it is paramount to establish an understanding of the healthcare issues surrounding them. COVID-19 is now recognized as a multi-organ disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Similarly to post-acute viral syndromes described in survivors of other virulent coronavirus epidemics, there are increasing reports of persistent and prolonged effects after acute COVID-19. Patient advocacy groups, many members of which identify themselves as long haulers, have helped contribute to the recognition of post-acute COVID-19, a syndrome characterized by persistent symptoms and/or delayed or long-term complications beyond 4 weeks from the onset of symptoms. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on post-acute COVID-19, its pathophysiology and its organ-specific sequelae. Finally, we discuss relevant considerations for the multidisciplinary care of COVID-19 survivors and propose a framework for the identification of those at high risk for post-acute COVID-19 and their coordinated management through dedicated COVID-19 clinics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Patient Advocacy , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
5.
Semin Dial ; 34(6): 561-566, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127520

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 illness and the consequent cytokine storm and vasodilatory shock commonly lead to ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI). The need for renal replacement therapies (RRTs) in those with the most severe forms of AKI is considerable and risks overwhelming health-care systems at the peak of a surge. We detail the challenges and considerations involved in the preparation of a disaster response plan in situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic, which dramatically increase demand for nephrology services. Taking careful inventory of all aspects of an RRT program (personnel, consumables, and machines) before a surge in RRT arises and developing disaster contingency protocol anticoagulation and for shared RRT models when absolutely necessary are paramount to a successful response to such a disaster.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis , Renal Replacement Therapy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 604182, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016066

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented surge of nephrology inpatients needing kidney replacement therapy placed hospital systems under extreme stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this article, we describe the formation of a cross campus "New-York Presbyterian COVID-19 Kidney Replacement Therapy Task Force" with intercampus physician, nursing, and supply chain representation. We describe several strategies including the development of novel dashboards to track supply/demand of resources, urgent start peritoneal dialysis, in-house preparation of kidney replacement fluid, the use of unconventional personnel resources to ensure the safe and continued provision of kidney replacement therapy in the face of the unanticipated surge. These approaches facilitated equitable sharing of resources across a complex healthcare-system and allowed for the rapid implementation of standardized protocols at each hospital.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244131, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999832

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A large proportion of patients with COVID-19 develop acute kidney injury (AKI). While the most severe of these cases require renal replacement therapy (RRT), little is known about their clinical course. METHODS: We describe the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients in the ICU with AKI requiring RRT at an academic medical center in New York City and followed patients for outcomes of death and renal recovery using time-to-event analyses. RESULTS: Our cohort of 115 patients represented 23% of all ICU admissions at our center, with a peak prevalence of 29%. Patients were followed for a median of 29 days (2542 total patient-RRT-days; median 54 days for survivors). Mechanical ventilation and vasopressor use were common (99% and 84%, respectively), and the median Sequential Organ Function Assessment (SOFA) score was 14. By the end of follow-up 51% died, 41% recovered kidney function (84% of survivors), and 8% still needed RRT (survival probability at 60 days: 0.46 [95% CI: 0.36-0.56])). In an adjusted Cox model, coronary artery disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were associated with increased mortality (HRs: 3.99 [95% CI 1.46-10.90] and 3.10 [95% CI 1.25-7.66]) as were angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (HR 2.33 [95% CI 1.21-4.47]) and a SOFA score >15 (HR 3.46 [95% CI 1.65-7.25). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Our analysis demonstrates the high prevalence of AKI requiring RRT among critically ill patients with COVID-19 and is associated with a high mortality, however, the rate of renal recovery is high among survivors and should inform shared-decision making.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Kidney/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Aged , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Kidney/virology , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Proportional Hazards Models , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Survivors
8.
J Crit Care ; 62: 172-175, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988303

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has created an enormous health crisis and this spring New York City had a severe outbreak that pushed health and critical care resources to the limit. A lack of adequate space for mechanically ventilated patients induced our hospital to convert operating rooms into critical care areas (OR-ICU). A large number of COVID-19 will develop acute kidney injury that requires renal replacement therapy (RRT). We included 116 patients with COVID-19 who required mechanical ventilation and were cared for in our OR-ICU. At 90 days and at discharge 35 patients died (30.2%). RRT was required by 45 of the 116 patients (38.8%) and 18 of these 45 patients (40%) compared to 17 with no RRT (23.9%, ns) died during hospitalization and after 90 days. Only two of the 27 patients who required RRT and survived required RRT at discharge and 90 days. When defining renal recovery as a discharge serum creatinine within 150% of baseline, 68 of 78 survivors showed renal recovery (87.2%). Survival was similar to previous reports of patients with severe COVID-19 for patients cared for in provisional ICUs compared to standard ICUs. Most patients with severe COVID-19 and AKI are likely to recover full renal function.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Renal Replacement Therapy , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units/supply & distribution , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Recovery of Function , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Kidney Int Rep ; 5(8): 1149-1160, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613889

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are limited data on the association of kidney dysfunction with prognosis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the extent to which acute kidney injury (AKI) predisposes patients to severe illness and inferior outcomes is unclear. We aim to assess the incidence of AKI among patients with COVID-19 and examine their associations with patient outcomes as reported in the available literature thus far. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and MedRxiv databases for full-text articles available in English published from December 1, 2019 to May 24, 2020. Clinical information was extracted and examined from 20 cohorts that met inclusion criteria, covering 13,137 mostly hospitalized patients confirmed to have COVID-19. Two authors independently extracted study characteristics, results, outcomes, study-level risk of bias, and strength of evidence across studies. Neither reviewer was blind to journal titles, study authors, or institutions. RESULTS: Median age was 56 years, with 55% male patients. Approximately 43% of patients had severe COVID-19 infection, and approximately 11% died. Prevalence of AKI was 17%; 77% of patients with AKI experienced severe COVID-19 infection, and 52% died. AKI was associated with increased odds of death among COVID-19 patients (pooled odds ratio, 15.27; 95% CI 4.82-48.36), although there was considerable heterogeneity across studies and among different regions in the world. Approximately 5% of all patients required use of renal replacement therapy (RRT). CONCLUSIONS: Kidney dysfunction is common among patients with COVID-19, and patients who develop AKI have inferior outcomes. Additional research into management and potential mechanisms of this association is needed.

11.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(7): 1409-1415, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-433957

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relative immunosuppression and high prevalence of comorbidities in patients with ESKD on dialysis raise concerns that they may have an elevated risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but outcomes for COVID-19 in such patients are unclear. METHODS: To examine presentation and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with ESKD on dialysis, we retrospectively collected clinical data on 59 patients on dialysis who were hospitalized with COVID-19. We used Wilcoxon rank sum and Fischer exact tests to compare patients who died versus those still living. RESULTS: Two of the study's 59 patients were on peritoneal dialysis, and 57 were on hemodialysis. Median age was 63 years, with high prevalence of hypertension (98%) and diabetes (69%). Patients who died were significantly older than those still living (median age, 75 versus 62 years) and had a higher median Charlson comorbidity index (8 versus 7). The most common presenting symptoms were fever (49%) and cough (39%); initial radiographs most commonly showed multifocal or bilateral opacities (59%). By end of follow-up, 18 patients (31%) died a median 6 days after hospitalization, including 75% of patients who required mechanical ventilation. Eleven of those who died had advanced directives against intubation. The remaining 41 patients (69%) were discharged home a median 8 days after admission. The median initial white blood cell count was significantly higher in patients who died compared with those still living (7.5 versus 5.7×103/µl), as was C-reactive protein (163 versus 80 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: The association of COVID-19 with high mortality in patients with ESKD on dialysis reinforces the need to take appropriate infection control measures to prevent COVID-19 spread in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control/organization & administration , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/methods , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prevalence , Renal Dialysis/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Survival Analysis , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
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