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1.
iScience ; 25(5): 104188, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768219

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being studied for the treatment of COVID-19-associated critical illness, due to their immunomodulatory properties. Here, we hypothesized that viral mimic-priming improves MSCs' abilities to rebalance the dysregulated immune responses in COVID-19. Transcriptome analysis of poly(I:C)-primed MSCs (pIC-MSCs) showed upregulation of pathways in antiviral and immunomodulatory responses. Together with increased expression of antiviral proteins such as MX1, IFITM3, and OAS1, these changes translated to greater effector functions in regulating monocytes and granulocytes while further enhancing MSCs' ability to block SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus entry into epithelial cells. Most importantly, the addition of pIC-MSCs to COVID-19 patient whole blood significantly reduced inflammatory neutrophils and increased M2 monocytes while enhancing their phagocytic effector function. We reveal for the first time that MSCs can be primed by Toll-like receptor 3 agonist to improve their ability to rebalance the dysregulated immune responses seen in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 20, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638634

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although 90% of infections with the novel coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) are mild, many patients progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which carries a high risk of mortality. Given that this dysregulated immune response plays a key role in the pathology of COVID-19, several clinical trials are underway to evaluate the effect of immunomodulatory cell therapy on disease progression. However, little is known about the effect of ARDS associated pro-inflammatory mediators on transplanted stem cell function and survival, and any deleterious effects could undermine therapeutic efficacy. As such, we assessed the impact of inflammatory cytokines on the viability, and paracrine profile (extracellular vesicles) of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells, heart-derived cells, and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. METHODS: All cell products were manufactured and characterized to established clinical release standards by an accredited clinical cell manufacturing facility. Cytokines and Extracellular vesicles in the cell conditioned media were profiled using proteomic array and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Using a survey of the clinical literature, 6 cytotoxic cytokines implicated in the progression of COVID-19 ARDS. Flow cytometry was employed to determine receptor expression of these 6 cytokines in three cell products. Based on clinical survey and flow cytometry data, a cytokine cocktail that mimics cytokine storm seen in COVID-19 ARDS patients was designed and the impact on cytokine cocktail on viability and paracrine secretory ability of cell products were assessed using cell viability and nanoparticle tracking analysis. RESULTS: Flow cytometry revealed the presence of receptors for all cytokines but IL-6, which was subsequently excluded from further experimentation. Despite this widespread expression, exposure of each cell type to individual cytokines at doses tenfold greater than observed clinically or in combination at doses associated with severe ARDS did not alter cell viability or extracellular vesicle character/production in any of the 3 cell products. CONCLUSIONS: The paracrine production and viability of the three leading cell products under clinical evaluation for the treatment of severe COVID-19 ARDS are not altered by inflammatory mediators implicated in disease progression.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Acute Lung Injury/therapy , Cytokines , Humans , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 10(12): e12141, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451869

ABSTRACT

Preclinical studies suggest mesenchymal stromal cell extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) reduce inflammation and improve organ function in lung diseases; however, an objective analysis of all available data is needed prior to translation. Using rigorous meta-research methods, we determined the effectiveness of MSC-EVs for preclinical respiratory diseases and identified experimental conditions that may further refine this therapy. A systematic search of MEDLINE/Embase identified 1167 records. After screening, 52 articles were included for data extraction and evaluated for risk of bias and quality of reporting in study design. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted for acute lung injury (ALI; N = 23), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; N = 8) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH; N = 7). Subgroup analyses identified EV methods/characteristics that may be associated with improved efficacy. Data is presented as standardized mean differences (SMD) or risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). For ALI, MSC-EVs markedly reduced lung injury (SMD -4.33, CI -5.73 to -2.92), vascular permeability (SMD -2.43, CI -3.05 to -1.82), and mortality (RR 0.39, CI 0.22 to 0.68). Small EVs were more consistently effective than large EVs whereas no differences were observed between tissue sources, immunocompatibility or isolation techniques. For BPD, alveolarization was improved by MSC-EVs (SMD -1.45, CI -2.08 to -0.82) with small EVs more consistently beneficial then small/large EVs. In PAH, right ventricular systolic pressure (SMD -4.16, CI -5.68 to -2.64) and hypertrophy (SMD -2.80, CI -3.68 to -1.91) were significantly attenuated by EVs. In BPD and PAH, EVs isolated by ultracentrifugation demonstrated therapeutic benefit whereas tangential flow filtration (N = 2) displayed minimal efficacy. Lastly, risk of bias and quality of reporting for experimental design were consistently unclear across all studies. Our findings demonstrate clear potential of MSC-EVs to be developed as therapy for acute and chronic lung diseases. However, greater transparency in research design and direct comparisons of isolation technique and EV subtypes are needed to generate robust evidence to guide clinical translation. Protocol Registration: PROSPERO CRD42020145334.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Respiration Disorders/therapy , Acute Disease , Animals , Chronic Disease , Disease Models, Animal , Humans
4.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 16(5): 812-827, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-645185

ABSTRACT

Critical illnesses including sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndromes, ischemic cardiovascular disorders and acute organ injuries are associated with high mortality, morbidity as well as significant health care system expenses. While these diverse conditions require different specific therapeutic approaches, mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of self-renewal, tri-lineage differentiation with a broad range regenerative and immunomodulatory activities, making them attractive for the treatment of critical illness. The therapeutic effects of MSCs have been extensively investigated in several pre-clinical models of critical illness as well as in phase I and II clinical cell therapy trials with mixed results. Whilst these studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential for MSC therapy in critical illness, optimization for clinical use is an ongoing challenge. MSCs can be readily genetically modified by application of different techniques and tools leading to overexpress or inhibit genes related to their immunomodulatory or regenerative functions. Here we will review recent approaches designed to enhance the therapeutic potential of MSCs with an emphasis on the technology used to generate genetically modified cells, target genes, target diseases and the implication of genetically modified MSCs in cell therapy for critical illness.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness/therapy , Genetic Therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Gene Transfer Techniques , Humans
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