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J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 164(2): 378-385, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712841


BACKGROUND: The influence of SARS-CoV-2 on surgery for non-small cell lung cancer needs to be understood to inform clinical decision making during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study reports on the 90-day rate of infection as well as the morbidity and mortality of lung surgery for cancer in a tertiary care hospital located in a pandemic epicenter. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of a prospective database to identify consecutive patients who underwent lung cancer resection before (January 1, 2020-March 10, 2020, group 1; 57 patients) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (March 11, 2020-June 10, 2020, group 2; 41 patients). The primary end point was the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first 90-days after surgery. The secondary outcome measure was 90-day perioperative morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Patient characteristics were not significantly different between the groups. Ninety-day COVID-19 infection rates was 7.3% (3 out of 41) for patients undergoing an operation during the pandemic and 3.5% (2 out of 57) in patients operated on immediately before the pandemic. All patients tested positive 10 to 62 days after the index surgical procedure following hospital discharge. Four COVID-19-positive patients were symptomatic and 4 out of 5 patients required hospitalization, were men, previous or current smokers with hyperlipidemia, and underwent a sublobar resection. Univariate analysis did not identify any differences in postoperative complications before or during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ninety-day mortality was 5% (2 out of 41) for lung cancer surgery performed during the pandemic, with all deaths occurring due to COVID-19, compared with 0% (0 out of 57) mortality in patients who underwent an operation before the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, COVID-19 infections occurred in 7.3% of patients who underwent surgery for non-small cell lung cancer. In this series all infections occurred after hospital discharge. Our results suggest that COVID-19 infections occurring within 90 days of surgery portend a 40% mortality, warranting close postoperative surveillance.

COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Laryngoscope ; 131(12): E2849-E2856, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242750


OBJECTIVE: Report long-term tracheostomy outcomes in patients with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Review of prospectively collected data. METHODS: Prospectively collected data were extracted for adults with COVID-19 undergoing percutaneous or open tracheostomy between April 4, 2020 and June 2, 2020 at a major medical center in New York City. The primary endpoint was weaning from mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes included sedation weaning, decannulation, and discharge. RESULTS: One hundred one patients underwent tracheostomy, including 48 percutaneous (48%) and 53 open (52%), after a median intubation time of 24 days (IQR 20, 31). The most common complication was minor bleeding (n = 18, 18%). The all-cause mortality rate was 15% and no deaths were attributable to the tracheostomy. Eighty-three patients (82%) were weaned off mechanical ventilation, 88 patients (87%) were weaned off sedation, and 72 patients (71%) were decannulated. Censored median times from tracheostomy to sedation and ventilator weaning were 8 (95% CI 6-11) and 18 (95% CI 14-22) days, respectively (uncensored: 7 and 15 days). Median time from tracheostomy to decannulation was 36 (95% CI 32-47) days (uncensored: 32 days). Of those decannulated, 82% were decannulated during their index admission. There were no differences in outcomes or complication rates between percutaneous and open tracheostomy. Likelihood of discharge from the ICU was inversely related to intubation time, though the clinical relevance of this was small (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.943-0.998; P = .037). CONCLUSION: Tracheostomy by either percutaneous or open technique facilitated sedation and ventilator weaning in patients with COVID-19 after prolonged intubation. Additional study on the optimal timing of tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 is warranted. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 131:E2849-E2856, 2021.

COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheostomy/methods , Aged , Airway Extubation/mortality , Airway Extubation/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Conscious Sedation/mortality , Conscious Sedation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Tracheostomy/mortality , Treatment Outcome , Ventilator Weaning/mortality , Ventilator Weaning/statistics & numerical data
Ann Surg ; 273(3): 403-409, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066511


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the safety, efficacy, and early results of tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 and determine whether differences exist between percutaneous and open methods. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Prolonged respiratory failure is common in symptomatic patients with COVID-19, the disease process caused by infection with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Tracheostomy, although posing potential risk to the operative team and other healthcare workers, may be beneficial for safe weaning of sedation and ventilator support. However, short- and long-term outcomes remain largely unknown. METHODS: A prospectively collected database of patients with COVID-19 undergoing tracheostomy at a major medical center in New York City between April 4 and April 30, 2020 was reviewed. The primary endpoint was need for continued mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes included complication rates, sedation weaning, and need for intensive care unit (ICU) level of care. Patient characteristics, perioperative conditions, and outcomes between percutaneous and open groups were analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period, 67 consecutive patients underwent tracheostomy, including 48 males and 19 females with a median age of 66 years [interquartile range (IQR) 52-72]. Two surgeons alternated techniques, with 35 tracheostomies performed percutaneously and 32 via an open approach. The median time from intubation to tracheostomy was 23 days (IQR 20-26). At a median follow-up of 26 days, 52 patients (78%) no longer required mechanical ventilation and 58 patients (87%) were off continuous sedation. Five patients (7.5%) died of systemic causes. There were 11 total complications (16%) in 10 patients, most of which involved minor bleeding. There were no significant differences in outcomes between percutaneous and open methods. CONCLUSIONS: Tracheostomy under apneic conditions by either percutaneous or open technique can be safely performed in patients with respiratory failure due to COVID-19. Tracheostomy facilitated weaning from continuous intravenous sedation and mechanical ventilation. Continued follow-up of these patients to ascertain long-term outcome data is ongoing.

COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Survival Rate , Tracheostomy/methods