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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0103322, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879118

ABSTRACT

Respiratory specimen collection materials shortages hampers severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing. We compared specimen alternatives and evaluated SARS-CoV-2 RNA stability under simulated shipping conditions. We compared concordance of RT-PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 from flocked midturbinate swabs (MTS) in viral transport media (VTM), foam MTS without VTM, and saliva. Specimens were collected between August 2020 and April 2021 from three prospective cohorts. We compared RT-PCR cycle quantification (Cq) for Spike (S), Nucleocapsid (N), and the Open Reading Frame 1ab (ORF) genes for flocked MTS and saliva specimens tested before and after exposure to a range of storage temperatures (4-30°C) and times (2, 3, and 7 days). Of 1,900 illnesses with ≥2 specimen types tested, 335 (18%) had SARS-CoV-2 detected in ≥1 specimen; 304 (91%) were concordant across specimen types. Among illnesses with SARS-CoV-2 detection, 97% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 94-98%) were positive on flocked MTS, 99% (95% CI: 97-100%) on saliva, and 89% (95% CI: 84-93%) on foam MTS. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in flocked MTS and saliva stored up to 30°C for 7 days. All specimen types provided highly concordant SARS-CoV-2 results. These findings support a range of viable options for specimen types, collection, and transport methods that may facilitate SARS-CoV-2 testing during supply and personnel shortages. IMPORTANCE Findings from this analysis indicate that (1) self-collection of flocked and foam MTS and saliva samples is feasible in both adults and children, (2) foam MTS with VTM and saliva are both viable and reasonable alternatives to traditional flocked MTS in VTM for SARS-CoV-2 detection, and (3) these sample types may be stored and transported at ambient temperatures for up to 7 days without compromising sample quality. These findings support methods of sample collection for SARS-CoV-2 detection that may facilitate widespread community testing in the setting of supply and personnel shortages during the current pandemic.

2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(13): 495-502, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771891

ABSTRACT

CDC recommends that all persons aged ≥18 years receive a single COVID-19 vaccine booster dose ≥2 months after receipt of an Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen [Johnson & Johnson]) adenovirus vector-based primary series vaccine; a heterologous COVID-19 mRNA vaccine is preferred over a homologous (matching) Janssen vaccine for booster vaccination. This recommendation was made in light of the risks for rare but serious adverse events following receipt of a Janssen vaccine, including thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome† (1), and clinical trial data indicating similar or higher neutralizing antibody response following heterologous boosting compared with homologous boosting (2). Data on real-world vaccine effectiveness (VE) of different booster strategies following a primary Janssen vaccine dose are limited, particularly during the period of Omicron variant predominance. The VISION Network§ determined real-world VE of 1 Janssen vaccine dose and 2 alternative booster dose strategies: 1) a homologous booster (i.e., 2 Janssen doses) and 2) a heterologous mRNA booster (i.e., 1 Janssen dose/1 mRNA dose). In addition, VE of these booster strategies was compared with VE of a homologous booster following mRNA primary series vaccination (i.e., 3 mRNA doses). The study examined 80,287 emergency department/urgent care (ED/UC) visits¶ and 25,244 hospitalizations across 10 states during December 16, 2021-March 7, 2022, when Omicron was the predominant circulating variant.** VE against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated ED/UC encounters was 24% after 1 Janssen dose, 54% after 2 Janssen doses, 79% after 1 Janssen/1 mRNA dose, and 83% after 3 mRNA doses. VE for the same vaccination strategies against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalizations were 31%, 67%, 78%, and 90%, respectively. All booster strategies provided higher protection than a single Janssen dose against ED/UC visits and hospitalizations during Omicron variant predominance. Vaccination with 1 Janssen/1 mRNA dose provided higher protection than did 2 Janssen doses against COVID-19-associated ED/UC visits and was comparable to protection provided by 3 mRNA doses during the first 120 days after a booster dose. However, 3 mRNA doses provided higher protection against COVID-19-associated hospitalizations than did other booster strategies during the same time interval since booster dose. All adults who have received mRNA vaccines for their COVID-19 primary series vaccination should receive an mRNA booster dose when eligible. Adults who received a primary Janssen vaccine dose should preferentially receive a heterologous mRNA vaccine booster dose ≥2 months later, or a homologous Janssen vaccine booster dose if mRNA vaccine is contraindicated or unavailable. Further investigation of the durability of protection afforded by different booster strategies is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(9): 352-358, 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727017

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 exceeded 90% in clinical trials that included children and adolescents aged 5-11, 12-15, and 16-17 years (1-3). Limited real-world data on 2-dose mRNA vaccine effectiveness (VE) in persons aged 12-17 years (referred to as adolescents in this report) have also indicated high levels of protection against SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) infection and COVID-19-associated hospitalization (4-6); however, data on VE against the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant and duration of protection are limited. Pfizer-BioNTech VE data are not available for children aged 5-11 years. In partnership with CDC, the VISION Network* examined 39,217 emergency department (ED) and urgent care (UC) encounters and 1,699 hospitalizations† among persons aged 5-17 years with COVID-19-like illness across 10 states during April 9, 2021-January 29, 2022,§ to estimate VE using a case-control test-negative design. Among children aged 5-11 years, VE against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated ED and UC encounters 14-67 days after dose 2 (the longest interval after dose 2 in this age group) was 46%. Among adolescents aged 12-15 and 16-17 years, VE 14-149 days after dose 2 was 83% and 76%, respectively; VE ≥150 days after dose 2 was 38% and 46%, respectively. Among adolescents aged 16-17 years, VE increased to 86% ≥7 days after dose 3 (booster dose). VE against COVID-19-associated ED and UC encounters was substantially lower during the Omicron predominant period than the B.1.617.2 (Delta) predominant period among adolescents aged 12-17 years, with no significant protection ≥150 days after dose 2 during Omicron predominance. However, in adolescents aged 16-17 years, VE during the Omicron predominant period increased to 81% ≥7 days after a third booster dose. During the full study period, including pre-Delta, Delta, and Omicron predominant periods, VE against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalization among children aged 5-11 years was 74% 14-67 days after dose 2, with wide CIs that included zero. Among adolescents aged 12-15 and 16-17 years, VE 14-149 days after dose 2 was 92% and 94%, respectively; VE ≥150 days after dose 2 was 73% and 88%, respectively. All eligible children and adolescents should remain up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations, including a booster dose for those aged 12-17 years.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Male , United States
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data about the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pregnant individuals are needed to inform infection prevention guidance and counseling for this population. METHODS: We prospectively followed a cohort of pregnant individuals during August 2020-March 2021 at three U.S. sites. The three primary outcomes were incidence rates of any SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptomatic infection, and asymptomatic infection, during pregnancy during periods of SARS-CoV-2 circulation. Participants self-collected weekly mid-turbinate nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing, completed weekly illness symptom questionnaires, and submitted additional swabs with COVID-19-like symptoms. An overall SARS-CoV-2 infection incidence rate weighted by population counts of women of reproductive age in each state was calculated. RESULTS: Among 1098 pregnant individuals followed for a mean of 10 weeks, nine percent (99/1098) had SARS-CoV-2 infections during the study. Population weighted incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection were 10.0 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.7-14.3) person-weeks for any infection, 5.7 per 1,000 (95% CI 1.7-9.7) for symptomatic infections, and 3.5 per 1,000 (95% CI 0-7.1) for asymptomatic infections. Among 96 participants with SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptom data, the most common symptoms were nasal congestion (72%), cough (64%), headache (59%), and change in taste or smell (54%); 28% had measured or subjective fever. The median symptom duration was 10 days (IQR6-16 days). CONCLUSION: Pregnant individuals had a 1% risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection per week. Study findings provide information about SARS-CoV-2 infection risk during pregnancy to inform counseling for pregnant individuals about infection prevention practices, including COVID-19 vaccination.

6.
JAMA Pediatr ; 176(1): 59-67, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460123

ABSTRACT

Importance: Data about the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children compared with adults are needed to inform COVID-19 risk communication and prevention strategies, including COVID-19 vaccination policies for children. Objective: To compare incidence rates and clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection among adults and children and estimated household infection risks within a prospective household cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: Households with at least 1 child aged 0 to 17 years in selected counties in Utah and New York City, New York, were eligible for enrollment. From September 2020 through April 2021, participants self-collected midturbinate nasal swabs for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing for SARS-CoV-2 and responded to symptom questionnaires each week. Participants also self-collected additional respiratory specimens with onset of COVID-19-like illness. For children unable to self-collect respiratory specimens, an adult caregiver collected the specimens. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was incident cases of any SARS-CoV-2 infection, including asymptomatic and symptomatic infections. Additional measures were the asymptomatic fraction of infection calculated by dividing incidence rates of asymptomatic infection by rates of any infection, clinical characteristics of infection, and household infection risks. Primary outcomes were compared by participant age group. Results: A total of 1236 participants in 310 households participated in surveillance, including 176 participants (14%) who were aged 0 to 4 years, 313 (25%) aged 5 to 11 years, 163 (13%) aged 12 to 17 years, and 584 (47%) 18 years or older. Overall incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection were 3.8 (95% CI, 2.4-5.9) and 7.7 (95% CI, 4.1-14.5) per 1000 person-weeks among the Utah and New York City cohorts, respectively. Site-adjusted incidence rates per 1000 person-weeks were similar by age group: 6.3 (95% CI, 3.6-11.0) for children 0 to 4 years, 4.4 (95% CI, 2.5-7.5) for children 5 to 11 years, 6.0 (95% CI, 3.0-11.7) for children 12 to 17 years, and 5.1 (95% CI, 3.3-7.8) for adults (≥18 years). The asymptomatic fractions of infection by age group were 52%, 50%, 45%, and 12% among individuals aged 0 to 4 years, 5 to 11 years, 12 to 17 years, and 18 years or older, respectively. Among 40 households with 1 or more SARS-CoV-2 infections, the mean risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among all enrolled household members was 52% (range, 11%-100%), with higher risks in New York City compared with Utah (80% [95% CI, 64%-91%] vs 44% [95% CI, 36%-53%]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, children had similar incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with adults, but a larger proportion of infections among children were asymptomatic.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Disease Susceptibility , Family Characteristics , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Utah/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Am J Perinatol ; 39(1): 75-83, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate pregnant women's attitudes toward COVID-19 illness and vaccination and identify factors associated with vaccine acceptability. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional survey among pregnant women enrolled in a prospective COVID-19 cohort study in Salt Lake City, UT, Birmingham, AL, and New York, NY, from August 9 to December 10, 2020. Women were eligible if they were 18 to 50 years old and <28 weeks of gestation. Upon enrollment, women completed surveys regarding concerns about COVID-19 illness and likelihood of getting COVID-19 vaccine if one were available during pregnancy. Vaccine acceptability was defined as a response of "very likely" or "somewhat likely" on a 4-point Likert scale. Factors associated with vaccine acceptability were assessed with multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 939 pregnant women eligible for the main cohort study, 915 (97%) consented to participate. Among these 915 women, 39% self-identified as White, 23% Black, 33% Hispanic, and 4% Other. Sixty-two percent received an influenza vaccine last season. Seventy-two percent worried about getting sick with COVID-19. If they were to get sick, 92% worried about harm to their pregnancy and 80% about harm to themselves. Only 41% reported they would get a vaccine. Of women who were unlikely to get vaccinated, the most frequently cited concern was vaccine safety for their pregnancy (82%). Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic women had lower odds of accepting a vaccine compared with non-Hispanic White women (adjusted odds ratios [aOR] 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6 for both). Receipt of influenza vaccine during the previous season was associated with higher odds of vaccine acceptability (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-3.0). CONCLUSION: Although most pregnant women worried about COVID-19 illness, <50% were willing to get vaccinated during pregnancy. Racial and ethnic disparities in plans to accept COVID-19 vaccine highlight the need to prioritize strategies to address perceived barriers among groups at high risk for COVID-19. KEY POINTS: · Less than half of pregnant patients stated they would get a COVID-19 vaccine.. · Protecting their baby was the most common reason for acceptance and refusal of the COVID-19 vaccine.. · Patients of minority race/ethnicity and those without prior influenza vaccination were less likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccine..


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364782

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data about the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pregnant individuals are needed to inform infection prevention guidance and counseling for this population. METHODS: We prospectively followed a cohort of pregnant individuals during August 2020-March 2021 at three U.S. sites. The three primary outcomes were incidence rates of any SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptomatic infection, and asymptomatic infection, during pregnancy during periods of SARS-CoV-2 circulation. Participants self-collected weekly mid-turbinate nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing, completed weekly illness symptom questionnaires, and submitted additional swabs with COVID-19-like symptoms. An overall SARS-CoV-2 infection incidence rate weighted by population counts of women of reproductive age in each state was calculated. RESULTS: Among 1098 pregnant individuals followed for a mean of 10 weeks, nine percent (99/1098) had SARS-CoV-2 infections during the study. Population weighted incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection were 10.0 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.7-14.3) person-weeks for any infection, 5.7 per 1,000 (95% CI 1.7-9.7) for symptomatic infections, and 3.5 per 1,000 (95% CI 0-7.1) for asymptomatic infections. Among 96 participants with SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptom data, the most common symptoms were nasal congestion (72%), cough (64%), headache (59%), and change in taste or smell (54%); 28% had measured or subjective fever. The median symptom duration was 10 days (IQR6-16 days). CONCLUSION: Pregnant individuals had a 1% risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection per week. Study findings provide information about SARS-CoV-2 infection risk during pregnancy to inform counseling for pregnant individuals about infection prevention practices, including COVID-19 vaccination.

9.
Semin Perinatol ; 44(7): 151286, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029142

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread worldwide, it is crucial that we determine populations that are at-risk and develop appropriate clinical care policies to protect them. While several respiratory illnesses are known to seriously impact pregnant women and newborns, preliminary data on the novel SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus suggest that these groups are no more at-risk than the general population. Here, we review the available literature on newborns born to infected mothers and show that newborns of mothers with positive/suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection rarely acquire the disease or show adverse clinical outcomes. With this evidence in mind, it appears that strict postnatal care policies, including separating mothers and newborns, discouraging breastfeeding, and performing early bathing, may be more likely to adversely impact newborns than they are to reduce the low risk of maternal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 or the even lower risk of severe COVID-19 disease in otherwise healthy newborns.


Subject(s)
Baths , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Patient Isolation , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Organizational Policy , Postnatal Care , Pregnancy , Rooming-in Care , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Pediatr ; 229: 26-32.e2, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1026244

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) demonstrated well-defined clinical features distinct from other febrile outpatients, given the difficulties of seeing acute care visits during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic and the risks associated with both over- and underdiagnosis of MIS-C. STUDY DESIGN: This case-controlled study compared patients diagnosed with and treated for MIS-C at a large urban children's hospital with patients evaluated for fever at outpatient acute care visits during the peak period of MIS-C. Symptomatology and available objective data were extracted. Comparisons were performed using t tests with corrections for multiple comparisons, and multivariable logistic regression to obtain ORs. RESULTS: We identified 44 patients with MIS-C between April 16 and June 10, 2020. During the same period, 181 pediatric patients were evaluated for febrile illnesses in participating outpatient clinics. Patients with MIS-C reported greater median maximum reported temperature height (40°C vs 38.9, P < .0001), and increased frequency of abdominal pain (OR 12.5, 95% CI [1.65-33.24]), neck pain (536.5, [2.23-129,029]), conjunctivitis (31.3, [4.6-212.8]), oral mucosal irritation (11.8, [1.4-99.4]), extremity swelling or rash (99.9, [5-1960]), and generalized rash (7.42, [1.6-33.2]). Patients with MIS-C demonstrated lower absolute lymphocyte (P < .0001) and platelet counts (P < .05) and greater C-reactive protein concentrations (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated for MIS-C due to concern for potential cardiac injury show combinations of features distinct from other febrile patients seen in outpatient clinics during the same period.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
11.
J Patient Exp ; 7(6): 998-1001, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007232

ABSTRACT

The COVID Nursery Follow-Up Clinic at our academic medical center in New York City was established during the COVID-19 pandemic to provide care to infants born to SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers. We describe a novel dual-visit model utilizing telehealth and an in-person visit to provide timely, inclusive and relationship-centered care to the mother/infant couplet in a situation where the mother was unable to come to a traditional in-person visit, but the infant needed medically necessary in-person evaluation.

12.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(2): 157-167, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-843751

ABSTRACT

Importance: Limited data on vertical and perinatal transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and health outcomes of neonates born to mothers with symptomatic or asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are available. Studies are needed to inform evidence-based infection prevention and control (IP&C) policies. Objective: To describe the outcomes of neonates born to mothers with perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection and the IP&C practices associated with these outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort analysis reviewed the medical records for maternal and newborn data for all 101 neonates born to 100 mothers positive for or with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection from March 13 to April 24, 2020. Testing for SARS-CoV-2 was performed using Cobas (Roche Diagnostics) or Xpert Xpress (Cepheid) assays. Newborns were admitted to well-baby nurseries (WBNs) (82 infants) and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) (19 infants) in 2 affiliate hospitals at a large academic medical center in New York, New York. Newborns from the WBNs roomed-in with their mothers, who were required to wear masks. Direct breastfeeding after appropriate hygiene was encouraged. Exposures: Perinatal exposure to maternal asymptomatic/mild vs severe/critical COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was newborn SARS-CoV-2 testing results. Maternal COVID-19 status was classified as asymptomatic/mildly symptomatic vs severe/critical. Newborn characteristics and clinical courses were compared across maternal COVID-19 severity. Results: In total, 141 tests were obtained from 101 newborns (54 girls [53.5%]) on 0 to 25 days of life (DOL-0 to DOL-25) (median, DOL-1; interquartile range [IQR], DOL-1 to DOL-3). Two newborns had indeterminate test results, indicative of low viral load (2.0%; 95% CI, 0.2%-7.0%); 1 newborn never underwent retesting but remained well on follow-up, and the other had negative results on retesting. Maternal severe/critical COVID-19 was associated with newborns born approximately 1 week earlier (median gestational age, 37.9 [IQR, 37.1-38.4] vs 39.1 [IQR, 38.3-40.2] weeks; P = .02) and at increased risk of requiring phototherapy (3 of 10 [30.0%] vs 6 of 91 [7.0%]; P = .04) compared with newborns of mothers with asymptomatic/mild COVID-19. Fifty-five newborns were followed up in a new COVID-19 Newborn Follow-up Clinic at DOL-3 to DOL-10 and remained well. Twenty of these newborns plus 3 newborns followed up elsewhere had 32 nonroutine encounters documented at DOL-3 to DOL-25, and none had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including 6 with negative retesting results. Conclusions and Relevance: No clinical evidence of vertical transmission was identified in 101 newborns of mothers positive for or with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection, despite most newborns rooming-in and direct breastfeeding practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , New York City , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
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