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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 15% of patients with cancer experience symptomatic sequelae, which impair post COVID-19 outcomes. In this study we investigated whether a pro-inflammatory status is associated with the development of COVID-19 sequelae. METHODS: OnCovid recruited 2795 consecutive patients, diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection between 27/02/2020-14/02/2021. This analysis focused on COVID-19 survivors who underwent a clinical re-assessment after the exclusion of patients with haematological malignancies. We evaluated the association of inflammatory markers collected at COVID-19 diagnosis with sequelae, considering the impact of prior systemic anticancer therapy (SACT). RESULTS: Out of 1339 patients eligible, 203 experienced at least one sequela (15.2%). Median baseline C-reactive protein (CRP, 77.5 mg/L vs 22.2 mg/L, p<.001), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, 310 UI/L vs 274 UI/L, p=.028) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, 6.0 vs 4.3, p=.001) were statistically significantly higher among patients who experienced sequelae, while no association were reported for platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and the OnCovid Inflammatory Score (OIS), which includes albumin and lymphocytes. The widest Area under the ROC curve was reported for baseline CRP (AUC 0.66,95%CI:0.63-0.69), followed by the NLR (AUC0.58,95%CI:0.55-0.61) and LDH (AUC=0.57,95%CI:0.52-0.61). Using a fixed categorical multivariable analysis high CRP (OR 2.56,95%CI:1.67-3.91) and NLR (OR 1.45,95%CI:1.01-2.10) were confirmed to be statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of sequelae. Exposure to chemotherapy was associated with a decreased risk of sequelae (OR 0.57,95%CI:0.36-0.91), while no associations with immune checkpoint inhibitors, endocrine therapy, and other types of SACT were found. CONCLUSIONS: Although the association between inflammatory status, recent chemotherapy and sequelae warrants further investigations, our findings suggest that a deranged pro-inflammatory reaction at COVID-19 diagnosis may predict for sequelae development.

2.
Front Oncol ; 12: 858276, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775733

ABSTRACT

Background: Several studies report an increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients. However, data in the intensive care unit (ICU) are scarce. Research Question: We aimed to investigate the association between active cancer and mortality among patients requiring organ support in the ICU. Study Design and Methods: In this ambispective study encompassing 17 hospitals in France, we included all adult active cancer patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring organ support and admitted in ICU. For each cancer patient, we included 3 non cancer patients as controls. Patients were matched at the same ratio using the inverse probability weighting approach based on a propensity score assessing the probability of cancer at admission. Mortality at day 60 after ICU admission was compared between cancer patients and non-cancer patients using primary logistic regression analysis and secondary multivariable analyses. Results: Between March 12, 2020 and March 8, 2021, 2608 patients were admitted with SARS-CoV-2 infection in our study, accounting for 2.8% of the total population of patients with SARS-CoV-2 admitted in all French ICUs within the same period. Among them, 105 (n=4%) presented with cancer (51 patients had hematological malignancy and 54 patients had solid tumors). 409 of 420 patients were included in the propensity score matching process, of whom 307 patients in the non-cancer group and 102 patients in the cancer group. 145 patients (35%) died in the ICU at day 60, 59 (56%) with cancer and 86 (27%) without cancer. In the primary logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for death associated to cancer was 2.3 (95%CI 1.24 - 4.28, p=0.0082) higher for cancer patients than for a non-cancer patient at ICU admission. Exploratory multivariable analyses showed that solid tumor (OR: 2.344 (0.87-6.31), p=0.062) and hematological malignancies (OR: 4.144 (1.24-13.83), p=0.062) were independently associated with mortality. Interpretation: Patients with cancer and requiring ICU admission for SARS-CoV-2 infection had an increased mortality, hematological malignancy harboring the higher risk in comparison to solid tumors.

3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(2): 158-166, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major complication of COVID-19 and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. We aimed to assess whether intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) could improve outcomes by reducing inflammation-mediated lung injury. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, done at 43 centres in France, we randomly assigned patients (1:1) receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for up to 72 h with PCR confirmed COVID-19 and associated moderate-to-severe ARDS to receive either IVIG (2 g/kg over 4 days) or placebo. Random assignment was done with a web-based system and was stratified according to the participating centre and the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation before inclusion in the trial (<12 h, 12-24 h, and >24-72 h), and treatment was administered within the first 96 h of invasive mechanical ventilation. To minimise the risk of adverse events, the IVIG administration was divided into four perfusions of 0·5 g/kg each administered over at least 8 hours. Patients in the placebo group received an equivalent volume of sodium chloride 0·9% (10 mL/kg) over the same period. The primary outcome was the number of ventilation-free days by day 28, assessed according to the intention-to-treat principle. This trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04350580. FINDINGS: Between April 3, and October 20, 2020, 146 patients (43 [29%] women) were eligible for inclusion and randomly assigned: 69 (47%) patients to the IVIG group and 77 (53%) to the placebo group. The intention-to-treat analysis showed no statistical difference in the median number of ventilation-free days at day 28 between the IVIG group (0·0 [IQR 0·0-8·0]) and the placebo group (0·0 [0·0-6·0]; difference estimate 0·0 [0·0-0·0]; p=0·21). Serious adverse events were more frequent in the IVIG group (78 events in 22 [32%] patients) than in the placebo group (47 events in 15 [20%] patients; p=0·089). INTERPRETATION: In patients with COVID-19 who received invasive mechanical ventilation for moderate-to-severe ARDS, IVIG did not improve clinical outcomes at day 28 and tended to be associated with an increased frequency of serious adverse events, although not significant. The effect of IVIGs on earlier disease stages of COVID-19 should be assessed in future trials. FUNDING: Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/adverse effects , Iron-Dextran Complex , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320240

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Although early identified as a deadly infectious disease, the precise mortality rate of the most severe forms of COVID-19 is a matter of debate. To the best of our knowledge, no study investigated so far, the causes that ultimately led to death as well as the relation between timing and causes of death. Material: & Methods: We performed a retrospective study in eight ICU within eight French hospitals. All consecutive adult patients (aged≥ 18 years old) admitted in the ICU with a PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and acute respiratory failure were included in the analysis. Causes and timing of death were reported based on medical records. A binomial logistic regression statistical analysis was performed to identify the determinants associated with ICU-mortality. Results: : From March 1 st, 2020 to April 28 th , 287 patients were admitted to ICU for SARS-CoV-2 related acute respiratory failure. COVID-19 related multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (MODS) was the leading cause of death (29%, n=27/93). End-of-life decisions occurred in 25% of patients (n=23/93). Secondary infections-related MODS accounted for 21% of ICU death, with a majority of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Fatal ischemic events (venous or arterial) occurred in 12% of patients. Refractory hypoxemia was a relatively uncommon cause of death and occurred only in 8 cases (9%). Regarding the timing of death, only one death occurred during the first three days of ICU admission. Determinants associated with ICU-mortality in logistic regression were age >65, requirement for vasopressors, renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Conclusion: Our data suggest the existence of a specific pattern of outcome in severe COVID-19 patients compared to severe bacterial and viral pneumonia, consisting in a high proportion of delayed COVID-19 related MODS.

5.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(12)2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: End-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PetCO2) is unreliable for monitoring PaCO2 in several conditions because of the unpredictable value of the PaCO2-PetCO2 gradient. We hypothesised that increasing both the end-inspiratory pause and the expiratory time would reduce this gradient in patients ventilated for COVID-19 with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and in patients anaesthetised for surgery. METHODS: On the occasion of an arterial blood gas sample, an extension in inspiratory pause was carried out either by recruitment manoeuvre or by extending the end-inspiratory pause to 10 s. The end-expired PCO2 was measured (expiratory time: 4 s) after this manoeuvre (PACO2) in comparison with the PetCO2 measured by the monitor. We analysed 67 Δ(a-et)CO2, Δ(a-A)CO2 pairs for 7 patients in the COVID group and for 27 patients in the anaesthesia group. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. RESULTS: Prolongation of the inspiratory pause significantly reduced PaCO2-PetCO2 gradients from 11 ± 5.7 and 5.7 ± 3.4 mm Hg (p < 0.001) to PaCO2-PACO2 gradients of -1.2 ± 3.3 (p = 0.043) and -1.9 ± 3.3 mm Hg (p < 0.003) in the COVID and anaesthesia groups, respectively. In the COVID group, PACO2 showed the lowest dispersion (-7 to +6 mm Hg) and better correlation with PaCO2 (R2 = 0.92). The PACO2 had a sensitivity of 0.81 and a specificity of 0.93 for identifying hypercapnic patients (PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS: Measuring end-tidal PCO2 after prolonged inspiratory time reduced the PaCO2-PetCO2 gradient to the point of obtaining values close to PaCO2. This measure identified hypercapnic patients in both intensive care and during anaesthesia.

6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(2): 158-166, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major complication of COVID-19 and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. We aimed to assess whether intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) could improve outcomes by reducing inflammation-mediated lung injury. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, done at 43 centres in France, we randomly assigned patients (1:1) receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for up to 72 h with PCR confirmed COVID-19 and associated moderate-to-severe ARDS to receive either IVIG (2 g/kg over 4 days) or placebo. Random assignment was done with a web-based system and was stratified according to the participating centre and the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation before inclusion in the trial (<12 h, 12-24 h, and >24-72 h), and treatment was administered within the first 96 h of invasive mechanical ventilation. To minimise the risk of adverse events, the IVIG administration was divided into four perfusions of 0·5 g/kg each administered over at least 8 hours. Patients in the placebo group received an equivalent volume of sodium chloride 0·9% (10 mL/kg) over the same period. The primary outcome was the number of ventilation-free days by day 28, assessed according to the intention-to-treat principle. This trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04350580. FINDINGS: Between April 3, and October 20, 2020, 146 patients (43 [29%] women) were eligible for inclusion and randomly assigned: 69 (47%) patients to the IVIG group and 77 (53%) to the placebo group. The intention-to-treat analysis showed no statistical difference in the median number of ventilation-free days at day 28 between the IVIG group (0·0 [IQR 0·0-8·0]) and the placebo group (0·0 [0·0-6·0]; difference estimate 0·0 [0·0-0·0]; p=0·21). Serious adverse events were more frequent in the IVIG group (78 events in 22 [32%] patients) than in the placebo group (47 events in 15 [20%] patients; p=0·089). INTERPRETATION: In patients with COVID-19 who received invasive mechanical ventilation for moderate-to-severe ARDS, IVIG did not improve clinical outcomes at day 28 and tended to be associated with an increased frequency of serious adverse events, although not significant. The effect of IVIGs on earlier disease stages of COVID-19 should be assessed in future trials. FUNDING: Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/adverse effects , Iron-Dextran Complex , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
7.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 224, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies reporting the causes of death in patients with severe COVID-19 have provided conflicting results. The objective of this study was to describe the causes and timing of death in patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in eight ICUs across seven French hospitals. All consecutive adult patients (aged ≥ 18 years) admitted to the ICU with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and acute respiratory failure were included in the analysis. The causes and timing of ICU deaths were reported based on medical records. RESULTS: From March 1, 2020, to April 28, 287 patients were admitted to the ICU for SARS-CoV-2 related acute respiratory failure. Among them, 93 patients died in the ICU (32%). COVID-19-related multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) was the leading cause of death (37%). Secondary infection-related MODS accounted for 26% of ICU deaths, with a majority of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Refractory hypoxemia/pulmonary fibrosis was responsible for death in 19% of the cases. Fatal ischemic events (venous or arterial) occurred in 13% of the cases. The median time from ICU admission to death was 15 days (25th-75th IQR, 7-27 days). COVID-19-related MODS had a median time from ICU admission to death of 14 days (25th-75th IQR: 7-19 days), while only one death had occurred during the first 3 days since ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: In our multicenter observational study, COVID-19-related MODS and secondary infections were the two leading causes of death, among severe COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Cause of Death , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypoxia/mortality , Hypoxia/virology , Intensive Care Units , Ischemia/mortality , Ischemia/virology , Male , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/mortality , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/mortality , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(3): 258, 2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132059

ABSTRACT

The circulating metabolome provides a snapshot of the physiological state of the organism responding to pathogenic challenges. Here we report alterations in the plasma metabolome reflecting the clinical presentation of COVID-19 patients with mild (ambulatory) diseases, moderate disease (radiologically confirmed pneumonitis, hospitalization and oxygen therapy), and critical disease (in intensive care). This analysis revealed major disease- and stage-associated shifts in the metabolome, meaning that at least 77 metabolites including amino acids, lipids, polyamines and sugars, as well as their derivatives, were altered in critical COVID-19 patient's plasma as compared to mild COVID-19 patients. Among a uniformly moderate cohort of patients who received tocilizumab, only 10 metabolites were different among individuals with a favorable evolution as compared to those who required transfer into the intensive care unit. The elevation of one single metabolite, anthranilic acid, had a poor prognostic value, correlating with the maintenance of high interleukin-10 and -18 levels. Given that products of the kynurenine pathway including anthranilic acid have immunosuppressive properties, we speculate on the therapeutic utility to inhibit the rate-limiting enzymes of this pathway including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Metabolome , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolomics , Prognosis
10.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 20, 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054841

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to determine whether severe COVID-19 patients harbour a higher risk of ICU-acquired pneumonia. METHODS: This retrospective multicentre cohort study comprised all consecutive patients admitted to seven ICUs for severe COVID-19 pneumonia during the first COVID-19 surge in France. Inclusion criteria were laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and requirement for invasive mechanical ventilation for 48 h or more. Control groups were two historical cohorts of mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the ICU for bacterial or non-SARS-CoV-2 viral pneumonia. The outcome of interest was the development of ICU-acquired pneumonia. The determinants of ICU-acquired pneumonia were investigated in a multivariate competing risk analysis. RESULT: One hundred and seventy-six patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted to the ICU between March 1st and 30th June of 2020 were included into the study. Historical control groups comprised 435 patients with bacterial pneumonia and 48 ones with viral pneumonia. ICU-acquired pneumonia occurred in 52% of COVID-19 patients, whereas in 26% and 23% of patients with bacterial or viral pneumonia, respectively (p < 0.001). Times from initiation of mechanical ventilation to ICU-acquired pneumonia were similar across the three groups. In multivariate analysis, the risk of ICU-acquired pneumonia remained independently associated with underlying COVID-19 (SHR = 2.18; 95 CI 1.2-3.98, p = 0.011). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 appears an independent risk factor of ICU-acquired pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients with pneumonia. Whether this is driven by immunomodulatory properties by the SARS-CoV-2 or this is related to particular processes of care remains to be investigated.

11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 634, 2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049964

ABSTRACT

The SARS-COV-2 pandemic has put pressure on intensive care units, so that identifying predictors of disease severity is a priority. We collect 58 clinical and biological variables, and chest CT scan data, from 1003 coronavirus-infected patients from two French hospitals. We train a deep learning model based on CT scans to predict severity. We then construct the multimodal AI-severity score that includes 5 clinical and biological variables (age, sex, oxygenation, urea, platelet) in addition to the deep learning model. We show that neural network analysis of CT-scans brings unique prognosis information, although it is correlated with other markers of severity (oxygenation, LDH, and CRP) explaining the measurable but limited 0.03 increase of AUC obtained when adding CT-scan information to clinical variables. Here, we show that when comparing AI-severity with 11 existing severity scores, we find significantly improved prognosis performance; AI-severity can therefore rapidly become a reference scoring approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Deep Learning , Neural Networks, Computer , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/classification , Humans , Models, Biological , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Radiologists , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Nat Cancer ; 1(10): 965-975, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-798872

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer are presumed to be at increased risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes due to underlying malignancy and treatment-induced immunosuppression. Of the first 178 patients managed for COVID-19 at the Gustave Roussy Cancer Centre, 125 (70.2%) were hospitalized, 47 (26.4%) developed clinical worsening and 31 (17.4%) died. An age of over 70 years, smoking status, metastatic disease, cytotoxic chemotherapy and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score of ≥2 at the last visit were the strongest determinants of increased risk of death. In multivariable analysis, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score remained the only predictor of death. In contrast, immunotherapy, hormone therapy and targeted therapy did not increase clinical worsening or death risk. Biomarker studies found that C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly associated with an increased risk of clinical worsening, while C-reactive protein and D-dimer levels were associated with an increased risk of death. COVID-19 management impacted the oncological treatment strategy, inducing a median 20 d delay in 41% of patients and adaptation of the therapeutic strategy in 30% of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Cell ; 182(6): 1401-1418.e18, 2020 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694669

ABSTRACT

Blood myeloid cells are known to be dysregulated in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2. It is unknown whether the innate myeloid response differs with disease severity and whether markers of innate immunity discriminate high-risk patients. Thus, we performed high-dimensional flow cytometry and single-cell RNA sequencing of COVID-19 patient peripheral blood cells and detected disappearance of non-classical CD14LowCD16High monocytes, accumulation of HLA-DRLow classical monocytes (Human Leukocyte Antigen - DR isotype), and release of massive amounts of calprotectin (S100A8/S100A9) in severe cases. Immature CD10LowCD101-CXCR4+/- neutrophils with an immunosuppressive profile accumulated in the blood and lungs, suggesting emergency myelopoiesis. Finally, we show that calprotectin plasma level and a routine flow cytometry assay detecting decreased frequencies of non-classical monocytes could discriminate patients who develop a severe form of COVID-19, suggesting a predictive value that deserves prospective evaluation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Monocytes , Myeloid Cells , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(10): 5037-5044, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688728

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was first reported as a respiratory illness in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Since then, the World Health Organization (WHO) Emergency Committee declared a global health. COVID-19 has now spread worldwide and is responsible of more than 472,216 persons, out of 9,100,090 officially diagnosed worldwide since 23 of June. In the context of cancer patients, COVID-19 has a severe impact, regarding pulmonary infection but also cancer treatments in this fragile and immunocompromised population, and ICU admission for cancer patients in the context of COVID-19 requires ethical and clinical consideration. In our cancer center, intensivists, oncologists, pharmacists, and hospital administrators had to prepare for a substantial increase in critical care bed capacity (from 10 ICU beds, 6 medical intensive care beds, and 12 surgical intensive care beds, bed capacity was increased to 28 medical intensive care beds with ventilating capacity) and to adapt infrastructure (i.e., ICU beds), supplies (i.e., drugs, ventilators, protective materials), and staff (i.e., nurses and medical staff). Overall, thirty-three COVID-19 patients were admitted in our ICU, 17 cancer-free and 16 with cancer, and 23 required mechanical ventilation, resulting in 4 deaths (of them two patients with cancer). We report here management of a dedicated intensive care unit of a cancer center during the COVID-19 infection pandemic, considering resource allocation and redistribution of healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Intensive Care Units , Neoplasms/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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