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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: BNT162b2 by Pfizer-BioNTech and mRNA-1273 by Moderna are the most commonly used vaccines to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections. Head-to-head comparison of the efficacy of these vaccines in immunocompromised patients is lacking. METHODS: Parallel, two-arm (allocation 1:1), open-label, non-inferiority randomised clinical trial nested into the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study. Patients living with HIV (PLWH) or solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR; i.e. lung and kidney) from these cohorts were randomised to mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2. The primary endpoint was antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1) protein receptor binding domain (Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay, Roche; cut-off ≥0.8 units/ml) 8 weeks after second vaccination. In addition, antibody response was measured with the Antibody CORonavirus Assay 2 (ABCORA 2). RESULTS: 430 patients were randomised and 412 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis (341 PLWH and 71 SOTR). The percentage of patients showing an immune response was 92.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 88.4-95.8%; 186/202) for mRNA-1273 and 94.3% (95% CI 91.2-97.4; 198/210) for BNT162b2 (difference: 2.2%; 95% CI -7.1 to 2.7), fulfilling non-inferiority of mRNA-1273. With the ABCORA 2 test 89.1% had an immune response to mRNA-1273 (95% CI 84.8-93.4%; 180/202) and 89.5% to BNT162b2 (95% CI 85.4-93.7%; 188/210). Based on the Elecsys test, all PLWH had an antibody response (100.0%; 341/341), while for SOTR only 60.6% (95% CI 49.2-71.9%; 43/71) had titres above the cut-off. CONCLUSIONS: In immunocompromised patients the antibody response of mRNA-1273 was non-inferior to BNT162b2. PLWH had in general an antibody response, while a high proportion of SOTR had no antibody response.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321965

ABSTRACT

• Background: Late 2019, a new highly contagious corona-virus SARS-CoV-2 has emerged in Wuhan, China, causing within two month a pandemic with the highest disease burden in elderly and people with pre-existing medical conditions. The pandemic has highlighted that new and more flexible clinical trial approaches, such as trial platforms, are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of interventions in a timely manner. The two existing Swiss cohorts of immunocompromised patients (i.e. Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) and Swiss Transplant Cohort Study (STCS)) are an ideal foundation to set-up a trial platform in Switzerland leveraging routinely collected data. Within a newly founded trial platform we plan to assess the efficacy of the first two mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines that reached market authorisation in Switzerland in the frame of a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) while at the same time assessing the functionality of the trial platform.• Methods: We will conduct a multicenter randomised controlled, open-label, 2-arm sub-study pilot trial of a platform trial nested into two Swiss cohorts. Patients included in the SHCS or the STCS will be eligible for randomization to either receiving the mRNA vaccine Comirnaty® (Pfizer / BioNTech) or the Covid-19 mRNA Vaccine Moderna®. The primary clinical outcome will be change in pan-lg antibody response (pan-Ig anti-S1-RBD;baseline vs. three months after first vaccination). The pilot study will also enable us to assess endpoints related to trial conduct feasibility (i.e. duration of RCT set-up;time of patient recruitment;patient consent rate;proportion of missing data). Assuming vaccine reactivity of 90% in both vaccine groups we power our trial, using a non-inferiority margin such that a 95% two-sided confidence interval excludes a difference in favour of the reference group of more than 10%. A sample size of 380 (190 in each treatment arm) is required for a statistical power of 90% and a type I error of 0.025. The study is funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (National Research Program NRP 78, ‘Covid-19’). • Discussion: This study will provide crucial information about the efficacy and safety of the mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in HIV patients and organ transplant recipients. Furthermore, this project has the potential to pave the way for further platform trials in Switzerland. Trial registration : NCT04805125

3.
Trials ; 22(1): 724, 2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Late 2019, a new highly contagious coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has emerged in Wuhan, China, causing within 2 months a pandemic with the highest disease burden in elderly and people with pre-existing medical conditions. The pandemic has highlighted that new and more flexible clinical trial approaches, such as trial platforms, are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of interventions in a timely manner. The two existing Swiss cohorts of immunocompromised patients (i.e., Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) and Swiss Transplant Cohort Study (STCS)) are an ideal foundation to set-up a trial platform in Switzerland leveraging routinely collected data. Within a newly founded trial platform, we plan to assess the efficacy of the first two mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines that reached market authorization in Switzerland in the frame of a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) while at the same time assessing the functionality of the trial platform. METHODS: We will conduct a multicenter randomized controlled, open-label, 2-arm sub-study pilot trial of a platform trial nested into two Swiss cohorts. Patients included in the SHCS or the STCS will be eligible for randomization to either receiving the mRNA vaccine Comirnaty® (Pfizer/BioNTech) or the COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine Moderna®. The primary clinical outcome will be change in pan-lg antibody response (pan-Ig anti-S1-RBD; baseline vs. 3 months after first vaccination; binary outcome, considering ≥ 0.8 units/ml as a positive antibody response). The pilot study will also enable us to assess endpoints related to trial conduct feasibility (i.e., duration of RCT set-up; time of patient recruitment; patient consent rate; proportion of missing data). Assuming vaccine reactivity of 90% in both vaccine groups, we power our trial, using a non-inferiority margin such that a 95% two-sided confidence interval excludes a difference in favor of the reference group of more than 10%. A sample size of 380 (190 in each treatment arm) is required for a statistical power of 90% and a type I error of 0.025. The study is funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (National Research Program NRP 78, "COVID-19"). DISCUSSION: This study will provide crucial information about the efficacy and safety of the mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in HIV patients and organ transplant recipients. Furthermore, this project has the potential to pave the way for further platform trials in Switzerland. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04805125 . Registered on March 18, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pilot Projects , RNA, Messenger , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20550, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350364

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with severe COVID-19 may be at risk of longer term sequelae. Long-term clinical, immunological, pulmonary and radiological outcomes of patients treated with anti-inflammatory drugs are lacking. METHODS: In this single-centre prospective cohort study, we assessed 90-day clinical, immunological, pulmonary and radiological outcomes of hospitalised patients with severe COVID-19 treated with tocilizumab from March 2020 to May 2020. Criteria for tocilizumab administration were oxygen saturation <93%, respiratory rate >30/min, C-reactive protein levels >75 mg/l, extensive area of ground-glass opacities or progression on computed tomography (CT). Descriptive analyses were performed using StataIC 16. RESULTS: Between March 2020 and May 2020, 50 (27%) of 186 hospitalised patients had severe COVID-19 and were treated with tocilizumab. Of these, 52% were hospitalised on the intensive care unit (ICU) and 12% died. Eleven (22%) patients developed at least one microbiologically confirmed super-infection, of which 91% occurred on ICU. Median duration of hospitalisation was 15 days (interquartile range [IQR] 10–24) with 24 days (IQR 14–32) in ICU patients and 10 days (IQR 7–15) in non-ICU patients. At day 90, 41 of 44 survivors (93%) were outpatients. No long-term adverse events or late-onset infections were identified after acute hospital care. High SARS-CoV-2 antibody titres were found in all but one patient, who was pretreated with rituximab. Pulmonary function tests showed no obstructive patterns, but restrictive patterns in two (5.7%) and impaired diffusion capacities for carbon monoxide in 11 (31%) of 35 patients, which predominated in prior ICU patients. Twenty-one of 35 (60%) CT-scans at day 90 showed residual abnormalities, with similar distributions between prior ICU and non-ICU patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of severe COVID-19 patients, no tocilizumab-related long-term adverse events or late-onset infections were identified. Although chest CT abnormalities were highly prevalent at day 90, the majority of patients showed normal lung function. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04351503.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e040110, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922574

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) has been proposed as repurposed drugs for pre-exposure and postexposure prophylaxis as well as therapy of COVID-19. Coronavirus postexposure prophylaxis (COPEP) trial aims at assessing their efficacy as postexposure ring-prophylaxis among adults exposed to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: COPEP is a two-arm open-label cluster-randomised trial conducted in three cantons of Switzerland. Asymptomatic contacts (≥16 years) of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 will be randomised (2:1) to either LPV/r (400 mg/100 mg two times per day) for 5 days, or a standard of care arm (no treatment). Asymptomatic individuals may be either SARS-CoV-2 positive or negative. Contacts living in the single household will form a cluster and will be randomised into the same arm. All participants will be followed-up for 21 days and undergo daily monitoring for COVID-19 symptoms. The primary endpoint is 21-day incidence of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with ≥1 compatible symptom, analysed in an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. The secondary endpoints include the 21-day incidence of COVID-19 as well as SARS-CoV-2 infection in a modified ITT analysis, excluding participants who had a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR from oropharyngeal swab and/or a positive SARS-CoV-2 IgG serology at baseline. Assuming a 21-day incidence for COVID-19 of 20% among contacts without postexposure chemoprophylaxis, to detect a relative risk reduction of 60% (ie, translating in an absolute reduction from 20% to 8%), with a power of 80%, an alpha of 5%. Accounting for design effect of cluster design of circa 1.1, we plan to enrol 200 participants to the LPV/r arm and 100 to the standard of care arm, 300 participants in total. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been granted by the Commission Cantonale d'Ethique de la Recherche, Ethikkommission Nordwest- und Zentralschweiz and Comitato Etico Cantonale (ref 2020-00864) and Swissmedic (2020DR3056). Results from this trial will be disseminated via journal articles and presentations at national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Clinicaltrials.gov Registry (NCT04364022); Swiss National Clinical Trial Portal Registry (SNCTP 000003732). REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER: CCER 2020-0864.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Combinations , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland
8.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(9)2020 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639066

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) leads to inflammatory cytokine release, which can downregulate the expression of metabolizing enzymes. This cascade affects drug concentrations in the plasma. We investigated the association between lopinavir (LPV) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) plasma concentrations and the levels of the acute-phase inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP). LPV plasma concentrations in 92 patients hospitalized at our institution were prospectively collected. Lopinavir-ritonavir was administered every 12 hours, 800/200 mg on day 1 and 400/100 mg on day 2 until day 5 or 7. HCQ was given at 800 mg, followed by 400 mg after 6, 24, and 48 h. Hematological, liver, kidney, and inflammation laboratory values were analyzed on the day of drug level determination. The median age of study participants was 59 (range, 24 to 85) years, and 71% were male. The median durations from symptom onset to hospitalization and treatment initiation were 7 days (interquartile range [IQR], 4 to 10) and 8 days (IQR, 5 to 10), respectively. The median LPV trough concentration on day 3 of treatment was 26.5 µg/ml (IQR, 18.9 to 31.5). LPV plasma concentrations positively correlated with CRP values (r = 0.37, P < 0.001) and were significantly lower when tocilizumab was preadministered. No correlation was found between HCQ concentrations and CRP values. High LPV plasma concentrations were observed in COVID-19 patients. The ratio of calculated unbound drug fraction to published SARS-CoV-2 50% effective concentrations (EC50) indicated insufficient LPV concentrations in the lung. CRP values significantly correlated with LPV but not HCQ plasma concentrations, implying inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) metabolism by inflammation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Lopinavir/pharmacokinetics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/pharmacokinetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/blood , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/blood , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lopinavir/blood , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/blood , Ritonavir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
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