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1.
EBioMedicine ; 81: 104082, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) can be caused by a variety of pathogens, of which Streptococcus pneumoniae, Influenza and currently SARS-CoV-2 are the most common. We sought to identify shared and pathogen-specific host response features by directly comparing different aetiologies of CAP. METHODS: We measured 72 plasma biomarkers in a cohort of 265 patients hospitalized for CAP, all sampled within 48 hours of admission, and 28 age-and sex matched non-infectious controls. We stratified the biomarkers into several pathophysiological domains- antiviral response, vascular response and function, coagulation, systemic inflammation, and immune checkpoint markers. We directly compared CAP caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19, n=39), Streptococcus pneumoniae (CAP-strep, n=27), Influenza (CAP-flu, n=22) and other or unknown pathogens (CAP-other, n=177). We adjusted the comparisons for age, sex and disease severity scores. FINDINGS: Biomarkers reflective of a stronger cell-mediated antiviral response clearly separated COVID-19 from other CAPs (most notably granzyme B). Biomarkers reflecting activation and function of the vasculature showed endothelial barrier integrity was least affected in COVID-19, while glycocalyx degradation and angiogenesis were enhanced relative to other CAPs. Notably, markers of coagulation activation, including D-dimer, were not different between the CAP groups. Ferritin was most increased in COVID-19, while other systemic inflammation biomarkers such as IL-6 and procalcitonin were highest in CAP-strep. Immune checkpoint markers showed distinctive patterns in viral and non-viral CAP, with highly elevated levels of Galectin-9 in COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: Our investigation provides insight into shared and distinct pathophysiological mechanisms in different aetiologies of CAP, which may help guide new pathogen-specific therapeutic strategies. FUNDING: This study was financially supported by the Dutch Research Council, the European Commission and the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development.

2.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e054304, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774958

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Growing evidence is showing that complicated and uncomplicated appendicitis are two different entities that may be treated differently. A correct diagnosis of the type of appendicitis is therefore essential. The Scoring system of Appendicitis Severity (SAS) combines clinical, laboratory and imaging findings. The SAS rules out complicated appendicitis in 95% (negative predictive value, NPV) and detects 95% (sensitivity) of patients with complicated appendicitis in adults suspected of acute appendicitis. However, this scoring system has not yet been validated externally. In this study, we aim to provide a prospective external validation of the SAS in a new cohort of patients with clinical suspicion of appendicitis. We will optimise the score when necessary. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The SAS will be validated in 795 consecutive adult patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis confirmed by imaging. Data will be collected prospectively in multiple centres. The predicted diagnosis based on the SAS score will be compared with the combined surgical and histological diagnosis. Diagnostic accuracy for ruling out complicated appendicitis will be calculated. If the SAS does not reach a sensitivity and NPV of 95% in its present form, the score will be optimised. After optimisation, a second external validation will be performed in a new group of 328 patients. Furthermore, the diagnostic accuracy of the clinical perspective of the treating physician for differentiation between uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis and the patient's preferences for different treatment options will be assessed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was granted by the Amsterdam UMC Medical Ethics Committee (reference W19_416 # 19.483). Because of the observational nature of this study, the study does not fall under the scope of the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act. Results will be presented in peer-reviewed journals. This protocol is submitted for publication before analysis of the results.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , Acute Disease , Adult , Appendicitis/complications , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/surgery , Cohort Studies , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies
3.
Respirology ; 26(9): 869-877, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia present with typical findings on chest computed tomography (CT), but the underlying histopathological patterns are unknown. Through direct regional correlation of imaging findings to histopathological patterns, this study aimed to explain typical COVID-19 CT patterns at tissue level. METHODS: Eight autopsy cases were prospectively selected of patients with PCR-proven COVID-19 pneumonia with varying clinical manifestations and causes of death. All had been subjected to chest CT imaging 24-72 h prior to death. Twenty-seven lung areas with typical COVID-19 patterns and two radiologically unaffected pulmonary areas were correlated to histopathological findings in the same lung regions. RESULTS: Two dominant radiological patterns were observed: ground-glass opacity (GGO) (n = 11) and consolidation (n = 16). In seven of 11 sampled areas of GGO, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) was observed. In four areas of GGO, the histological pattern was vascular damage and thrombosis, with (n = 2) or without DAD (n = 2). DAD was also observed in five of 16 samples derived from areas of radiological consolidation. Seven areas of consolidation were based on a combination of DAD, vascular damage and thrombosis. In four areas of consolidation, bronchopneumonia was found. Unexpectedly, in samples from radiologically unaffected lung parenchyma, evidence was found of vascular damage and thrombosis. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19, radiological findings of GGO and consolidation are mostly explained by DAD or a combination of DAD and vascular damage plus thrombosis. However, the different typical CT patterns in COVID-19 are not related to specific histopathological patterns. Microvascular damage and thrombosis are even encountered in the radiologically normal lung.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Autopsy , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies
4.
BMC Emerg Med ; 21(1): 61, 2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, a decrease in the number of patients presenting with acute appendicitis was observed. It is unclear whether this caused a shift towards more complicated cases of acute appendicitis. We compared a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic with a 2019 control cohort. METHODS: We retrospectively included consecutive adult patients in 21 hospitals presenting with acute appendicitis in a COVID-19 pandemic cohort (March 15 - April 30, 2020) and a control cohort (March 15 - April 30, 2019). Primary outcome was the proportion of complicated appendicitis. Secondary outcomes included prehospital delay, appendicitis severity, and postoperative complication rates. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic cohort comprised 607 patients vs. 642 patients in the control cohort. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a higher proportion of complicated appendicitis was seen (46.9% vs. 38.5%; p = 0.003). More patients had symptoms exceeding 24 h (61.1% vs. 56.2%, respectively, p = 0.048). After correction for prehospital delay, presentation during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic was still associated with a higher rate of complicated appendicitis. Patients presenting > 24 h after onset of symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic were older (median 45 vs. 37 years; p = 0.001) and had more postoperative complications (15.3% vs. 6.7%; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Although the incidence of acute appendicitis was slightly lower during the first wave of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, more patients presented with a delay and with complicated appendicitis than in a corresponding period in 2019. Spontaneous resolution of mild appendicitis may have contributed to the increased proportion of patients with complicated appendicitis. Late presenting patients were older and experienced more postoperative complications compared to the control cohort.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Appendectomy , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Time-to-Treatment
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