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1.
JAMA ; 328(2): 212, 2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958621
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4212, 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947344

ABSTRACT

An easily implementable serological assay to accurately detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing antibodies is urgently needed to better track herd immunity, vaccine efficacy and vaccination rates. Herein, we report the Split-Oligonucleotide Neighboring Inhibition Assay (SONIA) which uses real-time qPCR to measure the ability of neutralizing antibodies to block binding between DNA-barcoded viral spike protein subunit 1 and the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor protein. The SONIA neutralizing antibody assay using finger-prick dried blood spots displays 91-97% sensitivity and 100% specificity in comparison to the live-virus neutralization assays using matched serum specimens for multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants-of-concern. The multiplex version of this neutralizing antibody assay, using easily collectable finger-prick dried blood spots, can be a valuable tool to help reveal the impact of age, pre-existing health conditions, waning immunity, different vaccination schemes and the emergence of new variants-of-concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
J Clin Invest ; 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932902

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses such as influenza do not typically cause viremia; however, SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in the blood of COVID-19 patients with mild and severe symptoms. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in blood raises questions about its role in pathogenesis as well as transfusion safety concerns. Blood donor reports of symptoms or a diagnosis of COVID-19 after donation (post-donation information, PDI) preceded or coincided with increased general population COVID-19 mortality. Plasma samples from 2,250 blood donors who reported possible COVID-19 related PDI were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Detection of RNAemia peaked at 9-15% of PDI donors in late 2020 to early 2021 and fell to ~4% after implementation of widespread vaccination in the population. RNAemic donors were 1.2 to 1.4-fold more likely to report cough or shortness of breath and 1.8-fold more likely to report change in taste or smell compared to infected donors without detectable RNAemia. No infectious virus was detected in plasma from RNAemic donors; inoculation onto permissive cell lines showed <0.7-7 plaque forming units (PFU)/mL and into susceptible mice <100 PFU/mL in RNA positive plasma based on limits of detection in these models. These findings suggest that blood transfusions are highly unlikely to transmit SARS-CoV-2 infection.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, independently and combined ("hybrid immunity"), result in partial protection from subsequent infection and strong protection from severe disease. Proportions of the U.S. population that have been infected, vaccinated, or with hybrid immunity remain unclear, posing a challenge for assessing effective pandemic mitigation strategies. METHODS: In this serial cross-sectional study, nationwide blood donor specimens collected during January-December 2021 were tested for spike and nucleocapsid antibodies, and donor COVID-19 vaccination history of ≥1 dose was collected. Monthly seroprevalence induced from SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 vaccination, or both, were estimated. Estimates were weighted to account for demographic differences from the general population, and were compared temporally and by demographic factors. RESULTS: Overall, 1,123,855 blood samples were assayed. From January to December 2021, the weighted percentage of donations with seropositivity due to: vaccination without previous infection increased from 3.5% (95% CI, 3.4%-3.7%) to 64.0%, (95% CI, 63.5%-64.5%); previous infection without vaccination decreased from 15.6% (95% CI, 15.2%-16.0%) to 11.7% (95% CI, 11.4%-12.0%); hybrid immunity increased from 0.7% (95% CI, 0.6%-0.7%) to 18.9% (95% CI, 18.5%-19.3%); and from infection, vaccination, or both increased from 19.8% (95% CI (19.3-20.2) to 94.5% (95% CI, 93.5%-94.0% 0.1%). Infection- and vaccination-induced antibody responses varied significantly by age, race-ethnicity, and region, but not by gender. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate substantial increases in population humoral immunity from SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 vaccination, and hybrid immunity during 2021. These findings are important to consider in future COVID-19 studies and long-term pandemic mitigation efforts.

6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0247121, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865144

ABSTRACT

Serological surveillance studies of infectious diseases provide population-level estimates of infection and antibody prevalence, generating crucial insight into population-level immunity, risk factors leading to infection, and effectiveness of public health measures. These studies traditionally rely on detection of pathogen-specific antibodies in samples derived from venipuncture, an expensive and logistically challenging aspect of serological surveillance. During the COVID-19 pandemic, guidelines implemented to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection made collection of venous blood logistically difficult at a time when SARS-CoV-2 serosurveillance was urgently needed. Dried blood spots (DBS) have generated interest as an alternative to venous blood for SARS-CoV-2 serological applications due to their stability, low cost, and ease of collection; DBS samples can be self-generated via fingerprick by community members and mailed at ambient temperatures. Here, we detail the development of four DBS-based SARS-CoV-2 serological methods and demonstrate their implementation in a large serological survey of community members from 12 cities in the East Bay region of the San Francisco metropolitan area using at-home DBS collection. We find that DBS perform similarly to plasma/serum in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and commercial SARS-CoV-2 serological assays. In addition, we show that DBS samples can reliably detect antibody responses months postinfection and track antibody kinetics after vaccination. Implementation of DBS enabled collection of valuable serological data from our study population to investigate changes in seroprevalence over an 8-month period. Our work makes a strong argument for the implementation of DBS in serological studies, not just for SARS-CoV-2, but any situation where phlebotomy is inaccessible. IMPORTANCE Estimation of community-level antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 from infection or vaccination is critical to inform public health responses. Traditional studies of antibodies rely on collection of blood via venipuncture, an invasive procedure not amenable to pandemic-related social-distancing measures. Dried blood spots (DBS) are an alternative to venipuncture, since they can be self-collected by study participants at home and do not require refrigeration for shipment or storage. However, DBS-based assays to measure antibody levels to SARS-CoV-2 have not been widely utilized. Here, we show that DBS are comparable to blood as a sampling method for antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination over time measured using four distinct serological assays. The DBS format enabled antibody surveillance in a longitudinal cohort where study participants self-collected samples, ensuring the participants' safety during an ongoing pandemic. Our work demonstrates that DBS are an excellent sampling method for measuring antibody responses whenever venipuncture is impractical.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
7.
Transfusion ; 62(7): 1321-1333, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861558

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A national serosurvey of U.S. blood donors conducted in partnership with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was initiated to estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections and vaccinations. METHODS: Beginning in July 2020, the Nationwide Blood Donor Seroprevalence Study collaborated with multiple blood collection organizations, testing labs, and leadership from government partners to capture, test, and analyze approximately 150,000 blood donation specimens per month in a repeated, cross-sectional seroprevalence survey. RESULTS: A CDC website (https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#nationwide-blood-donor-seroprevalence) provided stratified, population-level results to public health professionals and the general public. DISCUSSION: The study adapted operations as the pandemic evolved, changing specimen flow and testing algorithms, and collecting additional data elements in response to changing policies on universal blood donation screening and administration of SARS-CoV-2 spike-based vaccines. The national serosurvey demonstrated the utility of serosurveillance testing of residual blood donations and highlighted the role of the blood collection industry in public-private partnerships during a public health emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(4): e1009925, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808578

ABSTRACT

Early in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there was a high level of optimism based on observational studies and small controlled trials that treating hospitalized patients with convalescent plasma from COVID-19 survivors (CCP) would be an important immunotherapy. However, as more data from controlled trials became available, the results became disappointing, with at best moderate evidence of efficacy when CCP with high titers of neutralizing antibodies was used early in infection. To better understand the potential therapeutic efficacy of CCP, and to further validate SARS-CoV-2 infection of macaques as a reliable animal model for testing such strategies, we inoculated 12 adult rhesus macaques with SARS-CoV-2 by intratracheal and intranasal routes. One day later, 8 animals were infused with pooled human CCP with a high titer of neutralizing antibodies (RVPN NT50 value of 3,003), while 4 control animals received normal human plasma. Animals were monitored for 7 days. Animals treated with CCP had detectable but low levels of antiviral antibodies after infusion. In comparison to the control animals, CCP-treated animals had similar levels of viral RNA in upper and lower respiratory tract secretions, similar detection of viral RNA in lung tissues by in situ hybridization, but lower amounts of infectious virus in the lungs. CCP-treated animals had a moderate, but statistically significant reduction in interstitial pneumonia, as measured by comprehensive lung histology. Thus overall, therapeutic benefits of CCP were marginal and inferior to results obtained earlier with monoclonal antibodies in this animal model. By highlighting strengths and weaknesses, data of this study can help to further optimize nonhuman primate models to provide proof-of-concept of intervention strategies, and guide the future use of convalescent plasma against SARS-CoV-2 and potentially other newly emerging respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Macaca mulatta , RNA, Viral
9.
Transfusion ; 62(5): 982-999, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-IV-Pediatric (REDS-IV-P) is a new iteration of prior National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) REDS programs that focus on improving transfusion recipient outcomes across the lifespan as well as the safety and availability of the blood supply. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The US program includes blood centers and hospitals (22 including 6 free-standing Children's hospitals) in four geographic regions. The Brazilian program has 5 participating hemocenters. A Center for Transfusion Laboratory Studies (CTLS) and a Data Coordinating Center (DCC) support synergistic studies and activities over the 7-year REDS-IV-P program. RESULTS: The US is building a centralized, vein-to-vein (V2V) database, linking information collected from blood donors, their donations, the resulting manufactured components, and data extracts from hospital electronic medical records of transfused and non-transfused patients. Simultaneously, the Brazilian program is building a donor, donation, and component database. The databases will serve as the backbone for retrospective and prospective observational studies in transfusion epidemiology, transfusion recipient outcomes, blood component quality, and emerging blood safety issues. Special focus will be on preterm infants, patients with sickle cell disease, thalassemia or cancer, and the effect of donor biologic variability and component manufacturing on recipient outcomes. A rapid response capability to emerging safety threats has resulted in timely studies related to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). CONCLUSIONS: The REDS-IV-P program endeavors to improve donor-recipient-linked research with a focus on children and special populations while also maintaining the flexibility to address emerging blood safety issues.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Blood Safety , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Longevity , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332876

ABSTRACT

To inform public health policy, it is critical to monitor COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE), including against acquiring infection. We estimated VE using a retrospective cohort study among repeat blood donors who donated during the first half of 2021, demonstrating a viable approach for monitoring of VE via serological surveillance. Using Poisson regression, we estimated overall VE was 88.8% (95% CI: 86.2–91.1), adjusted for demographic covariates and variable baseline risk. Time since first reporting vaccination, age, race-ethnicity, region, and calendar time were statistically significant predictors of incident infection. Studies of VE during periods of Delta and Omicron spread are underway.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 871-881, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-IV-Pediatric (REDS-IV-P) Epidemiology, Surveillance and Preparedness of the Novel SARS-CoV-2 Epidemic (RESPONSE) seroprevalence study conducted monthly cross-sectional testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in blood donors in 6 US metropolitan regions to estimate the extent of SARS-CoV-2 infections over time. METHODS: During March-August 2020, approximately ≥1000 serum specimens were collected monthly from each region and tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using a well-validated algorithm. Regional seroprevalence estimates were weighted based on demographic differences compared with the general population. Seroprevalence was compared with reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case rates over time. RESULTS: For all regions, seroprevalence was <1.0% in March 2020. New York, New York, experienced the biggest increase (peak seroprevalence, 15.8% in May). All other regions experienced modest increases in seroprevalence (1%-2% in May-June to 2%-4% in July-August). Seroprevalence was higher in younger, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic donors. Temporal increases in donor seroprevalence correlated with reported case rates in each region. In August, 1.3-5.6 estimated cumulative infections (based on seroprevalence data) per COVID-19 case were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in seroprevalence were found in all regions, with the largest increase in New York. Seroprevalence was higher in non-Hispanic black and Hispanic than in non-Hispanic white blood donors. SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing of blood donor samples can be used to estimate the seroprevalence in the general population by region and demographic group. The methods derived from the RESPONSE seroprevalence study served as the basis for expanding SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence surveillance to all 50 states and Puerto Rico.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(3): 672-683, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700734

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serosurveys can estimate cumulative incidence for monitoring epidemics, requiring assessment of serologic assays to inform testing algorithm development and interpretation of results. We conducted a multilaboratory evaluation of 21 commercial high-throughput SARS-CoV-2 serologic assays using blinded panels of 1,000 highly characterized specimens. Assays demonstrated a range of sensitivities (96%-63%), specificities (99%-96%), and precision (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.55-0.99). Durability of antibody detection was dependent on antigen and immunoglobulin targets; antispike and total Ig assays demonstrated more stable longitudinal reactivity than antinucleocapsid and IgG assays. Assays with high sensitivity, specificity, and durable antibody detection are ideal for serosurveillance, but assays demonstrating waning reactivity are appropriate for other applications, including correlation with neutralizing activity and detection of anamnestic boosting by reinfections. Assay performance must be evaluated in context of intended use, particularly in the context of widespread vaccination and circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods
13.
Transfusion ; 62(3): 563-569, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) was widely used as passive immunotherapy during the first waves of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the US. However, based on observational studies and randomized controlled trials, the beneficial effects of CCP were limited, and its use was virtually discontinued early in 2021, in concurrence with increased vaccination rates and availability of monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics. Yet, as new variants of the SARS-CoV-2 spread, interest in CCP derived from vaccine-boosted CCP donors is resurging. The effect of vaccination of previously infected CCP donors on antibodies against rapidly spreading variants is still under investigation. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: In this study, paired-samples from 11 CCP donors collected before and after vaccination was tested to measure binding antibody levels and neutralization activity against the ancestral Wuhan-Hu-1 and SARS-CoV-2 variants (Wuhan-Hu-1 with D614G, alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon) on the Ortho Vitros Spike Total Ig and IgG assays, the MSD V-PLEX SARS-CoV-2 arrays for IgG binding and ACE2 inhibition, and variant-specific Spike Reporter Viral Particle Neutralization (RVPN) assays. RESULTS/FINDINGS: Binding and neutralizing antibodies were significantly boosted by vaccination, with several logs higher neutralization for all the variants tested post-vaccination compared to the pre-vaccination samples, with no difference found among the individual variants. DISCUSSION: Vaccination of previously infected individuals boosts antibodies including neutralizing activity against all SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Vaccination
14.
Transfusion ; 62(3): 570-583, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP), from donors recovered from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is one of the limited therapeutic options currently available for the treatment of critically ill patients with COVID-19. There is growing evidence that CCP may reduce viral loads and disease severity; and reduce mortality. However, concerns about the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI) and other complications associated with transfusion of plasma, remain. Amotosalen/UVA pathogen reduction treatment (A/UVA-PRT) of plasma offers a mitigation of TTI risk, and when combined with pooling has the potential to increase the diversity of the polyclonal SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study assessed the impact of A/UVA-PRT on SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 42 CCP using multiple complimentary assays including antigen binding, neutralizing, and epitope microarrays. Other mediators of CCP efficacy were also assessed. RESULTS: A/UVA-PRT did not negatively impact antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and other viral epitopes, had no impact on neutralizing activity or other potential mediators of CCP efficacy. Finally, immune cross-reactivity with other coronavirus antigens was observed raising the potential for neutralizing activity against other emergent coronaviruses. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study support the selection of effective CCP combined with the use of A/UVA-PRT in the production of CCP for patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Furocoumarins , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2
15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293176

ABSTRACT

Serological surveillance studies of infectious diseases provide population-level estimates of infection and antibody prevalence, generating crucial insight into population-level immunity, risk factors leading to infection, and effectiveness of public health measures. These studies traditionally rely on detection of pathogen-specific antibodies in samples derived from venipuncture, an expensive and logistically challenging aspect of serological surveillance. During the COVID-19 pandemic, guidelines implemented to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection made collection of venous blood logistically difficult at a time when SARS-CoV-2 serosurveillance was urgently needed. Dried blood spots (DBS) have generated interest as an alternative to venous blood for SARS-CoV-2 serological applications due to their stability, low cost, and ease of collection;DBS samples can be self-generated via fingerprick by community members and mailed at ambient temperatures. Here, we detail the development of four DBS-based SARS-CoV-2 serological methods and demonstrate their implementation in a large serological survey of community members from 12 cities in the East Bay region of the San Francisco metropolitan area using at-home DBS collection. We find that DBS perform similarly to plasma/serum in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and commercial SARS-CoV-2 serological assays. In addition, we show that DBS samples can reliably detect antibody responses months post-infection and track antibody kinetics after vaccination. Implementation of DBS enabled collection of valuable serological data from our study population to investigate changes in seroprevalence over an eight-month period. Our work makes a strong argument for the implementation of DBS in serological studies, not just for SARS-CoV-2, but any situation where phlebotomy is inaccessible.

16.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750501

ABSTRACT

CD4 T follicular helper (T fh ) cells are important for the generation of long-lasting and specific humoral protection against viral infections. The degree to which SARS-CoV-2 infection generates T fh cells and stimulates the germinal center response is an important question as we investigate vaccine options for the current pandemic. Here we report that, following infection with SARS-CoV-2, adult rhesus macaques exhibited transient accumulation of activated, proliferating T fh cells in their peripheral blood on a transitory basis. The CD4 helper cell responses were skewed predominantly toward a T h 1 response in blood, lung, and lymph nodes, reflective of the interferon-rich cytokine environment following infection. We also observed the generation of germinal center T fh cells specific for the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins, and a corresponding early appearance of antiviral serum IgG antibodies but delayed or absent IgA antibodies. Our data suggest that a vaccine promoting Th1-type Tfh responses that target the S protein may lead to protective immunity.

17.
JAMA ; 326(14): 1400-1409, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490612

ABSTRACT

Importance: People who have been infected with or vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 have reduced risk of subsequent infection, but the proportion of people in the US with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from infection or vaccination is uncertain. Objective: To estimate trends in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence related to infection and vaccination in the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a repeated cross-sectional study conducted each month during July 2020 through May 2021, 17 blood collection organizations with blood donations from all 50 US states; Washington, DC; and Puerto Rico were organized into 66 study-specific regions, representing a catchment of 74% of the US population. For each study region, specimens from a median of approximately 2000 blood donors were selected and tested each month; a total of 1 594 363 specimens were initially selected and tested. The final date of blood donation collection was May 31, 2021. Exposure: Calendar time. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of persons with detectable SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Seroprevalence was weighted for demographic differences between the blood donor sample and general population. Infection-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with both spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with spike antibodies. The seroprevalence estimates were compared with cumulative COVID-19 case report incidence rates. Results: Among 1 443 519 specimens included, 733 052 (50.8%) were from women, 174 842 (12.1%) were from persons aged 16 to 29 years, 292 258 (20.2%) were from persons aged 65 years and older, 36 654 (2.5%) were from non-Hispanic Black persons, and 88 773 (6.1%) were from Hispanic persons. The overall infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence estimate increased from 3.5% (95% CI, 3.2%-3.8%) in July 2020 to 20.2% (95% CI, 19.9%-20.6%) in May 2021; the combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence estimate in May 2021 was 83.3% (95% CI, 82.9%-83.7%). By May 2021, 2.1 SARS-CoV-2 infections (95% CI, 2.0-2.1) per reported COVID-19 case were estimated to have occurred. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on a sample of blood donations in the US from July 2020 through May 2021, vaccine- and infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased over time and varied by age, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. Despite weighting to adjust for demographic differences, these findings from a national sample of blood donors may not be representative of the entire US population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
JAMA ; 326(14): 1400-1409, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391515

ABSTRACT

Importance: People who have been infected with or vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 have reduced risk of subsequent infection, but the proportion of people in the US with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from infection or vaccination is uncertain. Objective: To estimate trends in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence related to infection and vaccination in the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a repeated cross-sectional study conducted each month during July 2020 through May 2021, 17 blood collection organizations with blood donations from all 50 US states; Washington, DC; and Puerto Rico were organized into 66 study-specific regions, representing a catchment of 74% of the US population. For each study region, specimens from a median of approximately 2000 blood donors were selected and tested each month; a total of 1 594 363 specimens were initially selected and tested. The final date of blood donation collection was May 31, 2021. Exposure: Calendar time. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of persons with detectable SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Seroprevalence was weighted for demographic differences between the blood donor sample and general population. Infection-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with both spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with spike antibodies. The seroprevalence estimates were compared with cumulative COVID-19 case report incidence rates. Results: Among 1 443 519 specimens included, 733 052 (50.8%) were from women, 174 842 (12.1%) were from persons aged 16 to 29 years, 292 258 (20.2%) were from persons aged 65 years and older, 36 654 (2.5%) were from non-Hispanic Black persons, and 88 773 (6.1%) were from Hispanic persons. The overall infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence estimate increased from 3.5% (95% CI, 3.2%-3.8%) in July 2020 to 20.2% (95% CI, 19.9%-20.6%) in May 2021; the combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence estimate in May 2021 was 83.3% (95% CI, 82.9%-83.7%). By May 2021, 2.1 SARS-CoV-2 infections (95% CI, 2.0-2.1) per reported COVID-19 case were estimated to have occurred. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on a sample of blood donations in the US from July 2020 through May 2021, vaccine- and infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased over time and varied by age, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. Despite weighting to adjust for demographic differences, these findings from a national sample of blood donors may not be representative of the entire US population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
mSphere ; 6(4): e0048021, 2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371851

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs), harboring spike protein N-terminal domain (NTD) or receptor-binding domain (RBD) mutations, exhibit reduced in vitro susceptibility to convalescent-phase serum, commercial antibody cocktails, and vaccine neutralization and have been associated with reinfections. The accumulation of these mutations could be the consequence of intrahost viral evolution due to prolonged infection in immunocompromised hosts. In this study, we document the microevolution of SARS-CoV-2 recovered from sequential tracheal aspirates from an immunosuppressed patient on steroids and convalescent plasma therapy and identify the emergence of multiple NTD and RBD mutations. SARS-CoV-2 genomes from the first swab (day 0) and from three tracheal aspirates (days 7, 21, and 27) were compared at the sequence level. We identified a mixed viral population with five different S protein mutations (141 to 144 deletion, 243 to 244 deletion, E484K, Q493K, and Q493R) at the NTD or RBD region from the second tracheal aspirate sample (day 21) and a predominance of the S protein 141 to 144 LGVY deletion and E484K mutant on day 27. The neutralizing antibodies against various S protein lentiviral pseudovirus mutants, as well as the anti-SARS-CoV-2 total Ig and IgG, showed "U" shape dynamics, in support of the endogenous development of neutralizing antibodies. The patient's compromised immune status, the antirejection regiment, convalescent plasma treatment, and the development of neutralizing antibodies may have resulted in unique selective pressures on the intrahost genomic evolution, and this observation supports the hypotheses that VOCs can independently arise and that immunocompromised patients on convalescent plasma therapy are potential breeding grounds for immune escape mutants. IMPORTANCE Over a year of the COVID-19 pandemic, distinct severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineages have arisen in multiple geographic areas around the world. SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), i.e., B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta), P.1 (gamma), and B.1.617.2 (delta), harboring mutations and/or deletions in spike protein N-terminal domain (NTD) or receptor-binding domain (RBD) regions showed evidence of increased transmissibility and disease severity and possible reduced vaccine efficacy. In this study, we report the emergence of five different NTD and RBD mutations in an uncommon SARS-CoV-2 B.1.369 lineage from an immunosuppressed patient undergoing steroid and convalescent plasma therapy. The observation highlighted that VOCs can independently arise in immunocompromised populations undergoing anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapy, and enhanced measures will be required to reduce the transmission.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protein Binding/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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