Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
JAMA ; 323(16): 1574-1581, 2020 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453471

ABSTRACT

Importance: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) emerged in China and has spread globally, creating a pandemic. Information about the clinical characteristics of infected patients who require intensive care is limited. Objective: To characterize patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU) in the Lombardy region of Italy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective case series of 1591 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 referred for ICU admission to the coordinator center (Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy) of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network and treated at one of the ICUs of the 72 hospitals in this network between February 20 and March 18, 2020. Date of final follow-up was March 25, 2020. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal and pharyngeal swabs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic and clinical data were collected, including data on clinical management, respiratory failure, and patient mortality. Data were recorded by the coordinator center on an electronic worksheet during telephone calls by the staff of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network. Results: Of the 1591 patients included in the study, the median (IQR) age was 63 (56-70) years and 1304 (82%) were male. Of the 1043 patients with available data, 709 (68%) had at least 1 comorbidity and 509 (49%) had hypertension. Among 1300 patients with available respiratory support data, 1287 (99% [95% CI, 98%-99%]) needed respiratory support, including 1150 (88% [95% CI, 87%-90%]) who received mechanical ventilation and 137 (11% [95% CI, 9%-12%]) who received noninvasive ventilation. The median positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was 14 (IQR, 12-16) cm H2O, and Fio2 was greater than 50% in 89% of patients. The median Pao2/Fio2 was 160 (IQR, 114-220). The median PEEP level was not different between younger patients (n = 503 aged ≤63 years) and older patients (n = 514 aged ≥64 years) (14 [IQR, 12-15] vs 14 [IQR, 12-16] cm H2O, respectively; median difference, 0 [95% CI, 0-0]; P = .94). Median Fio2 was lower in younger patients: 60% (IQR, 50%-80%) vs 70% (IQR, 50%-80%) (median difference, -10% [95% CI, -14% to 6%]; P = .006), and median Pao2/Fio2 was higher in younger patients: 163.5 (IQR, 120-230) vs 156 (IQR, 110-205) (median difference, 7 [95% CI, -8 to 22]; P = .02). Patients with hypertension (n = 509) were older than those without hypertension (n = 526) (median [IQR] age, 66 years [60-72] vs 62 years [54-68]; P < .001) and had lower Pao2/Fio2 (median [IQR], 146 [105-214] vs 173 [120-222]; median difference, -27 [95% CI, -42 to -12]; P = .005). Among the 1581 patients with ICU disposition data available as of March 25, 2020, 920 patients (58% [95% CI, 56%-61%]) were still in the ICU, 256 (16% [95% CI, 14%-18%]) were discharged from the ICU, and 405 (26% [95% CI, 23%-28%]) had died in the ICU. Older patients (n = 786; age ≥64 years) had higher mortality than younger patients (n = 795; age ≤63 years) (36% vs 15%; difference, 21% [95% CI, 17%-26%]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series of critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to ICUs in Lombardy, Italy, the majority were older men, a large proportion required mechanical ventilation and high levels of PEEP, and ICU mortality was 26%.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Positive-Pressure Respiration/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
2.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(10): 1345-1355, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042172

ABSTRACT

Importance: Many patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are critically ill and require care in the intensive care unit (ICU). Objective: To evaluate the independent risk factors associated with mortality of patients with COVID-19 requiring treatment in ICUs in the Lombardy region of Italy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, observational cohort study included 3988 consecutive critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 referred for ICU admission to the coordinating center (Fondazione IRCCS [Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico] Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy) of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network from February 20 to April 22, 2020. Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay of nasopharyngeal swabs. Follow-up was completed on May 30, 2020. Exposures: Baseline characteristics, comorbidities, long-term medications, and ventilatory support at ICU admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Time to death in days from ICU admission to hospital discharge. The independent risk factors associated with mortality were evaluated with a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Of the 3988 patients included in this cohort study, the median age was 63 (interquartile range [IQR] 56-69) years; 3188 (79.9%; 95% CI, 78.7%-81.1%) were men, and 1998 of 3300 (60.5%; 95% CI, 58.9%-62.2%) had at least 1 comorbidity. At ICU admission, 2929 patients (87.3%; 95% CI, 86.1%-88.4%) required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The median follow-up was 44 (95% CI, 40-47; IQR, 11-69; range, 0-100) days; median time from symptoms onset to ICU admission was 10 (95% CI, 9-10; IQR, 6-14) days; median length of ICU stay was 12 (95% CI, 12-13; IQR, 6-21) days; and median length of IMV was 10 (95% CI, 10-11; IQR, 6-17) days. Cumulative observation time was 164 305 patient-days. Hospital and ICU mortality rates were 12 (95% CI, 11-12) and 27 (95% CI, 26-29) per 1000 patients-days, respectively. In the subgroup of the first 1715 patients, as of May 30, 2020, 865 (50.4%) had been discharged from the ICU, 836 (48.7%) had died in the ICU, and 14 (0.8%) were still in the ICU; overall, 915 patients (53.4%) died in the hospital. Independent risk factors associated with mortality included older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.60-1.92), male sex (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.31-1.88), high fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10-1.19), high positive end-expiratory pressure (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06) or low Pao2:Fio2 ratio (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74-0.87) on ICU admission, and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.28-2.19), hypercholesterolemia (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52), and type 2 diabetes (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.39). No medication was independently associated with mortality (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.97-1.42; angiotensin receptor blockers HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.85-1.29). Conclusions and Relevance: In this retrospective cohort study of critically ill patients admitted to ICUs in Lombardy, Italy, with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, most patients required IMV. The mortality rate and absolute mortality were high.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Critical Illness , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(3): 372-376, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028605

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) began in China in early December 2019 and rapidly has spread to many countries around the globe, with the number of confirmed cases increasing every day. An epidemic has been recorded since February 20 in a middle province in Northern Italy (Lodi province, in the low Po Valley). The first line hospital had to redesign its logistical and departmental structure to respond to the influx of COVID-19-positive patients who needed hospitalization. Logistical and structural strategies were guided by the crisis unit, managing in 8 days from the beginning of the epidemic to prepare the hospital to be ready to welcome more than 200 COVID-19-positive patients with different ventilatory requirements, keeping clean emergency access lines, and restoring surgical interventions and deferred urgent, routine activity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Organization and Administration/standards , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Civil Defense/methods , Civil Defense/trends , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Organization and Administration/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
4.
Open Heart ; 7(2)2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917800

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19, due to SARS-CoV-2, has uncovered many real-world issues when it comes to healthcare management and has led to a widespread mortality. Observations thus far from the reports of COVID-19 have indicated that certain risk groups for example, those with pre-existing cardiovascular (CV) disease, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and tobacco use are prone to disease development and specifically development of severe disease and possible fatality. It is increasingly evident that many CV conditions occur frequently. These include myopericarditis, acute coronary syndromes, thrombosis, arrhythmias, hypertension and heart failure. Many professional organisations and societies related to cardiology have produced guidelines or recommendations on most of the above-mentioned aspects. Given these rapid developments, the aims of this review manuscript were to summarise and integrate recent publications with newly developed guidelines and with the first-hand experience of frontline physicians and to yield a pragmatic insight and approach to CV complications of COVID-19. We emphasise on a strategic tier-based approach for initial assessment and management of COVID-19, and then delve into focused areas within CV domains, and additionally highlighting the role of point-of-care ultrasound especially lung ultrasound, echocardiography and electrocardiography, in the management of these patients. We hope this paper will serve as a useful tool in the CV management of COVID-19 for clinicians practicing in both developing and developed countries.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
5.
Eur Respir Rev ; 29(157)2020 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835811

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2. Consensus suggestions can standardise care, thereby improving outcomes and facilitating future research. METHODS: An International Task Force was composed and agreement regarding courses of action was measured using the Convergence of Opinion on Recommendations and Evidence (CORE) process. 70% agreement was necessary to make a consensus suggestion. RESULTS: The Task Force made consensus suggestions to treat patients with acute COVID-19 pneumonia with remdesivir and dexamethasone but suggested against hydroxychloroquine except in the context of a clinical trial; these are revisions of prior suggestions resulting from the interim publication of several randomised trials. It also suggested that COVID-19 patients with a venous thromboembolic event be treated with therapeutic anticoagulant therapy for 3 months. The Task Force was unable to reach sufficient agreement to yield consensus suggestions for the post-hospital care of COVID-19 survivors. The Task Force fell one vote shy of suggesting routine screening for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The Task Force addressed questions related to pharmacotherapy in patients with COVID-19 and the post-hospital care of survivors, yielding several consensus suggestions. Management options for which there is insufficient agreement to formulate a suggestion represent research priorities.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , International Cooperation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Medicine/standards , Societies, Medical , COVID-19 , Europe , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
7.
Comput Chem Eng ; 140: 106945, 2020 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526543

ABSTRACT

The different stages of Covid-19 pandemic can be described by two key-variables: ICU patients and deaths in hospitals. We propose simple models that can be used by medical doctors and decision makers to predict the trends on both short-term and long-term horizons. Daily updates of the models with real data allow forecasting some key indicators for decision-making (an Excel file in the Supplemental material allows computing them). These are beds allocation, residence time, doubling time, rate of renewal, maximum daily rate of change (positive/negative), halfway points, maximum plateaus, asymptotic conditions, and dates and time intervals when some key thresholds are overtaken. Doubling time of ICU beds for Covid-19 emergency can be as low as 2-3 days at the outbreak of the pandemic. The models allow identifying the possible departure of the phenomenon from the predicted trend and thus can play the role of early warning systems and describe further outbreaks.

8.
Eur Respir J ; 55(5)2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-143997

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 present a broad spectrum of clinical presentation. Whereas hypoxaemia is the marker of severity, different strategies of management should be customised to five specific individual phenotypes. Many intubated patients present with phenotype 4, characterised by pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction, being associated with severe hypoxaemia with "normal" (>40 mL·cmH2O-1) lung compliance and likely representing pulmonary microvascular thrombosis. Phenotype 5 is often associated with high plasma procalcitonin and has low pulmonary compliance, Which is a result of co-infection or acute lung injury after noninvasive ventilation. Identifying these clinical phenotypes and applying a personalised approach would benefit the optimisation of therapies and improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Phenotype , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , SARS Virus/genetics , Acute Lung Injury/therapy , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Biomarkers/blood , Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Management , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/etiology , Lung Compliance/genetics , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Procalcitonin/metabolism , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL