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1.
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology ; 40(10):83-84, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067774

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To determine characteristics associated with a more severe COVID-19 outcome in people with Sjogren's disease (SJD). Methods. People with SJD and COVID-19 reported to two international registries (Sjogren Big Data Consortium and COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance) from March 2020 to October 2021 were included. An ordinal COVID-19 severity scale was defined: (1) not hospitalized, (2) hospitalized with no ventilation, (3) hospitalized requiring non-invasive ventilation, (4) hospitalized requiring invasive ventilation, and (5) death. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated using a multivariable ordinal logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities and anti-rheumatic medications included as covariates. Results. A total of 898 people with SJD were included (825 (91.8%) women, mean age SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis: 55.5 years), including 652 patients with primary SJD and 246 with other associated systemic rheumatic diseases. 33.9% were hospitalized, 14.5% required ventilation, and 4.3% died. In the multivariable model, older age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.05), male sex (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.92), two or more comorbidities (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.92 to 4.67;vs none), baseline therapy with corticosteroids (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.46), immunosuppressive agents (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.30 to 3.38) and B-cell depleting agents (OR 5.38, 95% CI 2.77 to 10.47) were associated with worse outcomes (reference for all medications: hydroxychloroquine only). Conclusions. More severe COVID-19 outcomes in individuals with Sjogren's are largely driven by demographic factors and baseline comorbidities. Patients using immunosuppressants, especially rituximab, also experienced more severe outcomes.

2.
Rheumatol Adv Pract ; 6(Suppl 1), 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2062965

ABSTRACT

Introduction/Background: There is a lack of data on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination safety in children and young people (CYP) with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) as they were excluded from initial vaccine trials. Vaccination guidance is based on data from adults with or CYP without RMDs. Description/Method: Our objective was to describe the safety of SARS-COV-2 vaccination in adolescents with inflammatory RMDs and adults with JIA. We described patient characteristics, flares, and adverse events in adolescent cases under 18 with inflammatory RMDs and adult cases aged 18 or above with JIA submitted to the European Alliance of Associations for Rheumatology (EULAR) COVAX registry. Discussion/Results: Thirty-six adolescent cases were reported from 4 countries, mostly female (58%) with JIA (42%: 28% non-systemic JIA, 14% systemic JIA) and a median age of 15 [IQR: 14.5, 17]. Most were in remission (64%) or had minimal (22%) disease activity at the time of vaccination. Over half of the adolescent group (56%) reported early reactogenic-like AEs. One mild polyarthralgia flare and one serious AE of special interest (malaise) were reported. No CYP reported SARS-CoV-2 infection post-vaccination. No cases of paediatric inflammatory multi-system syndrome or myocarditis adverse events were reported.Seventy-four adult JIA cases were reported from 11 countries;73% were female with a median age of 26 [IQR: 23, 31]. Eight-five percent had ns-JIA and 15% had s-JIA. Almost two thirds (62%) reported early reactogenic-like AEs and two flares were reported (mild polyarthralgia and moderate uveitis). No serious AEs of special interest were reported among adults with JIA. Three 20-30 year old females were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 post-vaccination;all fully recovered. Key learning points/Conclusion: In this observational registry dataset, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines appeared safe in adolescents with RMDs and adults with JIA, with a low frequency of disease flares, serious AEs, and SARS-CoV-2 re-infection seen in both populations.

3.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:119, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009038

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 vaccines offer the most effective way to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19. Recent data indicate sufficient immune response after vaccination in most patients with infammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD) on immunomodulatory treatments. Objectives: To investigate the clinical profile of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections among double and triple vaccinated patients with IRD. Methods: Data from the German COVID-19-IRD registry, collected by treating rheumatologists between February 2021 and January 2022 were analysed. Patients double or triple vaccinated against COVID-19 ≥14 days prior to proven SARS-CoV-2 infection were identifed, and type of IRD, vaccine, immunomodulation, comorbidities and outcome of the infection were compared with 737 unvac-cinated IRD-patients with COVID-19. Results: In total, 271 cases of breakthrough infections were reported, 250 patients (91%) had received two doses of vaccines, 21 (9%) patients three. More than 70% of the patients received Pfzer/Biontech vaccine for the frst, second and third vaccination. The median time from second/third vaccine dose to infection was 148 days (range 14-302) days. Most of the patients were diagnosed with infamma-tory joint diseases (Table 1). Most of the patients were treated with methotrexate (Table 1). The use of Januskinase inhibitors(i) was more frequently reported in double vaccinated patients (10.4% vs 4.8%), whereas tumor necrosis (TNF)i were reported more often in triple vaccinated patients (33.3% vs. 22.8). Hospitalisation rate was higher in unvaccinated IRD-patients than in vaccinated ones, while fatality rate was similar in unvaccinated and double vaccinated patients. Although the rate of comorbidities and median age were higher in triple-vaccinated patients, infected patients showed a lower rate of hospitalisation, neither COVID-19 related complications, nor the need of oxygen treatment or death. Conclusion: In this cohort of triple-vaccinated IRD patients no fatal courses and no COVID-19 related complications were reported, although median age and rate of comorbidities were higher compared to double-vaccinated and unvacci-nated patients. These results support the general recommendations to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19 disease by administering three doses of vaccine, especially in patients with older age, presence of comorbidities, and on immuno-modulatory treatment.

4.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:957, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009037

ABSTRACT

Background: At the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the influence of anti-infammatory therapy on the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with infammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD) was unknown. In the meantime, several data indicate an association of severe courses of COVID-19 with the use of ritux-imab (RTX). Objectives: To gather further knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 infections in RTX-treated IRD patients, data from the German COVID-19-IRD-registry were analysed. Methods: Hospitalisation was used as a surrogate of COVID-19 severity. Baseline characteristics, disease features, medication and outcome of COVID-19 were compared in RTX-treated inpatients and outpatients. Results: In total, 3592 cases were reported in the registry, which included 130 RTX patients (3.6%) for our analysis. RTX-treated inpatients were older than RTX-treated outpatients (median age 63 y vs 56 y, p=0.007). Patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis treated with RTX (n=32) showed a significant higher COVID-19 related hospitalisation rate (33% vs 11%, p=0.005), which was not the case for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (49% vs 50%). Cardiovascular comorbidities were reported more frequently in hospitalised RTX-treated patients (20% vs. 6%, p=0.032). More than 50% of the RTX-treated inpatients developed COVID-19 related complications, e.g. acute respiratory distress syndrome. The median time period between the last RTX treatment and SARS-CoV-2 infection was shorter in inpatients than in non-hospitalised patients (3 (range 0-17) vs. 4 months (range-29), p=0.039). The COVID-19 related mortality rate was 14% (n=19) in RTX-treated IRD patients. In RTX-treated inpatients and outpatients, there were no relevant differences with respect to the use of concomitant glucocor-ticoids or other disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, disease activity, median last RTX dose or median number of immunomodulatory drugs prior to RTX treatment. Conclusion: In addition to general risk factors, such as age and comorbidities, it is already known that IRD patients treated with RTX show a higher rate of severe COVID-19. In our registry, RTX-treated patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis appear to be at even higher risk to develop severe COVID-19 compared to other IRD. Moreover, the shorter the time since the last RTX treatment, the higher seems to be the risk of developing severe COVID-19. This might be explained by a more profound B-cell depletion in the frst weeks after RTX treatment warranting further studies.

5.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:165-166, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009023

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a paucity of data in the literature about the outcome of patients with idiopathic infammatory myopathy (IIM) who have been infected with SARS-CoV-2. Objectives: To investigate factors associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes in patients with IIM. Methods: Data on demographics, number of comorbidities, region, COVID-19 time period, physician-reported disease activity, anti-rheumatic medication exposure at the clinical onset of COVID-19, and COVID-19 outcomes of IIM patients were obtained from the voluntary COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance physician-reported registry of adults with rheumatic disease (from 17 March 2020 to 27 August 2021). An ordinal COVID-19 severity scale was used as primary outcome of interest, with each outcome category being mutually exclusive from the other:a) no hospital-ization, b) hospitalization (and no death), or c) death. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated using multivariable ordinal logistic regression. In ordinal logistic regression, the effect size of a categorical predictor can be interpreted as the odds of being one level higher on the ordinal COVID-19 severity scale than the reference category. Results: Complete hospitalization and death outcome data was available in 348 IIM cases. Mean age was 53 years, and 223 (64.1%) were female. Overall, 167/348 (48.0%) people were not hospitalized, 136/348 (39.1%) were hospitalized (and did not die), and 45/348 (12.9%) died. Older age (OR=1.59 per decade of life, 95%CI 1.32-1.93), male sex (OR=1.63, 95%CI 1.004-2.64;versus female), high disease activity (OR=4.05, 95%CI 1.29-12.76;versus remission), presence of two or more comorbidities (OR=2.39, 95%CI 1.22-4.68;versus none), predni-solone-equivalent dose >7.5 mg/day (OR=2.37, 95%CI 1.27-4.44;versus no gluco-corticoid intake), and exposure to rituximab (OR=2.60, 95%CI 1.23-5.47;versus csDMARDs only) were associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes (Table 1). Conclusion: These are the frst global registry data on the impact of COVID-19 on IIM patients. Older age, male gender, higher comorbidity burden, higher disease activity, higher glucocorticoid intake and rituximab exposure were associated with worse outcomes. These fndings will inform risk stratifcation and management decisions for IIM patients.

6.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:163-164, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008909

ABSTRACT

Background: Some factors associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes have been identifed in patients with psoriasis (PsO) and infammatory/autoimmune rheumatic diseases, namely older age, male sex, comorbidity burden, higher disease activity, and certain medications such as rituximab. However, information about specifcities of patients with PsO, psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), including disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) specifcally licensed for these conditions, such as IL-17 inhibitors (IL-17i), IL-23/IL-12 + 23 inhibitors (IL-23/IL-12 + 23i), and apremilast, is lacking. Objectives: To determine characteristics associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes in people with PsO, PsA and axSpA. Methods: This study was a pooled analysis of data from two physician-reported registries: the Psoriasis Patient Registry for Outcomes, Therapy and Epidemiology of COVID-19 Infection (PsoProtect), comprising patients with PsO/PsA, and the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance (GRA) registry, comprising patients with PsA/axSpA. Data from the beginning of the pandemic up to 25 October, 2021 were included. An ordinal severity outcome was defned as: 1) not hospitalised, 2) hospitalised without death, and 3) death. A multivariable ordinal logistic regression model was constructed to assess the relationship between COVID-19 severity and demographic characteristics (age, sex, time period of infection), comorbidities (hypertension, other cardiovascular disease [CVD], chronic obstructive lung disease [COPD], asthma, other chronic lung disease, chronic kidney disease, cancer, smoking, obesity, diabetes mellitus [DM]), rheumatic/skin disease (PsO, PsA, axSpA), physician-reported disease activity, and medication exposure (methotrexate, lefunomide, sulfasalazine, TNFi, IL17i, IL-23/IL-12 + 23i, Janus kinase inhibitors (JAKi), apremilast, glucocorticoids [GC] and NSAIDs). Age-adjustment was performed employing four-knot restricted cubic splines. Country-adjustment was performed using random effects. Results: A total of 5008 individuals with PsO (n=921), PsA (n=2263) and axSpA (n=1824) were included. Mean age was 50 years (SD 13.5) and 51.8% were male. Hospitalisation (without death) was observed in 14.6% of cases and 1.8% died. In the multivariable model, the following variables were associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes: older age (Figure 1), male sex (OR 1.53, 95%CI 1.29-1.82), CVD (hypertension alone: 1.26, 1.02-1.56;other CVD alone: 1.89, 1.22-2.94;vs no hypertension and no other CVD), COPD or asthma (1.75, 1.32-2.32), other lung disease (2.56, 1.66-3.97), chronic kidney disease (2.32, 1.50-3.59), obesity and DM (obesity alone: 1.36, 1.07-1.71;DM alone: 1.85, 1.39-2.47;obesity and DM: 1.89, 1.34-2.67;vs no obesity and no DM), higher disease activity and GC intake (remission/low disease activity and GC intake: 1.96, 1.36-2.82;moderate/severe disease activity and no GC intake: 1.35, 1.05-1.72;moderate/severe disease activity and GC intake 2.30, 1.41-3.74;vs remission/low disease activity and no GC intake). Conversely, the following variables were associated with less severe COVID-19 outcomes: time period after 15 June 2020 (16 June 2020-31 December 2020: 0.42, 0.34-0.51;1 January 2021 onwards: 0.52, 0.41-0.67;vs time period until 15 June 2020), a diagnosis of PsO (without arthritis) (0.49, 0.37-0.65;vs PsA), and exposure to TNFi (0.58, 0.45-0.75;vs no DMARDs), IL17i (0.63, 0.45-0.88;vs no DMARDs), IL-23/IL-12 + 23i (0.68, 0.46-0.997;vs no DMARDs) and NSAIDs (0.77, 0.60-0.98;vs no NSAIDs). Conclusion: More severe COVID-19 outcomes in PsO, PsA and axSpA are largely driven by demographic factors (age, sex), comorbidities, and active disease. None of the DMARDs typically used in PsO, PsA and axSpA, were associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes, including IL-17i, IL-23/IL-12 + 23i, JAKi and apremilast.

7.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:934-935, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008883

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a lack of data on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination safety in children and young people (CYP) with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs). Current vaccination guidance is based on data from adults with RMDs or CYP without RMDs. Objectives: To describe the characteristics and outcomes of adolescents with infammatory RMDs and adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. Methods: We described patient characteristics, fares, and adverse events in adolescent cases under 18 with infammatory RMDs and adult cases aged 18 or above with JIA submitted to the European Alliance of Associations for Rheumatology (EULAR) COVAX registry. Results: Thirty-six adolescent cases were reported from 4 countries, the most frequent diagnosis was JIA (42%). Over half (56%) reported early reactogen-ic-like adverse events (AEs) experienced within 7 days of vaccination. One mild polyarthralgia fare and one serious AE (malaise) were reported. No CYP reported SARS-CoV-2 infection post-vaccination. In addition to the adolescent cases, eleven countries reported 74 adult JIA cases. Among these, 62% reported early reactogenic-like AEs and two fares were reported (mild polyarthralgia and moderate uveitis). No serious AEs of special interest were reported among adults with JIA. Three 20-30 year old females were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 post-vaccination;all fully recovered. Conclusion: In this observational registry dataset, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines appeared safe in adolescents with RMDs and adults with JIA, with a low frequency of disease fares, serious AEs, and SARS-CoV-2 re-infection seen in both populations.

17.
Revue du Rhumatisme ; 88:A9-A10, 2021.
Article in French | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1537026

ABSTRACT

Introduction Les patients atteints de maladies musculosquelettiques inflammatoires/auto-immunes (I-RMD) n’ont pas été inclus dans les études de tolérance des vaccins contre le SARS-CoV-2 et sont souvent inquiets quant à la tolérance de la vaccination. Notre objectif est d’étudier la tolérance des vaccins contre le SARS-CoV-2 chez les patients atteints de maladies musculosquelettiques inflammatoires/auto-immunes (I-RMD). Patients et méthodes Pour cela, nous avons créé avec l’EULAR un registre international de cas rapportés par les médecins rhumatologues et internistes de patients atteints d’I-RMD et de RMD non inflammatoire (NI-RMD) vaccinés contre le SARS-CoV-2. Du 5 février 2021 au 27 juillet 2021, nous avons recueilli des données sur la démographie, la vaccination, le diagnostic de RMD, l’activité de la maladie, les traitements immunomodulateurs/immunosuppresseurs, les poussées, les événements indésirables (EI) et les infections COVID-19 chez les patients vaccinés. Les données ont été analysées de manière descriptive. Résultats L’étude a inclus 5121 participants de 30 pays, la majorité de France (40 %), Italie (16 %) et Portugal (14 %), 90 % avec des I-RMD (n=4604, 68 % de femmes, âge moyen 60,5 ans) et 10 % avec des NI-RMD (n=517), 77 % de femmes, âge moyen 71,4 ans. La polyarthrite rhumatoïde (33 %), les connectivites (18 %), les spondyloarthrites (11 %), le rhumatisme psoriaqique (10 %) et les vascularites (12 %) étaient les diagnostics les plus fréquents ;54 % des patients ont reçu des traitements de fond synthétiques conventionnels (csDMARD), 42 % des DMARD biologiques ou ciblés et 35 % des immunosuppresseurs. La plupart des patients ont reçu le vaccin Pfizer/BioNTech (70 %), 17 % AstraZeneca/Oxford et 8 % Moderna. Une infection COVID post-vaccination a été signalée dans 0,7 à 1,1 % des cas, selon le statut vaccinal (entièrement/partiellement vacciné) et le groupe RMD. Des poussées d’I-RMD ont été signalées dans 4,4 % des cas (0,6 % de poussées sévères), dont 1,5 % ont entraîné des changements de médicaments. Des EI ont été signalés dans 37 % des cas (37 % I-RMD, 40 % NI-RMD), des EI sévères dans 0,4 % des cas, très divers et avec une fréquence comparable et même inférieure à celle observée chez les patients atteints de NI-RMD (1,1 %). Discussion La tolérance au vaccin n’était pas différente entre les groupes I-RMD et NI-RMD. Dans les essais cliniques de vaccins à ARN contre le SRAS-CoV-2 dans la population générale, les taux d’EI graves étaient très semblables à ceux de notre étude, allant de 0,4 % à 0,6 % dans le groupe vacciné et de 0,5 % à 0,6 % dans le groupe témoin, ce qui suggère que ces EI graves ne sont pas nécessairement liés au vaccin. Conclusion Il s’agit de la plus grande étude de la tolérance des vaccins anti-SRAS-CoV-2 chez près de 5000 patients atteints de maladies inflammatoires/auto-immunes rhumatologiques. Le profil de sécurité des vaccins contre le SRAS-CoV-2 chez les patients atteints d’I-RMD était rassurant, et comparable à celui des patients atteints de NI-RMD. La majorité des patients ont bien toléré leur vaccination, avec de rares poussée d’I-RMD et de très rares EI sévères probablement non liés à la vaccination. Ces résultats devraient rassurer les rhumatologues et les personnes vaccinées, et favoriser la confiance dans la sécurité du vaccin COVID-19 chez les patients atteints de I-RMD.

18.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 80(SUPPL 1):199-200, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1358913

ABSTRACT

Background: The consequences of the COVID-19 outbreak are unprecedented and have been felt by everyone around the world, including people with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs). With the development of vaccines, the future is becoming brighter. Vaccines are a key pillar of public health and have been proven to prevent many serious diseases. However, vaccination also raises questions, especially for patients with inflammatory RMDs and/or treated with drugs that influence their immune system. Objectives: Our aim was to collect safety data among RMD patients receiving COVID-19 vaccines. Methods: The EULAR COVID-19 Vaccination (COVAX) Registry is an observational registry launched on 5 February 2021. Data are entered voluntarily by clinicians or associated healthcare staff;patients are eligible for inclusion if they have an RMD and have been vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. Descriptive statistics are presented. Results: As of 27 April 2021, 1519 patients were reported to the registry. The majority were female (68%) and above the age of 60 (57%). Mean age was 63 years (SD 16), ranging from 15 to 97 years. A total of 28 countries contributed to the registry, with France (60%) and Italy (13%) as the highest contributors. The majority (91%) had inflammatory RMDs. Inflammatory joint diseases accounted for 51% of cases, connective tissue diseases 19%, vasculitis 16%, other immune mediated inflammatory diseases 4%, and non-inflammatory/mechanical RMDs 9%. The most frequent individual diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis (30%), axial spondyloarthritis (8%), psoriatic arthritis (8%), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, 7%) and polymyalgia rheumatica (6%). At the time of vaccination, 45% were taking conventional synthetic DMARDs, 36% biological DMARDs, 31% systemic glucocorticoids, 6% other immunosuppressants (azathioprine;mycophenolate;cyclosporine;cyclophosphamide;tacrolimus), and 3% targeted synthetic DMARDs. The most frequent individual DMARDs were methotrexate (29%), TNF-inhibitors (18%), antimalarials (10%) and rituximab (6%). The vaccines administered were: 78% Pfizer, 16% AstraZeneca, 5% Moderna and 1% other/unknown;66% of cases received two doses and 34% one dose. Mean time from 1st and 2nd dose to case report was 41 days (SD 26) and 26 days (SD 23), respectively. COVID-19 diagnosis after vaccination was reported in 1% (18/1519) of cases. Mean time from first vaccination until COVID-19 diagnosis was 24 days (SD 17). Disease flares were reported by 5% (73/1375) of patients with inflammatory RMDs, with 1.2% (17/1375) classified as severe flares. Mean time from closest vaccination date to inflammatory RMD flare was 5 days (SD 5). The most common flare types were arthritis (35/1375=2.5%), arthralgia (29/1375=2.1%), cutaneous flare (11/1375=0.8%) and increase in fatigue (11/1375=0.8%). Potential vaccine side effects were reported by 31% of patients (467/1519). The majority were typical early adverse events within 7 days of vaccination, namely pain at the site of injection (281/1519=19%), fatigue (171/1519=11%) and headache (103/1519=7%). Organ/system adverse events were reported by 2% (33/1519) but only 0.1% (2/1519) reported severe adverse events, namely a case of hemiparesis in a patient with systemic sclerosis/ SLE overlap syndrome (ongoing at the time of reporting), and a case of giant cell arteritis in a patient with osteoarthritis (recovered/resolved without sequelae). Conclusion: The safety profiles for COVID-19 vaccines in RMD patients was reassuring. Most adverse events were the same as in the general population, they were non-serious and involved short term local and systemic symptoms. The overwhelming majority of patients tolerated their vaccination well with rare reports of inflammatory RMD flare (5%;1.2% severe) and very rare reports of severe adverse events (0.1%). These initial findings should provide reassurance to rheumatologists and vaccine recipients, and promote confidence in COVID-19 vaccine safety in RMD patients, namely those with inflammatory RMDs and/or taking treatments that influence their immune system.

19.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 80(SUPPL 1):171-172, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1358887

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMD) might have an increased risk for infection due to their immunomodulatory treatment, secondary to their disease and comorbidities. Recent studies suggest a decreased risk of severe COVID-19 in RMD-patients treated with biologics. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess courses of RMD patients treated with TNF-inhibitors (TNF-I) included in the German COVID-19 registry. Methods: In the German physician-reported COVID-19-RMD registry, patients with an RMD and confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infection were documented (data entered between March 30, 2020 and January 30, 2021). We analysed TNF-I treated patients, their course and outcome of the infection. Data were compared to RMD-patients treated with other immunomodulatory drugs (OID) than TNF-I. Results: A total of 269 patients were treated with a TNF-I (57% female) compared to 874 patients who were treated with OID (68% female). Median age was 52 years (range: 19-87) in the TNF-I-group versus 58 years (range: 18-91) in the OID-group. Rheumatoid arthritis was the most common diagnosis (38% in TNF-I-group vs. 52% in the OID-group), followed by ankylosing spondylitis (32% vs. 6%), psoriatic arthritis (22% vs. 11%) and other RMD (9% vs. 31%). Adalimumab (35%) and etanercept (35%) were the most frequently used TNF-I (tab. 1). Glucocorticoids (GC) were used in 22% of TNF-I-treated patients and in 42% of the OID-group. Under TNF-I, stable disease was reported prior to the SARS-CoV-2-infection in 53% of the patients (OID-group: 47%), followed by low disease activity in 35% (OID: 34%), moderate disease activity in 6% (OID: 12%) and high disease activity in 4% (OID: 3%). Most frequent comorbidities were arterial hypertension (29% under TNF-I vs. 35% under OID), diabetes (8% vs. 11%) and cardiovascular diseases (7% vs. 12%). The most common reported COVID-19 symptoms were dry cough (57% vs. 55%), fever (53% vs. 61%) and fatigue (50% vs. 49%). Hospitalization due to SARSCoV infection was required in only 12% of the TNF-I-treated cases vs. in 29% in the OID-group. Oxygen treatment was necessary in 5% of the patients under TNF-I compared to 22% under OID and invasive ventilation in 2% in the TNF-Igroup compared to 6% under OID. Most notably, no fatal courses of COVID-19 were reported among the 269 RMD-patients treated with TNF-I versus 49 deaths in the 874 cases (5.6%) treated with OID. Focussing on the hospitalizated TNF-I patients, the rate of concomitant GC use (p<0.001) and higher disease activity (p=0.005) was significant higher (tab.1). Conclusion: High or moderate RMD-disease activity is an important factor associated with severity of COVID-19 including mortality. In this large cohort RMD patients treated with TNF-I show a low hospitalisation rate and no fatal course. This is reassuring for patients and treating rheumatologists to use TNF-I to control RMD disease activity. The use of glucocorticoids and high disease activity seem to counteract possible protective effects of TNF-I.

20.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 80(SUPPL 1):915, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1358885

ABSTRACT

Background: The current pandemic constitutes an entirely new situation for patients as well as physicians. The insecurity of the early phase, shutdowns, increasing infection rate and appearing SARS-CoV2 mutations have created a situation that makes live difficult especially for chronic diseases i.e. patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMD) and their treating physicians. The psychosocial burden that is created by this special situation is completely unknown and is estimated to be higher in patients than in the general population. Objectives: In order to measure the impact on our patients, the German COVID19-Rheuma patient survey was set up in April 2020, during Germany's first shut down. Methods: The German COVID19-Rheuma patient survey is a patient reported longitudinal online survey where patients with RMD who registered between April and July 2020 are asked on a monthly base using an online survey on social, personal, medical factors, whether a COVID19 infection occurred, isolation measures were changed and scores regarding stress and anxiety are recorded. Between April and July 2020, 637 patients registered and completed a first survey. Up to January 2021, about 400 patients are still enrolled. Here we present an interim analysis of the first 6 months regarding patients that were enrolled in April and May during the first shut-down. This first analysis compares the situation in the first lockdown to July, a phase with very low infection numbers in Germany, and to November, the beginning of the second lockdown. Results: 150 patients (87% female) were enrolled in April/early May 2020. Mean age was 48 years (range 11-89). The majority of patients suffered from rheumatoid arthritis (51%), followed by psoriatic arthritis (17%), other spondyloarthropathies (10%) and connective tissue diseases (10%). The majority of patients received antirheumatic therapies: 32% glucocorticoids (GC), 31% cDMARDs, 21% TNF inhibitors, 7% Jak inhibitors, and 9% other biologicals. Of the patients treated with GC, 25% were on GC monotherapy. In the first lockdown, 26% of patients were working remotely and 24% were self-isolating (doubles included). Additionally, 48% were using masks that were not mandatory at that time and 41% were using disinfection in a regular manner. The rates for remote work and self-isolation did not change significantly over time while the mask use increased to 98% with the official obligation to do so. The use of disinfectants increased to 88% in November. Regarding disease activity, no change in patient global assessment could be observed over time (4.3 ± 2.5 vs. 4.0 ±2.6 and 4.0 ± 2.5). Self-reported pain was also stable over time as were sleep disturbances. While 48.2% of patients who were receiving physiotherapy paused in April, only 10 and 14% did so in July and November, respectively. 11% of the patients paused their medication in the first lockdown, whereas only 2.75% did so in July and 3.4% in November. Contact with the treating rheumatologist was maintained over time in the majority of cases. Conclusion: While in the beginning of the pandemic the insecurity was considerable and the concern that the fear for infection would lead to inadequately treated patients with RMDs, we here show for the first time that on the one hand our patients were timely in taking adequate measures to keep themselves safe (e.g. self-isolating, mask use) and adapted to the clinical situation in not pausing their medication. Altogether, in this alert cohort, the pandemic did not lead to an increase of patient-reported disease activity in the first six months.

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