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1.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 840008, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792984

ABSTRACT

Background: In children and adults with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI), elevations of serum liver enzyme activities are frequently observed in clinical practice. However, epidemiological data particularly in the pediatric population are very limited. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of hepatic involvement, to identify the viruses and to analyze risk factors in children and adolescents with ARTI in a real-world setting. Methods: We report on a prospective, multicenter, non-interventional study with 1,010 consecutive patients aged 1-17 years with ARTI who consulted a physician within 5 days after onset of symptoms. Laboratory blood tests and PCR virus detection in nasopharyngeal lavage were performed at first presentation and after 3-7 days. Patients with elevated activities of serum liver enzymes (ASAT, ALAT, and γ-GT) were determined in local laboratories and values were normalized by dividing by the individual upper limit of the normal range (ULN). The resulting index (<1 means below ULN, >1 means above ULN) allowed to compare results from laboratories with different reference ranges. Results: Laboratory test results of 987 patients were available at first visit. 11.1% (95% CI: 9.2-13.3%) exhibited an elevation of ASAT, ALAT, and/or γ-GT activities. Virus DNA or RNA was identified in nasopharyngeal lavages of 63% of the patients. 12.2% of patients with positive PCR and 9.7% of those with negative PCR (p = 0.25) had elevated serum liver enzyme activities. The highest rates were observed in patients with a positive result for influenza B virus (24.4%) followed by human metapneumovirus (14.6%), and human coronavirus (others than SARS-CoV-2) (13.6%). The rate of children and adolescents with ARTI and elevation of serum liver enzyme activities correlated with the virus species and with overweight of the patients but did not differ in patients with or without previous medication intake. Conclusion: Elevated enzyme activities are present in about 10% of children and adolescents with ARTI. In our cohort, these elevations were mild to moderate; probably resulting from an inflammation process with hepatic involvement.

2.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787243

ABSTRACT

Background In children and adults with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI), elevations of serum liver enzyme activities are frequently observed in clinical practice. However, epidemiological data particularly in the pediatric population are very limited. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of hepatic involvement, to identify the viruses and to analyze risk factors in children and adolescents with ARTI in a real-world setting. Methods We report on a prospective, multicenter, non-interventional study with 1,010 consecutive patients aged 1–17 years with ARTI who consulted a physician within 5 days after onset of symptoms. Laboratory blood tests and PCR virus detection in nasopharyngeal lavage were performed at first presentation and after 3–7 days. Patients with elevated activities of serum liver enzymes (ASAT, ALAT, and γ-GT) were determined in local laboratories and values were normalized by dividing by the individual upper limit of the normal range (ULN). The resulting index (<1 means below ULN, >1 means above ULN) allowed to compare results from laboratories with different reference ranges. Results Laboratory test results of 987 patients were available at first visit. 11.1% (95% CI: 9.2–13.3%) exhibited an elevation of ASAT, ALAT, and/or γ-GT activities. Virus DNA or RNA was identified in nasopharyngeal lavages of 63% of the patients. 12.2% of patients with positive PCR and 9.7% of those with negative PCR (p = 0.25) had elevated serum liver enzyme activities. The highest rates were observed in patients with a positive result for influenza B virus (24.4%) followed by human metapneumovirus (14.6%), and human coronavirus (others than SARS-CoV-2) (13.6%). The rate of children and adolescents with ARTI and elevation of serum liver enzyme activities correlated with the virus species and with overweight of the patients but did not differ in patients with or without previous medication intake. Conclusion Elevated enzyme activities are present in about 10% of children and adolescents with ARTI. In our cohort, these elevations were mild to moderate;probably resulting from an inflammation process with hepatic involvement.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758751

ABSTRACT

We compared the ability of SARS-CoV2 Spike-specific antibodies to induce natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in patients with natural infection and vaccinated persons. Analyzing plasma samples from 39 COVID-19 patients and 11 vaccinated individuals, significant induction of ADCC could be observed over a period of more than three months in both vaccinated and recovered individuals. Although plasma antibody concentrations were lower in recovered patients, we found antibodies elicited by natural infection induced a significantly stronger ADCC response compared to those induced by vaccination, which may affect protection conferred by vaccination.

4.
Immunity ; 54(11): 2650-2669.e14, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442406

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal analyses of the innate immune system, including the earliest time points, are essential to understand the immunopathogenesis and clinical course of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Here, we performed a detailed characterization of natural killer (NK) cells in 205 patients (403 samples; days 2 to 41 after symptom onset) from four independent cohorts using single-cell transcriptomics and proteomics together with functional studies. We found elevated interferon (IFN)-α plasma levels in early severe COVD-19 alongside increased NK cell expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and genes involved in IFN-α signaling, while upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced genes was observed in moderate diseases. NK cells exert anti-SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) activity but are functionally impaired in severe COVID-19. Further, NK cell dysfunction may be relevant for the development of fibrotic lung disease in severe COVID-19, as NK cells exhibited impaired anti-fibrotic activity. Our study indicates preferential IFN-α and TNF responses in severe and moderate COVID-19, respectively, and associates a prolonged IFN-α-induced NK cell response with poorer disease outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Base Sequence , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Interferon-alpha/blood , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , RNA-Seq , Severity of Illness Index , Transcriptome/genetics , United Kingdom , United States
6.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 3(2): e200628, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221660

ABSTRACT

Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; myocarditis; cardiac MRI; T1 mapping; T2 mapping.

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