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Nat Immunol ; 23(2): 275-286, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661973


The humoral arm of innate immunity includes diverse molecules with antibody-like functions, some of which serve as disease severity biomarkers in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The present study was designed to conduct a systematic investigation of the interaction of human humoral fluid-phase pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Of 12 PRMs tested, the long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) bound the viral nucleocapsid and spike proteins, respectively. MBL bound trimeric spike protein, including that of variants of concern (VoC), in a glycan-dependent manner and inhibited SARS-CoV-2 in three in vitro models. Moreover, after binding to spike protein, MBL activated the lectin pathway of complement activation. Based on retention of glycosylation sites and modeling, MBL was predicted to recognize the Omicron VoC. Genetic polymorphisms at the MBL2 locus were associated with disease severity. These results suggest that selected humoral fluid-phase PRMs can play an important role in resistance to, and pathogenesis of, COVID-19, a finding with translational implications.

COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Chlorocebus aethiops , Complement Activation , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Female , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/immunology , Mannose-Binding Lectin/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protein Binding , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/genetics , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serum Amyloid P-Component/immunology , Serum Amyloid P-Component/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
J Leukoc Biol ; 111(4): 817-836, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340268


The MS4A gene family encodes 18 tetraspanin-like proteins, most of which with unknown function. MS4A1 (CD20), MS4A2 (FcεRIß), MS4A3 (HTm4), and MS4A4A play important roles in immunity, whereas expression and function of other members of the family are unknown. The present investigation was designed to obtain an expression fingerprint of MS4A family members, using bioinformatics analysis of public databases, RT-PCR, and protein analysis when possible. MS4A3, MS4A4A, MS4A4E, MS4A6A, MS4A7, and MS4A14 were expressed by myeloid cells. MS4A6A and MS4A14 were expressed in circulating monocytes and decreased during monocyte-to-Mϕ differentiation in parallel with an increase in MS4A4A expression. Analysis of gene expression regulation revealed a strong induction of MS4A4A, MS4A6A, MS4A7, and MS4A4E by glucocorticoid hormones. Consistently with in vitro findings, MS4A4A and MS4A7 were expressed in tissue Mϕs from COVID-19 and rheumatoid arthritis patients. Interestingly, MS4A3, selectively expressed in myeloid precursors, was found to be a marker of immature circulating neutrophils, a cellular population associated to COVID-19 severe disease. The results reported here show that members of the MS4A family are differentially expressed and regulated during myelomonocytic differentiation, and call for assessment of their functional role and value as therapeutic targets.

COVID-19 , Membrane Proteins , Antigens, CD20 , Family , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Monocytes/metabolism