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J Environ Sci (China) ; 112: 161-169, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253188


This study investigated concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3, and air quality index (AQI) values across 368 cities in mainland China during 2015-2018. The study further examined relationships of air pollution status with local industrial capacities and vehicle possessions. Strong correlations were found between industrial capacities (coal, pig iron, crude steel and rolled steel) and air pollution levels. Although statistical and significant reductions of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and AQI values were observed in response to various laws and regulations in industrial sectors, both particle and gaseous pollutants still had annual average concentrations above recommended limits. In order to further reduce air pollution, more efforts can be done to control traffic emissions caused by minicars and heavy trucks, which was revealed after investigating 16 vehicle types. This was also consistent with the apparent air quality improvement during the COVID-19 lockdown period in China in 2020, despite industrial operations being still active at full capacities.

Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Animals , China , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine
Environ Res ; 194: 110663, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043202


This study represents the first empirical estimation of threshold values between nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and COVID-19-related deaths in France. The concentration of NO2 linked to COVID-19-related deaths in three major French cities were determined using Artificial Neural Networks experiments and a Causal Direction from Dependency (D2C) algorithm. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential effects of NO2 in spreading the epidemic. The underlying hypothesis is that NO2, as a precursor to secondary particulate matter formation, can foster COVID-19 and make the respiratory system more susceptible to this infection. Three different neural networks for the cities of Paris, Lyon and Marseille were built in this work, followed by the application of an innovative tool of cutting the signal from the inputs to the selected target. The results show that the threshold levels of NO2 connected to COVID-19 range between 15.8 µg/m3 for Lyon, 21.8 µg/m3 for Marseille and 22.9 µg/m3 for Paris, which were significantly lower than the average annual concentration limit of 40 µg/m³ imposed by Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament.

Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Cities , France/epidemiology , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/toxicity , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2