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IEEE Spectrum ; 59(11):22-27, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2107848


RICHARD COSTANZO STANDS BESIDE A MANNEQUIN HEAD sporting  spectacles decked with electronics and holds a vial of blue liquid up to a tiny sensor.An LED glows blue, and Costanzo's phone displays the word “Windex.” Then he waves a vial of purple liquid and gets a purple light along with the message “Listerine.” • “There won't be Scotch tape on the final model,” says Costanzo, as he rearranges the gear in his lab at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU), in Richmond. The prototype is a partial demonstration of a concept that he's been working on for decades: a neuroprosthetic for smell. The mannequin represents someone who has lost their sense of smell to COVID-19, brain injury, or some other medical condition. It is also intended to show off the sensor, which is the same type used for commercial electronic noses, or e-noses. In the final product, the sensor won't light up an LED but will instead send a signal to the user's brain.

Ieee Spectrum ; 57(10):21-23, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-855585


When the Spanish flu pandemic swept across the globe in 1918, it ravaged a population with essentially no technological countermeasures. There were no diagnostic tests, no mechanical ventilators, and no antiviral or widely available anti-inflammatory medications other than aspirin. The first inactivated-virus vaccines would not become available until 1936. An estimated 50 million people died. Today, a best-case scenario predicts 1.3 million fatalities from COVID-19 in 2020, according to projections by Imperial College London, and rapidly declining numbers after that. That in a world with 7.8 billion people-more than four times as many as in 1918. Many factors have lessened mortality this time, including better implementation of social-distancing measures. But technology is also a primary bulwark. Since January of this year, roughly US $50 billion has been spent in the United States alone to ramp up testing, diagnosis, modeling, treatment, vaccine creation, and other tech-based responses

IEEE Spectrum ; 57(5):6-7, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-829340


A respiratory virus named SARS-CoV-2 spread from a market in Wuhan, China, to more than 200 countries in just four months. As of press time, it had infected 1.9 million people, causing a disease known as COVID-19 that has already killed 117,000.