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1.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 15: 1617-1625, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917095

ABSTRACT

Background: As the number of COVID-19 cases grows worldwide, one solution to the global pandemic is vaccination. Unfortunately, the hesitancy of receiving vaccines is still high, particularly among younger age groups (eg, students). Because the hesitancy of receiving vaccines is an important issue, instruments have been developed to assess vaccine hesitancy. Moreover, the use of these instruments among specific groups such as students is of critical importance. Aim: The present study examined the psychometric properties of the nine-item MoVac-COVID19S (also known as the DrVac-COVID19S) including its measurement invariance among university students in three different countries (ie, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Malaysia). Methods: A multi-country, web-based cross-sectional survey study was conducted among 1809 university students, recruited from the three countries from May to September 2021. The nine-item scale was translated into Traditional Chinese, Bahasa Indonesian, and Malay. Results: The results of the confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the one-factor structure of the MoVac-COVID19S was fully supported among Indonesian and Malay participants (comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.991 and 0.998; Tucker-Lewis index [TLI] = 0.997 and 0.987; root mean sqaure error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.040 and 0.071; and standardized root mean square residual [SRMR] = 0.014 and 0.039). Moreover, the four-factor structure was supported among Indonesian, Malay, and Taiwanese participants (CFI = 0.998, 0.998, and 0.985; TLI = 0.997, 0.996, and 0.973; RMSEA = 0.044, 0.038, and 0.091; and SRMR = 0.013, 0.018, and 0.049). Conclusion: The MoVac-COVID19S has good construct validity among university students from three different countries (ie, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Malaysia). The four-factor structure of the MoVac-COVID19S was supported. Therefore, health-care providers may want to assess the four underlying constructs to better understand why a university student accepts or declines COVID-19 vaccine uptake in the three countries. Using the findings, government policymakers and health-care authorities can design appropriate programs to help decrease vaccine hesitancy.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 800962, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731795

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused psychological distress and changed human living styles. However, rare studies have examined the psychological distress and protective behaviors across different populations. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess psychological distress, protective behaviors, and potential predictors of psychological distress and protective behaviors across the Hong Kong general population, Taiwan healthcare workers, and Taiwan outpatients. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used to recruit participants from Hong Kong and Taiwan. Telephone interviews were carried out for Hong Kong participants (n = 1,067; 30.2% male participants); online surveys were used for Taiwan healthcare workers (n = 500; 8.0% male participants) and Taiwan outpatients (n = 192; 32.8% male participants). All the participants completed questions on psychological distress and protective behaviors. Multiple linear regressions and multivariable logistic regressions were employed to explore the potential predictors of psychological distress and protective behaviors, respectively. RESULTS: Hong Kong participants had significantly lower levels of psychological distress than Taiwan participants [mean (SD) = 0.16 (0.39) vs. 0.47 (0.59) in healthcare workers and 0.46 (0.65) in outpatients; p < 0.001]. Hong Kong participants (51.7%) and Taiwan outpatients had more people showing fear of COVID-19 (52.0%) than Taiwan healthcare providers (40.8%; p < 0.001). Moreover, Hong Kong participants engaged the most in protective behaviors, followed by Taiwan healthcare providers and Taiwan outpatients (p < 0.001). Moreover, being a female, fear of COVID-19 and worry about personal savings were associated with protective behaviors in general. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the greater COVID-19 severity and fear of COVID-19 in Hong Kong, the general population in Hong Kong experienced less psychosocial distress with higher compliance to protective behaviors than the other groups in Taiwan.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320725

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to measure the impacts of COVID-19 among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a global sample of gay men and other MSM (n= 2732) from April 16, 2020 to May 4, 2020, through a social networking app. We characterized the economic, mental health, HIV prevention and HIV treatment impacts of COVID-19 and the COVID-19 response, and examined whether subgroups of our study population are disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. Many men not only reported economic and mental health consequences, but also interruptions to HIV prevention and testing, and HIV care and treatment services. Consequences were significantly greater among people living with HIV, racial/ethnic minorities, immigrants, sex workers, and socio-economically disadvantaged groups. Findings underscore the crucial need to mitigate the multifaceted impacts of COVID-19 among gay men and other MSM, especially for those with intersecting vulnerabilities.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310941

ABSTRACT

Taiwan has been successful in controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic;however, without a vaccine the threat of a second outbreak remains. Young adults who show few-to-no symptoms when infected have been identified in many countries as driving the virus' spread through unidentifiable community transmission. Mobile tracking technologies register nearby contacts of a user and notifies them if one later tests positive to the virus, potentially solving this issue;however, the effectiveness of these technologies depends on their acceptance by the public. The current study assessed attitudes towards three tracking technologies (telecommunication network tracking, a government app, and Apple and Google's Bluetooth exposure notification system) among four samples of young Taiwanese adults (aged 25 years or younger). Using Bayesian methods, we find high acceptance for all three tracking technologies (>75%), with acceptance for each technology surpassing 90% if additional privacy measures were included. We consider the policy implications of these results for Taiwan and similar cultures.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 756985, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605957

ABSTRACT

Although health behavior theories indicate that fear is effective in activating preventive behaviors, the question of whether COVID-19 severity moderates the association between fear of COVID-19 and preventive behaviors remains unclear. The present study investigated the association between the fear of COVID-19 and preventive behaviors during the COVID-19 community outbreak of two severity levels in Taiwan. Data were obtained regarding the fear of COVID-19 and practice of preventive behaviors from 139 older people (mean age = 71.73 years; 30.2% men) through in-person interviews during a mild COVID-19 outbreak period (baseline assessment). Data from 126 of the 139 participants were obtained again through a telephone interview during a severe COVID-19 outbreak period (follow-up assessment). A significant increase in the fear of COVID-19 (d = 0.39, p < 0.001) and a decrease in preventive behaviors (d = 0.63, p < 0.001) were found in the follow-up assessment. The association between fear of COVID-19 and preventive behaviors was not significant at baseline (r = -0.07, p > 0.05) but became significant at the follow-up assessment (r = 0.32, p < 0.001). The severity of a COVID-19 outbreak may alter older people's psychological status and related behaviors.

6.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 14: 1857-1866, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523564

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The present study examined the differences between international and local university students in Taiwan regarding COVID-19-related variables, anxiety, and suicidal ideation. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey (sent via an online link in an email) was carried out comprising university students (n=529). The students were assessed on measures (including validated psychometric instruments) of perceived susceptibility to COVID-19, perceived sufficiency of resources, sources of COVID-19 information, perceived satisfaction with support, anxiety and suicidal ideation. RESULTS: Local students had higher susceptibility to COVID-19 (p<0.001) but decreased sufficiency with resources (p<0.001) and anxiety (p<0.001) compared with international students. Staying with family members, satisfaction with support, and information seeking were the factors that predicted anxiety among international students (all p-values<0.05), while information seeking predicted local students' anxiety (p<0.001). Furthermore, staying with family members, susceptibility to COVID-19, and sufficiency with resources were the factors that predicted suicidal ideation among international students (all p-values<0.05), while being a male and satisfaction with support predicted suicidal ideation among local students (all p-values<0.05). CONCLUSION: International students displayed different COVID-19-related challenges compared with local students. More specifically, international students as compared with local students had lower susceptibility to COVID-19 and higher anxiety. Therefore, healthcare providers should pay more attention to international students' psychological health and awareness regarding impacts of COVID-19 on health.

7.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444162

ABSTRACT

There are limited data concerning the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among teachers. Therefore, the present study estimated the prevalence of PTSD among mainland Chinese teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic and to construct a model with mediation and moderation effects to explain the PTSD. Data collection was conducted in schools in the Jiangxi province between October and November 2020 among k-12 schoolteachers. An online survey, including five different psychometric scales, was used to collect data. All participants were assessed for PTSD using the Chinese version of the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Hayes' PROCESS Model 8 was used to examine the potential factors explaining a higher PTSD scores. A total of 2603 teachers from k-12 schools participated. With the cutoff score at 31, the prevalence of PTSD was 12.3% but decreased to 1.0% when the cutoff score was at 49. Nomophobia moderated the effects of Fear of COVID-19 Scale on PTSD. The findings suggest that fear of COVID-19 among teachers leads to PTSD via psychological distress, highlighting the moderating effect of nomophobia in this association. Based on the study's findings, psychological interventions and educational training are needed to reduce fear among teachers at higher risk of developing PTSD.

8.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 705657, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332146

ABSTRACT

The adverse effect of COVID-19 pandemic among individuals has been very disturbing especially among healthcare workers. This study aims to examine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, sleep problems, and psychological distress among COVID-19 frontline healthcare workers in Taiwan. Hence, a total of 500 frontline healthcare workers were recruited to participate in this cross-sectional study. They responded to measures on fear of COVID-19, depression, anxiety, stress, insomnia, PTSD, perceived stigma, and self-stigma. The results indicated a prevalence rate of 15.4% for PTSD symptoms, 44.6% for insomnia, 25.6% for depressive symptoms, 30.6% for anxiety symptoms, and 23.4% for stress among the participants. There were significantly positive interrelationships between all these variables. Anxiety symptoms and fear of COVID-19 predicted PTSD whereas symptoms of anxiety, fear of COVID-19, and stress predicted insomnia. The prevalence rates of the psychological problems reveal a worrying view of mental health challenges among Taiwanese frontline healthcare workers. Anxiety symptoms and fear of COVID-19 are the common predictive factors of PTSD and sleep problems suggesting that mental healthcare services for them may help prevent future occurrence of psychological problems by allaying fears of healthcare workers. Therefore, there should be mental healthcare services for healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(5): e25733, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245442

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Both daily and event-driven (ED) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have been demonstrated to be highly effective among men who have sex with men (MSM). Prevention-effective adherence proposes that PrEP adherence should be aligned with the risk of HIV, which could be applied to both daily and ED PrEP adherence measurement. The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between the use of PrEP and sex events among the MSM PrEP users and identify factors associated with adherence among daily and ED MSM PrEP users. METHODS: A multicentre, observational, prospective cohort study was conducted at three hospital-based clinics in three urban cities of Taiwan from January 2018 to December 2019. MSM ages 18 years or older - at high risk of HIV acquisition and taking PrEP during the study period - were included in the analysis. MSM PrEP users were allowed to choose between daily and ED PrEP based on their preference. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, mental health, sexual behaviours, substance use and PrEP-taking behaviours were collected at each visit. RESULTS: A total of 374 MSM were included in the analysis with 1,054 visits. More than half (56%) of the PrEP users chose ED at the baseline and 150 regimen switches were reported by 21% of the participants. There was only one seroconversion documented during the study period. Most (84.2%) of the MSM PrEP users were able to adhere to PrEP during the most recent anal intercourse in the past one month. Among ED PrEP users with suboptimal adherence, the majority (81.9%) missed the pre-coital dose. In the multivariable analysis, we found that participants who switched from daily to an ED dosing regimen were associated with poorer adherence to PrEP. CONCLUSIONS: A high level of PrEP adherence was observed among the majority of MSM in a real-world setting. On the other hand, Taiwanese MSM switching from daily to ED dosing regimens were less likely to adhere to PrEP, suggesting that novel approaches focusing on a dosing switch would be necessary for MSM to improve their adherence to PrEP.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Taiwan/epidemiology
10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170475

ABSTRACT

To control the spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), COVID-19 vaccination has been quickly developed. However, the COVID-19 pandemic will not be controlled if the COVID-19 vaccination uptake willingness is low. Therefore, the study aim was to explore the COVID-19 vaccination uptake willingness among the outpatient population and healthcare workers in Taiwan during the worldwide pandemic period without community outbreaks. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among healthcare workers (HCWs; n = 500; mean age = 32.96 years) of National Cheng Kung University Hospital (NCKUH) and outpatients (n = 238; mean age = 34.43 years) arriving at NCKUH. We used an online survey conducted between September 24 and 21 November 2020, for healthcare workers, and between 27 October and 31 December 2020, for the outpatient sample. Information regarding willingness to receive vaccination, willingness to rapid test, fear of COVID-19, risk perception, and preventive behaviors was collected in both samples; information regarding willingness to care for patients was collected in healthcare workers. Willingness to receive vaccination was the main variable in the present study; willingness to rapid test, willingness to care for patients, fear of COVID-19, risk perception, and preventive behaviors were the secondary variables in the study. The factors associated with vaccination willingness were identified through logistic regression analysis. The participants' willingness to receive vaccination was low for both healthcare workers (23.4%) and the outpatient sample (30.7%). Similarly, their willingness to take rapid tests was low (23.6% for healthcare workers and 28.6% for outpatient sample). Risk perception (crude odds ratio (COR) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03, 1.63), willingness to take rapid test (COR = 9.24; 95% CI = 5.76, 14.83), and preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors (COR = 2.32; 95% CI = 1.52, 3.56) were significant factors explaining the healthcare workers' willingness to receive vaccination. Willingness to take a rapid test (COR = 8.91; 95% CI = 4.71, 16.87) and preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors (COR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.09, 2.60) were significant factors explaining the outpatient sample's willingness to receive vaccination. Willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 among HCWs and outpatients is low due to the relatively safe status of COVID-19 infection in Taiwan. These findings can help policymakers advocate for the effectiveness of and provide transparent information on COVID-19 vaccination uptake in a country/region with a relatively safe COVID-19 outbreak status.

11.
Vaccines ; 9(3):246, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1126022

ABSTRACT

To control the spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), COVID-19 vaccination has been quickly developed. However, the COVID-19 pandemic will not be controlled if the COVID-19 vaccination uptake willingness is low. Therefore, the study aim was to explore the COVID-19 vaccination uptake willingness among the outpatient population and healthcare workers in Taiwan during the worldwide pandemic period without community outbreaks. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among healthcare workers (HCWs;n = 500;mean age = 32.96 years) of National Cheng Kung University Hospital (NCKUH) and outpatients (n = 238;mean age = 34.43 years) arriving at NCKUH. We used an online survey conducted between September 24 and 21 November 2020, for healthcare workers, and between 27 October and 31 December 2020, for the outpatient sample. Information regarding willingness to receive vaccination, willingness to rapid test, fear of COVID-19, risk perception, and preventive behaviors was collected in both samples;information regarding willingness to care for patients was collected in healthcare workers. Willingness to receive vaccination was the main variable in the present study;willingness to rapid test, willingness to care for patients, fear of COVID-19, risk perception, and preventive behaviors were the secondary variables in the study. The factors associated with vaccination willingness were identified through logistic regression analysis. The participants’ willingness to receive vaccination was low for both healthcare workers (23.4%) and the outpatient sample (30.7%). Similarly, their willingness to take rapid tests was low (23.6% for healthcare workers and 28.6% for outpatient sample). Risk perception (crude odds ratio (COR) = 1.29;95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03, 1.63), willingness to take rapid test (COR = 9.24;95% CI = 5.76, 14.83), and preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors (COR = 2.32;95% CI = 1.52, 3.56) were significant factors explaining the healthcare workers’ willingness to receive vaccination. Willingness to take a rapid test (COR = 8.91;95% CI = 4.71, 16.87) and preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors (COR = 1.69;95% CI = 1.09, 2.60) were significant factors explaining the outpatient sample’s willingness to receive vaccination. Willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 among HCWs and outpatients is low due to the relatively safe status of COVID-19 infection in Taiwan. These findings can help policymakers advocate for the effectiveness of and provide transparent information on COVID-19 vaccination uptake in a country/region with a relatively safe COVID-19 outbreak status.

12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(3)2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060311

ABSTRACT

Taiwan has been successful in controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, without a vaccine the threat of a second outbreak remains. Young adults who show few to no symptoms when infected have been identified in many countries as driving the virus' spread through unidentifiable community transmission. Mobile tracking technologies register nearby contacts of a user and notifies them if one later tests positive to the virus, potentially solving this issue; however, the effectiveness of these technologies depends on their acceptance by the public. The current study assessed attitudes towards three tracking technologies (telecommunication network tracking, a government app, and Apple and Google's Bluetooth exposure notification system) among four samples of young Taiwanese adults (aged 25 years or younger). Using Bayesian methods, we find high acceptance for all three tracking technologies (>75%), with acceptance for each technology surpassing 90% if additional privacy measures were included. We consider the policy implications of these results for Taiwan and similar cultures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing/methods , Mobile Applications , Smartphone , Adult , Bayes Theorem , Humans , Pandemics , Privacy , Taiwan , Technology , Young Adult
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(12): e24487, 2020 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected the mental health of university students. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the psychological responses toward COVID-19 among university students from 3 countries-Indonesia, Taiwan, and Thailand. METHODS: We used a web-based, cross-sectional survey to recruit 1985 university students from 5 public universities (2 in Indonesia, 1 in Thailand, and 1 in Taiwan) via popular social media platforms such as Facebook, LINE, WhatsApp, and broadcast. All students (n=938 in Indonesia, n=734 in Thailand, and n=313 in Taiwan) answered questions concerning their anxiety, suicidal thoughts (or sadness), confidence in pandemic control, risk perception of susceptibility to infection, perceived support, resources for fighting infection, and sources of information in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Among the 3 student groups, Thai students had the highest levels of anxiety but the lowest levels of confidence in pandemic control and available resources for fighting COVID-19. Factors associated with higher anxiety differed across countries. Less perceived satisfactory support was associated with more suicidal thoughts among Indonesian students. On the other hand, Taiwanese students were more negatively affected by information gathered from the internet and from medical staff than were Indonesian or Thai students. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that health care providers in Thailand may need to pay special attention to Thai university students given that high levels of anxiety were observed in this study population. In addition, health care providers should establish a good support system for university students, as the results of this study indicate a negative association between support and suicidal thoughts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , Biometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Indonesia , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media , Students/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , Taiwan , Thailand , Universities , Young Adult
14.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 119(12): 1772-1780, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Because of the spread of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019), preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors become important for individuals, especially those who are vulnerable. The present study proposes a model to explain the preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors among people with mental illness in Taiwan. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was carried out and 414 patients with mental illness (230 males [55.6%]; mean age = 46.32 [SD = 10.86]) agreed to participate in the study. All the participants completed the Preventive COVID-19 Infection Behaviors Scale, Self-Stigma Scale-Short, Believing COVID-19 Information Scale, Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21. Regression models and structural equation modeling (SEM) were applied to examine the factors associated with preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors. RESULTS: Both regression models and SEM showed that trust in COVID-19 information sources (standardized coefficient [ß] = 0.211 in regression; ß = 0.194 in SEM) and fear of COVID-19 (ß = -0.128 in regression; ß = -0.223 in SEM) significantly explained preventive behaviors among individuals with mental illness. The SEM further showed that fear of COVID-19 was significantly explained by trust in COVID-19 information sources (ß = 0.220) and self-stigma (ß = 0.454). CONCLUSION: Based on the results, healthcare providers should help individuals with mental illness reduce self-stigma and fear of COVID-19 which would consequently improve their preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors. Moreover, improving trust in COVID-19 information sources for individuals with mental illness may be another method to improve their preventive behaviors.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Mental Disorders/psychology , Models, Psychological , Pandemics/prevention & control , Persons with Mental Disabilities/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Male , Mental Disorders/virology , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Regression Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Stigma , Taiwan , Trust
15.
AIDS Behav ; 25(2): 311-321, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639050

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to measure the impacts of COVID-19 among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a global sample of gay men and other MSM (n = 2732) from April 16, 2020 to May 4, 2020, through a social networking app. We characterized the economic, mental health, HIV prevention and HIV treatment impacts of COVID-19 and the COVID-19 response, and examined whether sub-groups of our study population are disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. Many gay men and other MSM not only reported economic and mental health consequences, but also interruptions to HIV prevention and testing, and HIV care and treatment services. These consequences were significantly greater among people living with HIV, racial/ethnic minorities, immigrants, sex workers, and socio-economically disadvantaged groups. These findings highlight the urgent need to mitigate the negative impacts of COVID-19 among gay men and other MSM.


RESUMEN: Existe una necesidad urgente para medir los impactos de COVID-19 entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH). Hemos conducido una encuesta multifuncional con una prueba mundial de hombres gay y otros HSH (n = 2732) desde el 16 de Abril hasta el 4 de Mayo del 2020, a través de una aplicación de red social. Nosotros caracterizamos los impactos económicos, de salud mental, prevención del VIH y tratamiento del VIH e impactos a COVID-19 y la respuesta de COVID-19, y examinamos si subgrupos de nuestra población de estudio fueron impactados desproporcionadamente por COVID-19. Muchos hombres no tan solo reportaron consecuencias económicas y de salud mental, sino también interrupciones de prevención y de pruebas de VIH, y cuidado del VIH y servicios de tratamiento. Encontramos consecuencias más significantes entre personas viviendo con VIH, grupos raciales/etnicos, migrantes, sexo servidores, y groupos socioeconomicamente disfavorecidos. Los resultados subrayan la necesidad crucial de mitigar los impactos multifacéticos de COVID-19 entre los hombres homosexuales y otros HSH, especialmente para aquellos con vulnerabilidades entrelazadas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Homosexuality, Male/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
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