Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
1.
Vaccine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1625430

ABSTRACT

Background Previous studies evaluated the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine safety or compared adverse events following vaccination to those from infection. Limited data about the impact of prior infection on post-vaccine adverse events are available. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection on outcomes shortly after vaccination using a longitudinal design. Methods Nationwide, multicenter, retrospective cohort study of hospitalization, death, and pre-specified adverse event rates among Veterans who received mRNA vaccines within the Veterans Health Administration between 12/11/2020-8/31/2021. Daily incidence rates were compared before and after vaccine doses, stratified by history of microbiologically-confirmed SARS-CoV-2. Results 3,118,802 patients received a first dose and 2,979,326 a second, including 102,829 with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Daily incident hospitalization rates were unchanged before and after the second dose among patients without previous infection (28.8/100,000 post-dose versus 28.6/100,000 pre-dose, p=0.92). In previously-infected patients, the hospitalization rate increased above baseline one day following vaccination (158.2/100,000 after dose 2 versus 57.3/100,000 pre-dose, p <0.001), then returned to baseline. Chart review indicated vaccine side effects, such as fever, constitutional symptoms, weakness, or falls, as the definite (39%) or possible (18%) cause of hospitalization. Affected patients had mean age 75, and 90% had at least one serious comorbidity. Hospitalizations were brief (median 2 days), with rapid return to baseline health. Worse baseline health among previously-infected patients prevented conclusions about mortality risk. Conclusions Two-dose mRNA vaccine regimens are safe in a population with many comorbidities. Transient increased risks of hospitalization were identified among patients with prior SARS-CoV-2, absolute risk ∼1:1000. Findings support additional study regarding the optimal dosing schedule in this population.

2.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S360-S360, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601796

ABSTRACT

Background The aim of this pragmatic, embedded adaptive trial was to measure the effectiveness of subcutaneous sarilumab in addition to an evolving standard of care for clinical management of inpatients with moderate to severe COVID-19 disease (NCT04359901). The study is also a real-world demonstration of the realization of a prospective learning healthcare system. Methods Two-arm, randomized, open-label controlled 5-center trial comparing standard care alone to standard care (SOC), which evolved over time, with addition of subcutaneous sarilumab (200 mg or 400 mg anti-IL6R) among hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 not requiring mechanical ventilation. The primary outcome was 14-day incidence of intubation or death. The trial used a randomized play-the-winner design and was fully embedded within the EHR system, including the adaptive randomization process. Results Among 417 patients screened, 162 were eligible based on chart review, 53 consented, and 50 were evaluated for the primary endpoint of intubation or death ( >30% of eligible patients enrolled) (Figure 1). After the second interim review, the unblinded Data Monitoring Committee recommended that the study be stopped due to concern for safety: a high probability that rates of intubation or death were higher with addition of sarilumab to SOC (92.6%), and a very low probability (3.4%) that sarilumab would be found to be superior. Figure 1. Key Study Milestones, Outcomes, and Adaptations Conclusion This randomized trial of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and requiring supplemental oxygen but not mechanical ventilation found no evidence of benefit from subcutaneous sarilumab in addition to an evolving standard-of-care. The numbers of patients and events were too low to allow independent conclusions to be drawn, but this study contributes valuable information about the role of subcutaneous IL-6 inhibition in the treatment of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The major innovation of this trial was the advancement of embedded, point-of-care clinical trials for FDA-approved drugs;this represents a realization of the learning healthcare system. Methods developed and piloted during the conduct of this trial can be used in future investigations to speed the advancement of clinical science. Disclosures Nishant Shah, MD, General Electric (Shareholder)Pfizer, Inc. (Research Grant or Support) Karen Visnaw, RN, Liquidia (Shareholder) Paul Monach, MD,PhD, Celgene (Consultant)ChemoCentryx (Consultant)Kiniksa (Advisor or Review Panel member)

4.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259061, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496526

ABSTRACT

Effective, low-cost therapeutics are needed to prevent and treat COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 disease is linked to excessive inflammation. Disulfiram is an approved oral drug used to treat alcohol use disorder that is a potent anti-inflammatory agent and an inhibitor of the viral proteases. We investigated the potential effects of disulfiram on SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease severity in an observational study using a large database of clinical records from the national US Veterans Affairs healthcare system. A multivariable Cox regression adjusted for demographic information and diagnosis of alcohol use disorder revealed a reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection with disulfiram use at a hazard ratio of 0.66 (34% lower risk, 95% confidence interval 24-43%). There were no COVID-19 related deaths among the 188 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients treated with disulfiram, in contrast to 5-6 statistically expected deaths based on the untreated population (P = 0.03). Our epidemiological results suggest that disulfiram may contribute to the reduced incidence and severity of COVID-19. These results support carefully planned clinical trials to assess the potential therapeutic effects of disulfiram in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Disulfiram/therapeutic use , Adult , Alcoholism/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Disulfiram/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Veterans
6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(2): ofaa618, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214656

ABSTRACT

Among 3926 healthcare personnel in a multisite healthcare system, the minimal population prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was 4.4% (bootstrap 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7%-5.0%), and the infection fatality rate was 0.6% (bootstrap 95% CI, 0.0%-1.7%). Rates reflected both local community prevalence and hospital exposures but not specifically exposure on COVID-19 units.

7.
J Clin Nurs ; 30(11-12): 1564-1572, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069408

ABSTRACT

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to rapidly adapt and scale a registered nurse-driven Coordinated Transitional Care (C-TraC) programme to provide intensive home monitoring and optimise care for outpatient Veterans with COVID-19 in a large urban Unites States healthcare system. BACKGROUND: Our diffuse primary care network had no existing model of care by which to provide coordinated result tracking and monitoring of outpatients with COVID-19. DESIGN: Quality improvement implementation project. METHODS: We used the Replicating Effective Programs model to guide implementation, iterative Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles and SQUIRE reporting guidelines. Two transitional care registered nurses, and a geriatrician medical director developed a protocol that included detailed initial assessment, overnight delivery of monitoring equipment and phone-based follow-up tailored to risk level and symptom severity. We tripled programme capacity in time for the surge of cases by training Primary Care registered nurses. RESULTS: Between 23 March and 15 May 2020, 120 Veterans with COVID-19 were enrolled for outpatient monitoring; over one-third were aged 65 years or older, and 70% had medical conditions associated with poor COVID-19 outcomes. All Veterans received an initial call within a few hours of the laboratory reporting positive results. The mean length of follow-up was 8.1 days, with an average of 4.2 nurse and 1.3 physician or advanced practice clinician contacts per patient. The majority (85%) were managed entirely in the outpatient setting. After the surge, the model was disseminated to individual primary care teams through educational sessions. CONCLUSION: A model based on experienced registered nurses can provide comprehensive, effective and sustainable outpatient monitoring to high-risk populations with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transitional Care , Humans , Outpatients , Quality Improvement , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(11): 1716-1720, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873017

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Reducing risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection among healthcare personnel requires a robust occupational health response involving multiple disciplines. We describe a flexible informatics solution to enable such coordination, and we make it available as open-source software. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a stand-alone application that integrates data from several sources, including electronic health record data and data captured outside the electronic health record. RESULTS: The application facilitates workflows from different hospital departments, including Occupational Health and Infection Control, and has been used extensively. As of June 2020, 4629 employees and 7768 patients and have been added for tracking by the application, and the application has been accessed over 46 000 times. DISCUSSION: Data captured by the application provides both a historical and real-time view into the operational impact of COVID-19 within the hospital, enabling aggregate and patient-level reporting to support identification of new cases, contact tracing, outbreak investigations, and employee workforce management. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed an open-source application that facilitates communication and workflow across multiple disciplines to manage hospital employees impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Data Management , Health Personnel , Occupational Health , Patient Identification Systems/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Software , Workflow , Boston , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals, Veterans , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics , Systems Integration , United States
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...