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JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2240037, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074864


Importance: With a large proportion of the US adult population vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, it is important to identify who remains at risk of severe infection despite vaccination. Objective: To characterize risk factors for severe COVID-19 disease in a vaccinated population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide, retrospective cohort study included US veterans who received a SARS-CoV-2 vaccination series and later developed laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and were treated at US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals. Data were collected from December 15, 2020, through February 28, 2022. Exposures: Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, immunocompromised status, and vaccination-related variables. Main Outcomes and Measures: Development of severe vs nonsevere SARS-CoV-2 infection. Severe disease was defined as hospitalization within 14 days of a positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test and either blood oxygen level of less than 94%, receipt of supplemental oxygen or dexamethasone, mechanical ventilation, or death within 28 days. Association between severe disease and exposures was estimated using logistic regression models. Results: Among 110 760 patients with infections following vaccination (97 614 [88.1%] men, mean [SD] age at vaccination, 60.8 [15.3] years; 26 953 [24.3%] Black, 11 259 [10.2%] Hispanic, and 71 665 [64.7%] White), 10 612 (9.6%) had severe COVID-19. The strongest association with risk of severe disease after vaccination was age, which increased among patients aged 50 years or older with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 1.42 (CI, 1.40-1.44) per 5-year increase in age, such that patients aged 80 years or older had an aOR of 16.58 (CI, 13.49-20.37) relative to patients aged 45 to 50 years. Immunocompromising conditions, including receipt of different classes of immunosuppressive medications (eg, leukocyte inhibitor: aOR, 2.80; 95% CI, 2.39-3.28) or cytotoxic chemotherapy (aOR, 2.71; CI, 2.27-3.24) prior to breakthrough infection, or leukemias or lymphomas (aOR, 1.87; CI, 1.61-2.17) and chronic conditions associated with end-organ disease, such as heart failure (aOR, 1.74; CI, 1.61-1.88), dementia (aOR, 2.01; CI, 1.83-2.20), and chronic kidney disease (aOR, 1.59; CI, 1.49-1.69), were also associated with increased risk. Receipt of an additional (ie, booster) dose of vaccine was associated with reduced odds of severe disease (aOR, 0.50; CI, 0.44-0.57). Conclusions and Relevance: In this nationwide, retrospective cohort of predominantly male US Veterans, we identified risk factors associated with severe disease despite vaccination. Findings could be used to inform outreach efforts for booster vaccinations and to inform clinical decision-making about patients most likely to benefit from preexposure prophylaxis and antiviral therapy.

COVID-19 , Veterans , Humans , Adult , United States/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals, Veterans , Antiviral Agents , Dexamethasone , Oxygen
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(11): 1716-1720, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873017


OBJECTIVE: Reducing risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection among healthcare personnel requires a robust occupational health response involving multiple disciplines. We describe a flexible informatics solution to enable such coordination, and we make it available as open-source software. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a stand-alone application that integrates data from several sources, including electronic health record data and data captured outside the electronic health record. RESULTS: The application facilitates workflows from different hospital departments, including Occupational Health and Infection Control, and has been used extensively. As of June 2020, 4629 employees and 7768 patients and have been added for tracking by the application, and the application has been accessed over 46 000 times. DISCUSSION: Data captured by the application provides both a historical and real-time view into the operational impact of COVID-19 within the hospital, enabling aggregate and patient-level reporting to support identification of new cases, contact tracing, outbreak investigations, and employee workforce management. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed an open-source application that facilitates communication and workflow across multiple disciplines to manage hospital employees impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Data Management , Health Personnel , Occupational Health , Patient Identification Systems/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Software , Workflow , Boston , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals, Veterans , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics , Systems Integration , United States