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1.
Frontiers in robotics and AI ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2057781
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5552, 2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036823

ABSTRACT

One major limitation of neutralizing antibody-based COVID-19 therapy is the requirement of costly cocktails to reduce emergence of antibody resistance. Here we engineer two bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) using distinct designs and compared them with parental antibodies and their cocktail. Single molecules of both bsAbs block the two epitopes targeted by parental antibodies on the receptor-binding domain (RBD). However, bsAb with the IgG-(scFv)2 design (14-H-06) but not the CrossMAb design (14-crs-06) shows increased antigen-binding and virus-neutralizing activities against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants as well as increased breadth of neutralizing activity compared to the cocktail. X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM reveal distinct binding models for individual cocktail antibodies, and computational simulations suggest higher inter-spike crosslinking potentials by 14-H-06 than 14-crs-06. In mouse models of infections by SARS-CoV-2 and multiple variants, 14-H-06 exhibits higher or equivalent therapeutic efficacy than the cocktail. Rationally engineered bsAbs represent a cost-effective alternative to antibody cocktails and a promising strategy to improve potency and breadth.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , Epitopes , Immunoglobulin G , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 24(7): 742-747, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964548

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical features of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Delta variant infection vaccinated or not vaccinated with inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine. METHODS: A total of 11 children with COVID-19 Delta variant infection who were vaccinated with inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and were hospitalized in the designated hospital in Henan Province, China, from November 3 to December 17, 2021 were enrolled as the vaccinated group. Thirty-one children with COVID-19 Delta variant infection who were not vaccinated and were hospitalized during the same period were enrolled as the unvaccinated group. A retrospective analysis was performed on their epidemiological data, clinical features, and laboratory examination results. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in gender composition and disease classification between the two groups (P>0.05), and there was also no significant difference in the incidence rates of the clinical symptoms such as cough, expectoration, and fever between the two groups (P>0.05). No significant difference was found between the two groups in leukocyte count, lymphocyte percentage, alanine aminotransferase, and serum creatinine (P>0.05). Compared with the unvaccinated group, the vaccinated group had significantly lower levels of aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase-MB (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the proportion of children with elevated C-reactive protein or procalcitonin and the levels of peripheral blood cytokines (P>0.05). The vaccinated group had significantly lower counts of B lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3+) than the unvaccinated group (P<0.05). Compared with the unvaccinated group, the vaccinated group had a significantly higher positive rate of IgG on admission and at week 2 of the course of disease (P<0.05), as well as a significantly higher Ct value of nucleic acid at weeks 1 and 2 of the course of disease (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine may reduce myocardial injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant. For children with SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant infection after the vaccination, more attention should be paid to their immune function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination
4.
J Clin Med ; 11(14)2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928589

ABSTRACT

Pemphigus is a rare autoimmune blistering disease, involving potentially life-threatening conditions often requiring immunosuppression. Currently, the COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has become a global public emergency. Vaccines are the most effective defense against COVID-19 infection. However, in clinic, there are cases of new onset or flare of pemphigus following COVID-19 vaccination, where vaccines have manifested significantly desirable risk-benefit profiles for patients. Although Rituximab, as first-line therapy, may impair humoral immunity, pemphigus may not predispose to develop COVID-19 infection compared to a healthy population. Conversely, delay or interruption of immunosuppressants probably results in unfavorable clinical outcomes for disease progression. Overall, clinicians should encourage their patients to undergo the vaccination after a comprehensive assessment. The definite association between COVID-19 vaccination and pemphigus remains to be further elucidated. Herein, we provide an overview of the published studies to date on COVID-19 and pemphigus as well as the exploration of their complicated interplay. In addition, we discuss the management strategies for pemphigus patients in this special period, in an effort to more effectively establish a standard treatment paradigm for this particular patient group.

5.
Comput Biol Med ; 146: 105618, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850903

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is currently raging worldwide, with more patients being diagnosed every day. It usually is diagnosed by examining pathological photographs of the patient's lungs. There is a lot of detailed and essential information on chest radiographs, but manual processing is not as efficient or accurate. As a result, how efficiently analyzing and processing chest radiography of COVID-19 patients is an important research direction to promote COVID-19 diagnosis. To improve the processing efficiency of COVID-19 chest films, a multilevel thresholding image segmentation (MTIS) method based on an enhanced multiverse optimizer (CCMVO) is proposed. CCMVO is improved from the original Multi-Verse Optimizer by introducing horizontal and vertical search mechanisms. It has a more assertive global search ability and can jump out of the local optimum in optimization. The CCMVO-based MTIS method can obtain higher quality segmentation results than HHO, SCA, and other forms and is less prone to stagnation during the segmentation process. To verify the performance of the proposed CCMVO algorithm, CCMVO is first compared with DE, MVO, and other algorithms by 30 benchmark functions; then, the proposed CCMVO is applied to image segmentation of COVID-19 chest radiography; finally, this paper verifies that the combination of MTIS and CCMVO is very successful with good segmentation results by using the Feature Similarity Index (FSIM), the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), and the Structural Similarity Index (SSIM). Therefore, this research can provide an effective segmentation method for a medical organization to process COVID-19 chest radiography and then help doctors diagnose coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Algorithms , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Radiography , Signal-To-Noise Ratio
6.
NPJ Climate and Atmospheric Science ; 5(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1764207

ABSTRACT

With improving PM2.5 air quality, the tropospheric ozone (O3) has become the top issue of China’s air pollution control. Here, we combine comprehensive observational data analysis with models to unveil the contributions of different processes and precursors to the change of O3 during COVID-19 lockdown in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), one of the most urbanized megacity regions of eastern China. Despite a 44 to 47% reduction in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, maximum daily 8-h average (MDA8) ozone concentrations increase from 28 ppbv in pre-lockdown to 43 ppbv in lockdown period. We reproduce this transition with the WRF-Chem model, which shows that ~80% of the increase in MDA8 is due to meteorological factors (seasonal variation and radiation), and ~20% is due to emission reduction. We find that daytime photochemistry does not lead to an increase but rather a decrease of daytime O3 production during the lockdown. However, the reduced O3 production is overwhelmed by the weakened nitric oxide (NO) titration resulting in a net increase of O3 concentration. Although the emission reduction increases O3 concentration, it leads to a decrease in the Ox (O3 + NO2) concentration, suggesting reduced atmospheric oxidation capacity on a regional scale. The dominant effect of NO titration demonstrates the importance of prioritizing VOCs reduction, especially from solvent usage and the petrochemical industry with high emission ratios of VOCs/NOx.

7.
Comput Biol Med ; 142: 105181, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588026

ABSTRACT

The artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) has been successfully applied to various optimization problems, but the algorithm still suffers from slow convergence and poor quality of optimal solutions in the optimization process. Therefore, in this paper, an improved ABC (CCABC) based on a horizontal search mechanism and a vertical search mechanism is proposed to improve the algorithm's performance. In addition, this paper also presents a multilevel thresholding image segmentation (MTIS) method based on CCABC to enhance the effectiveness of the multilevel thresholding image segmentation method. To verify the performance of the proposed CCABC algorithm and the performance of the improved image segmentation method. First, this paper demonstrates the performance of the CCABC algorithm itself by comparing CCABC with 15 algorithms of the same type using 30 benchmark functions. Then, this paper uses the improved multi-threshold segmentation method for the segmentation of COVID-19 X-ray images and compares it with other similar plans in detail. Finally, this paper confirms that the incorporation of CCABC in MTIS is very effective by analyzing appropriate evaluation criteria and affirms that the new MTIS method has a strong segmentation performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Algorithms , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , X-Rays
8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296080

ABSTRACT

We investigate the effectiveness and synergies of vaccination and non-pharmaceutical interventions like masking, distancing & ventilation, testing & isolation, and contact reduction as a function of compliance in the population. For realistic conditions, we find that it would be difficult to contain highly contagious SARS-CoV-2 variants by any individual measure. Instead, we show how multiple synergetic measures have to be combined to reduce the effective reproduction number ( R e ) below unity. For R 0 =5 and ~70% vaccination rate, the synergies of masking, distancing & ventilation, and testing & isolation with compliances around 30% appear suitable to keep R e <1. With frequent testing, this would work also at lower vaccination rates, e.g., in schools. Higher compliance or additional measures like contact reductions are required to break intense waves of infection.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293127

ABSTRACT

The public and scientific discourse on how to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic is often focused on the impact of individual protective measures, in particular on immunization by vaccination. In view of changing virus variants and conditions, however, it seems not clear if vaccination or any other single protective measure alone may suffice to contain the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we investigate the effectiveness and synergies of vaccination and different non-pharmaceutical interventions such as universal masking (surgical, N95/FFP2), distancing & ventilation, contact reduction, and testing & isolation as a function of compliance in the population. We find that it would be difficult to contain SARS-CoV-2 transmission by any individual measure as currently available under realistic conditions. Instead, we show how multiple synergetic measures can be and have to be combined to decrease and keep the effective reproduction number (Re) below unity, even for virus variants with increased basic reproduction number (R0). We suggest that the presented approach and results can be used to design and communicate efficient strategies for mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic, depending on R0 as well as the efficacy and compliance achieved with each protective measure. At vaccination rates around 70%, the combination and synergies of universal masking, distancing & ventilation, and testing & isolation with moderate compliances around 30% appear well suited to keep Re below 1 and prevent or suppress infection waves. Higher compliance or additional measures like contact reductions (confinement/lockdown) are required to effectively and swiftly break intense waves of infection. For schools, we find that the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can be contained by 2-3 tests per week combined with distancing & ventilation and masking.

10.
Science ; 2021 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388438

ABSTRACT

Airborne transmission by droplets and aerosols is important for the spread of viruses. Face masks are a well-established preventive measure, but their effectiveness for mitigating SARS-CoV-2 transmission is still under debate. We show that variations in mask efficacy can be explained by different regimes of virus abundance and related to population-average infection probability and reproduction number. For SARS-CoV-2, the viral load of infectious individuals can vary by orders of magnitude. We find that most environments and contacts are under conditions of low virus abundance (virus-limited) where surgical masks are effective at preventing virus spread. More advanced masks and other protective equipment are required in potentially virus-rich indoor environments including medical centers and hospitals. Masks are particularly effective in combination with other preventive measures like ventilation and distancing.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): 376-385, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent identification of a novel coronavirus, also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has caused a global outbreak of respiratory illnesses. The rapidly developing pandemic has posed great challenges to diagnosis of this novel infection. However, little is known about the metatranscriptomic characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We analyzed metatranscriptomics in 187 patients (62 cases with COVID-19 and 125 with non-COVID-19 pneumonia). Transcriptional aspects of 3 core elements, pathogens, the microbiome, and host responses, were evaluated. Based on the host transcriptional signature, we built a host gene classifier and examined its potential for diagnosing COVID-19 and indicating disease severity. RESULTS: The airway microbiome in COVID-19 patients had reduced alpha diversity, with 18 taxa of differential abundance. Potentially pathogenic microbes were also detected in 47% of the COVID-19 cases, 58% of which were respiratory viruses. Host gene analysis revealed a transcriptional signature of 36 differentially expressed genes significantly associated with immune pathways, such as cytokine signaling. The host gene classifier built on such a signature exhibited the potential for diagnosing COVID-19 (area under the curve of 0.75-0.89) and indicating disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with those with non-COVID-19 pneumonias, COVID-19 patients appeared to have a more disrupted airway microbiome with frequent potential concurrent infections and a special trigger host immune response in certain pathways, such as interferon-gamma signaling. The immune-associated host transcriptional signatures of COVID-19 hold promise as a tool for improving COVID-19 diagnosis and indicating disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Nature ; 595(7869): 718-723, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253950

ABSTRACT

Resistance represents a major challenge for antibody-based therapy for COVID-191-4. Here we engineered an immunoglobulin M (IgM) neutralizing antibody (IgM-14) to overcome the resistance encountered by immunoglobulin G (IgG)-based therapeutics. IgM-14 is over 230-fold more potent than its parental IgG-14 in neutralizing SARS-CoV-2. IgM-14 potently neutralizes the resistant virus raised by its corresponding IgG-14, three variants of concern-B.1.1.7 (Alpha, which first emerged in the UK), P.1 (Gamma, which first emerged in Brazil) and B.1.351 (Beta, which first emerged in South Africa)-and 21 other receptor-binding domain mutants, many of which are resistant to the IgG antibodies that have been authorized for emergency use. Although engineering IgG into IgM enhances antibody potency in general, selection of an optimal epitope is critical for identifying the most effective IgM that can overcome resistance. In mice, a single intranasal dose of IgM-14 at 0.044 mg per kg body weight confers prophylactic efficacy and a single dose at 0.4 mg per kg confers therapeutic efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. IgM-14, but not IgG-14, also confers potent therapeutic protection against the P.1 and B.1.351 variants. IgM-14 exhibits desirable pharmacokinetics and safety profiles when administered intranasally in rodents. Our results show that intranasal administration of an engineered IgM can improve efficacy, reduce resistance and simplify the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Immunoglobulin M/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacokinetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/chemistry , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/genetics , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/immunology , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/genetics , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/adverse effects , Immunoglobulin M/therapeutic use , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Engineering , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 469, 2021 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039642

ABSTRACT

Antibody cocktails represent a promising approach to prevent SARS-CoV-2 escape. The determinants for selecting antibody combinations and the mechanism that antibody cocktails prevent viral escape remain unclear. We compared the critical residues in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) used by multiple neutralizing antibodies and cocktails and identified a combination of two antibodies CoV2-06 and CoV2-14 for preventing viral escape. The two antibodies simultaneously bind to non-overlapping epitopes and independently compete for receptor binding. SARS-CoV-2 rapidly escapes from individual antibodies by generating resistant mutations in vitro, but it doesn't escape from the cocktail due to stronger mutational constraints on RBD-ACE2 interaction and RBD protein folding requirements. We also identified a conserved neutralizing epitope shared between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV for antibody CoV2-12. Treatments with CoV2-06 and CoV2-14 individually and in combination confer protection in mice. These findings provide insights for rational selection and mechanistic understanding of antibody cocktails as candidates for treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fragments/genetics , Immunoglobulin Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(21)2020 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921199

ABSTRACT

The role of aerosolized SARS-CoV-2 viruses in airborne transmission of COVID-19 has been debated. The aerosols are transmitted through breathing and vocalization by infectious subjects. Some authors state that this represents the dominant route of spreading, while others dismiss the option. Here we present an adjustable algorithm to estimate the infection risk for different indoor environments, constrained by published data of human aerosol emissions, SARS-CoV-2 viral loads, infective dose and other parameters. We evaluate typical indoor settings such as an office, a classroom, choir practice, and a reception/party. Our results suggest that aerosols from highly infective subjects can effectively transmit COVID-19 in indoor environments. This "highly infective" category represents approximately 20% of the patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. We find that "super infective" subjects, representing the top 5-10% of subjects with a positive test, plus an unknown fraction of less-but still highly infective, high aerosol-emitting subjects-may cause COVID-19 clusters (>10 infections). In general, active room ventilation and the ubiquitous wearing of face masks (i.e., by all subjects) may reduce the individual infection risk by a factor of five to ten, similar to high-volume, high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtering. A particularly effective mitigation measure is the use of high-quality masks, which can drastically reduce the indoor infection risk through aerosols.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Air Microbiology , Algorithms , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Filtration , Humans , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilation
16.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 17(21):8114, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-896411

ABSTRACT

The role of aerosolized SARS-CoV-2 viruses in airborne transmission of COVID-19 has been debated. The aerosols are transmitted through breathing and vocalization by infectious subjects. Some authors state that this represents the dominant route of spreading, while others dismiss the option. Here we present an adjustable algorithm to estimate the infection risk for different indoor environments, constrained by published data of human aerosol emissions, SARS-CoV-2 viral loads, infective dose and other parameters. We evaluate typical indoor settings such as an office, a classroom, choir practice, and a reception/party. Our results suggest that aerosols from highly infective subjects can effectively transmit COVID-19 in indoor environments. This “highly infective”category represents approximately 20% of the patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. We find that “super infective”subjects, representing the top 5–10% of subjects with a positive test, plus an unknown fraction of less—but still highly infective, high aerosol-emitting subjects—may cause COVID-19 clusters (>10 infections). In general, active room ventilation and the ubiquitous wearing of face masks (i.e., by all subjects) may reduce the individual infection risk by a factor of five to ten, similar to high-volume, high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtering. A particularly effective mitigation measure is the use of high-quality masks, which can drastically reduce the indoor infection risk through aerosols.

17.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008705, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732988

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of human infections caused by SARS-CoV-2, the third zoonotic coronavirus has raised great public health concern globally. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of this novel pathogen posts great challenges not only clinically but also technologically. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) have been the most commonly used molecular methodologies. However, each has their own limitations. In this study, we developed an isothermal, CRISPR-based diagnostic for COVID-19 with near single-copy sensitivity. The diagnostic performances of all three technology platforms were also compared. Our study aimed to provide more insights into the molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2, and also to present a novel diagnostic option for this new emerging virus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , Genes, Viral/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/economics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/economics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pandemics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140879, 2020 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640162

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 suddenly struck Wuhan at the end of 2019 and soon spread to the whole country and the rest of world in 2020. To mitigate the pandemic, China authority has taken unprecedentedly strict measures across the country. That provides a precious window to study how the air quality response to quick decline of anthropogenic emissions in terms of national scale, which would be critical basis to make atmospheric governance policies in the future. In this work, we utilized observations from both remote sensing and in-situ measurements to investigate impacts of COVID-19 lockdown on different air pollutions in different regions of China. It is witnessed that the PM2.5 concentrations exhibited distinct trends in different regions, despite of plunges of NO2 concentrations over the whole country. The steady HCHO concentration in urban area provides sufficient fuels for generations of tropospheric O3, leading to high concentrations of O3, especially when there is not enough NO to consume O3 via the titration effect. Moreover, the SO2 concentration kept steady at a low level regardless of cities. As a conclusion, the COVID-19 lockdown indeed helped reduce NO2 concentration. However, the atmospheric quality in urban areas of China has not improved overall due to lockdown measures. It underscores the significance of comprehensive control of atmospheric pollutants in cleaning air. Reducing VOCs (volatile organic compounds) concentrations in urban areas would be a critical mission for better air quality in the future.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Cities , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Gen Psychiatr ; 33(2): e100222, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-305016

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of COVID-19, no data have been available for hospitalised psychiatric patients who are suspected to have COVID-19. We performed a comprehensive investigation of the clinical features of hospitalised patients with schizophrenia with or without suspected COVID-19 in Hubei Province, China. AIM: To explore the clinical characteristics of hospitalised patients with schizophrenia with suspected COVID-19 in Hubei Province, China. METHODS: 21 hospitalised patients with schizophrenia with suspected COVID-19 (COVID-19 suspected group) in the isolation ward of a mental health hospital in Wuhan and 30 hospitalised patients with schizophrenia (clean group) in the general ward of another mental health hospital in Yichang were recruited. We retrospectively reviewed their clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and chest CT results before 21 February 2020. We also compared the emotional and mental symptoms between the two groups. RESULTS: Medical records revealed that 21 COVID-19 suspected patients were transferred to the isolation ward between 30 January 2020 and 15 February 2020. The mean age (SD) of COVID-19 suspected patients was 43.1 (2.6). 12 (57.1%) patients showed abnormalities on chest CT before onset of respiratory symptoms. 14 (66.7%) patients had psychiatric medications adjustment after detection of abnormal chest CT findings. By 21 February, one patient was confirmed to have COVID-19. Even though the remaining 20 (95.2%) were negative for at least two reverse transcription PCR tests, 11 (52.4%) patients met the diagnostic criteria for clinically confirmed cases. Compared with patients in the clean group, patients in the suspected COVID-19 group showed significantly higher stress, depression and anxiety levels and poorer sleep quality. CONCLUSION: Setting up an independent isolation ward for hospitalised psychiatric patients who are suspected to have symptoms of COVID-19 helped control the spread of the epidemic. Patients with schizophrenia suspected to have COVID-19 showed increased stress and mood and sleep disturbances, which should be appropriately managed.

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