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1.
Front Physiol ; 13: 898251, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952542

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 disease caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become one of the worst global pandemics of the century. Wearable devices are well suited for continuously measuring heart rate. Here we show that the Resting Heart Rate is modified for several weeks following a COVID-19 infection. The Resting Heart Rate shows 3 phases: 1) elevated during symptom onset, with average peak increases relative to the baseline of 1.8% (3.4%) for females (males), 2) decrease thereafter, reaching a minimum on average ≈13 days after symptom onset, and 3) subsequent increase, reaching a second peak on average ≈28 days from symptom onset, before falling back to the baseline ≈112 days from symptom onset. All estimates vary with disease severity.

2.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327383

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 disease caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become one of the worst global pandemics of the century causing tremendous human and economic suffering worldwide. While considered a respiratory disease, COVID-19 is known to cause cardiac complications. Wearable devices are well equipped to measure heart rate continuously and their popularity makes them valuable devices in the field of digital health. In this article, we use Fitbit devices to examine resting heart rate from individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 a Methods The Fitbit COVID-19 survey was conducted from May 2020 - June 2021. We collected resting heart rate data from 7,200 individuals (6,606 symptomatic, 594 asymptomatic) diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 2020 - December 2020, as well as from 463 individuals diagnosed with influenza between January 2020 - December 2020. Data from healthy individuals served as a control, in order to model the seasonal variation. We also computed heart rate variability and respiratory rate data for symptomatic COVID-19. Findings Resting Heart Rate is elevated during COVID-19 symptom onset, with average peak increases relative to the baseline of 1.8%±0.1% (3.4%±0.2%) for females (males), where the quoted numbers are mean and standard error of the mean. After the initial peak, the resting heart rate decreased and reached a minimum on average ≈ 13 days after symptom onset. The minimum value relative to the baseline is more negative for females (−1.75% ± 0.1%) compared to males (0.08% ± 0.2%). The resting heart rate then increased, reaching a second peak on average ≈ 28 days from symptom onset, before falling back to the baseline ≈ 112 days from symptom onset. All estimates vary with disease severity. Interpretation The resting heart rate is modified for several months following a COVID-19 diagnosis. Interestingly, this effect is seen with seasonal influenza also, although the bradycardia minimum and the second tachycardia peak are often more pronounced in the case of symptomatic COVID-19. By computing resting heart rate daily, wearable devices can contribute to monitoring wellness during recovery from COVID-19, and seasonal influenza. Funding A.N., H.-W.S., and C.H. are supported by Fitbit Research, Google LLC. Research in Context Evidence before this study We searched PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar for research articles published in English up to Oct 31, 2021, using common search terms such as “bradycardia and COVID-19”, “cardiac complications and COVID-19”, etc. Articles were also retrieved by searching through citations of known literature. It is known that COVID-19 can cause cardiac complications such as bradycardia and arrhythmias. Using data from commercially available wearable devices, it has been shown previously that the resting heart is elevated during symptom onset, then decreases reaching a minimum, before rising again to attain a second peak, before finally returning to the baseline. Added value of this study We present results from the largest (to our knowledge) dataset considered to-date, involving 7200 participants (6606 symptomatic and 594 asymptomatic) diagnosed with COVID-19. We also present results from 463 individuals diagnosed with influenza. Our large dataset allows us to perform more detailed examinations by age, disease severity, and sex. We also discuss the time evolution of heart rate variability and respiratory rate. The heart rate variability shows a similar time evolution as the resting heart rate but with opposite phase, while the respiratory rate decreases monotonously following the peak at symptom onset. Implications of all the available evidence The results presented in this work show that commercially available trackers and smart-watches can help in monitoring heart health in the weeks and months following a COVID-19 diagnosis. An estimate of the amplitude of the bradycardia dip may provide information valuable to critical c re.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324186

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2 have been thought to originate from bat, but whether the cross-species transmission occurred directly from bat to human or through an intermediate host remains elusive. In this study, we performed CoV screening of 102 samples collected from animal-selling stalls of Wuhan Huanan Market (WHM) and pharyngeal and anal swabs from13,064 bats collected at 703 locations across China, covering almost all known southern hotspots for sarbecovirus, between 2016 and 2021. This is the first systematic survey of bat CoV in China during the outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019. We found four non-sarbeco CoVs in samples of WHM, and 142 SARS-CoV related CoVs (SARSr-CoV) and 4 recombinant CoVs in bats, of which YN2020B-G share the highest sequence identity with SARS-CoV among all known bat CoVs, suggesting endemic SARSr-CoVs in bats in China. However, we did not find any SARS-CoV-2 related CoVs (SC2r-CoV) in any samples, including specimens collected from the only two domestic places where RaTG13 and RmYN02 were previously reported (the Tongguan caves and the karst caves around the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden), indicating that SC2r-CoVs might not actively circulate among bats in China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that there are three different lineages of sarbecoviruses, L1 (SARSr-CoV), L2 (SC2r-CoV), and L-R (a novel CoV lineage from L1 and L2 recombination), in China. Of note, L-R CoVs are only found in R. pusillus. Further macroscopical analysis of the genetic diversity, host specificity for colonization and accidental infection, and geographical characteristics of available CoVs in database revealed the presence of a general geographical distribution pattern for bat sarbecoviruses, with the highest genetic diversity and sequence homology to SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 along the southwest border of China, the least in the northwest of China. Considering the receptor binding motifs for spike gene of sarbecoviruses in Indochina Peninsula show the greatest diversity, our data provide the rationale that extensive surveys in further south and southwest to or of China might be needed for finding closer ancestors of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314828

ABSTRACT

Medical robots can play an important role in mitigating the spread of infectious diseases and delivering quality care to patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods and procedures involving medical robots in the continuum of care, ranging from disease prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, and homecare have been extensively deployed and also present incredible opportunities for future development. This paper provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art, highlighting the enabling technologies and unmet needs for prospective technological advances within the next 5-10 years. We also identify key research and knowledge barriers that need to be addressed in developing effective and flexible solutions to ensure preparedness for rapid and scalable deployment to combat infectious diseases.

5.
Nature Machine Intelligence ; 4(1):5-10, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1655672

ABSTRACT

For a third year in a row, we followed up with authors of several recent Comments and Perspectives in Nature Machine Intelligence about what happened after their article was published: how did the topic they wrote about develop, did they gain new insights, and what are their hopes and expectations for AI in 2022?

6.
Nature Machine Intelligence ; 3(3):184-186, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1655659

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted key challenges for patient care and health provider safety. Adaptable robotic systems, with enhanced sensing, manipulation and autonomy capabilities could help address these challenges in future infectious disease outbreaks.

7.
NPJ Digit Med ; 4(1): 136, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413237

ABSTRACT

We show that heart rate enabled wearable devices can be used to measure respiratory rate. Respiration modulates the heart rate creating excess power in the heart rate variability at a frequency equal to the respiratory rate, a phenomenon known as respiratory sinus arrhythmia. We isolate this component from the power spectral density of the heart beat interval time series, and show that the respiratory rate thus estimated is in good agreement with a validation dataset acquired from sleep studies (root mean squared error = 0.648 min-1, mean absolute error = 0.46 min-1, mean absolute percentage error = 3%). We use this respiratory rate algorithm to illuminate two potential applications (a) understanding the distribution of nocturnal respiratory rate as a function of age and sex, and (b) examining changes in longitudinal nocturnal respiratory rate due to a respiratory infection such as COVID-19. 90% of respiratory rate values for healthy adults fall within the range 11.8-19.2 min-1 with a mean value of 15.4 min-1. Respiratory rate is shown to increase with nocturnal heart rate. It also varies with BMI, reaching a minimum at 25 kg/m2, and increasing for lower and higher BMI. The respiratory rate decreases slightly with age and is higher in females compared to males for age <50 years, with no difference between females and males thereafter. The 90% range for the coefficient of variation in a 14 day period for females (males) varies from 2.3-9.2% (2.3-9.5%) for ages 20-24 yr, to 2.5-16.8% (2.7-21.7%) for ages 65-69 yr. We show that respiratory rate is often elevated in subjects diagnosed with COVID-19. In a 7 day window from D-1 to D+5 (where D0 is the date when symptoms first present, for symptomatic individuals, and the test date for asymptomatic cases), we find that 36.4% (23.7%) of symptomatic (asymptomatic) individuals had at least one measurement of respiratory rate 3 min-1 higher than the regular rate.

8.
Sci Robot ; 6(52)2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209822

ABSTRACT

The world was unprepared for the COVID-19 pandemic, and recovery is likely to be a long process. Robots have long been heralded to take on dangerous, dull, and dirty jobs, often in environments that are unsuitable for humans. Could robots be used to fight future pandemics? We review the fundamental requirements for robotics for infectious disease management and outline how robotic technologies can be used in different scenarios, including disease prevention and monitoring, clinical care, laboratory automation, logistics, and maintenance of socioeconomic activities. We also address some of the open challenges for developing advanced robots that are application oriented, reliable, safe, and rapidly deployable when needed. Last, we look at the ethical use of robots and call for globally sustained efforts in order for robots to be ready for future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/trends , Communicable Diseases , Robotics/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/therapy , Disinfection/trends , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics/prevention & control , Remote Sensing Technology/trends , Robotic Surgical Procedures/trends , Robotics/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , User-Computer Interface
9.
Experimental & Therapeutic Medicine ; 21(4):N.PAG-N.PAG, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1130225

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a variety of impacts on the human body. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is the pathogen that causes COVID-19. It invades human tissues through the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, resulting in an imbalance in the angiotensin II (AngII) level and upregulation of renin-angiotensin system/AngII pathway activity. Furthermore, the binding of AngII to its receptor leads to vasoconstriction, endothelial injury and intravascular thrombosis. In addition, COVID-19 may have adverse effects on male reproductive organs and a marked impact on male reproductive health. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) may improve vascular endothelial function, promote testicular and systemic blood circulation and testosterone secretion and enhance epididymal function, as well as sperm maturation and capacitation. PDE5Is may also be of use in the treatment of infectious diseases by enhancing immunity and anti-inflammatory responses and improving vascular endothelial function. Based on the pharmacological mechanism of PDE5Is, they are of unique value in the fight against infectious diseases and may be effective in combination with direct antiviral drugs. The anti-infection mechanisms of PDE5Is and their roles in COVID-19 were reviewed in the present study. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Experimental & Therapeutic Medicine is the property of Spandidos Publications UK Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

10.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(1): 46-50, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081788

ABSTRACT

Positive nucleic acid (NA) results have been found in recovered and discharged COVID-19 patients, but the proportion is unclear. This study was designed to analyze the recurrent positive rate of NA results after consecutively negative results, and the relationship between the specific antibody production and positive NA rate. According to Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines, data of inpatients in Sino-French New City Branch of Tongji Hospital between Jan. 28 and Mar. 6, 2020 were collected. A total of 564 COVID-19 patients over 14 years old who received the examinations of NA and antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were included. Days of viral shedding and specific antibodies were recorded and assessed. Among NA tests in respiratory samples (throat swabs, nasopharyngeal swabs, sputum and flushing fluid in alveoli), the patients with all-negative NA results accounted for 17.20%, those with single-positive results for 46.63%, and those with multiple-positive results for 36.17% respectively. Besides, the recurrent positive NA results after consecutively negative results appeared in 66 patients (11.70%). For multiple-positive patients, median viral shedding duration was 20 days (range: 1 to 57 days). Of the 205 patients who received 2 or more antibody tests, 141 (68.78%) had decreased IgG and IgM concentrations. IgM decreased to normal range in 24 patients, with a median of 44 days from symptom onset. Viral shedding duration was not significantly correlated with gender, age, disease severity, changes in pulmonary imaging, and antibody concentration. It is concluded that antibody level and antibody change had no significant correlation with the positive rate of NA tests and the conversion rate after continuous negative NA tests. In order to reduce the recurrent positive proportion after discharge, 3 or more consecutive negative NA test results with test interval more than 24 h every time are suggested for the discharge or release from quarantine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory System/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Shedding
11.
NPJ Digit Med ; 3(1): 156, 2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960334

ABSTRACT

Respiration rate, heart rate, and heart rate variability (HRV) are some health metrics that are easily measured by consumer devices, which can potentially provide early signs of illness. Furthermore, mobile applications that accompany wearable devices can be used to collect relevant self-reported symptoms and demographic data. This makes consumer devices a valuable tool in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. Data on 2745 subjects diagnosed with COVID-19 (active infection, PCR test) were collected from May 21 to September 11, 2020, consisting of PCR positive tests conducted between February 16 and September 9. Considering male (female) participants, 11.9% (11.2%) of the participants were asymptomatic, 48.3% (47.8%) recovered at home by themselves, 29.7% (33.7%) recovered at home with the help of someone else, 9.3% (6.6%) required hospitalization without ventilation, and 0.5% (0.4%) required ventilation. There were a total of 21 symptoms reported, and the prevalence of symptoms varies by sex. Fever was present in 59.4% of male subjects and in 52% of female subjects. Based on self-reported symptoms alone, we obtained an AUC of 0.82 ± 0.017 for the prediction of the need for hospitalization. Based on physiological signs, we obtained an AUC of 0.77 ± 0.018 for the prediction of illness on a specific day. Respiration rate and heart rate are typically elevated by illness, while HRV is decreased. Measuring these metrics, taken in conjunction with molecular-based diagnostics, may lead to better early detection and monitoring of COVID-19.

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