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2.
J Exp Med ; 219(8)2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901005

ABSTRACT

Recessive or dominant inborn errors of type I interferon (IFN) immunity can underlie critical COVID-19 pneumonia in unvaccinated adults. The risk of COVID-19 pneumonia in unvaccinated children, which is much lower than in unvaccinated adults, remains unexplained. In an international cohort of 112 children (<16 yr old) hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia, we report 12 children (10.7%) aged 1.5-13 yr with critical (7 children), severe (3), and moderate (2) pneumonia and 4 of the 15 known clinically recessive and biochemically complete inborn errors of type I IFN immunity: X-linked recessive TLR7 deficiency (7 children) and autosomal recessive IFNAR1 (1), STAT2 (1), or TYK2 (3) deficiencies. Fibroblasts deficient for IFNAR1, STAT2, or TYK2 are highly vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2. These 15 deficiencies were not found in 1,224 children and adults with benign SARS-CoV-2 infection without pneumonia (P = 1.2 × 10-11) and with overlapping age, sex, consanguinity, and ethnicity characteristics. Recessive complete deficiencies of type I IFN immunity may underlie ∼10% of hospitalizations for COVID-19 pneumonia in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Pneumonia , Adult , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Humans , Inheritance Patterns , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852986

ABSTRACT

Binding levels and neutralization activity of anti-type 1 interferon (T1IFN) autoantibodies peaked during acute COVID-19 and markedly decreased thereafter. Most patients maintained some ability to neutralize T1IFN into convalescence despite lower levels of binding IgG. Identifying these autoantibodies in healthy individuals before they develop critical viral disease may be challenging.

4.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 9(5): 622-632, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825806

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Given the continued spread of coronavirus 2, the early predictors of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) associated mortality might improve patients' outcomes. Increased levels of circulating neurofilament light chain (NfL), a biomarker of neuronal injury, have been observed in severe COVID-19 patients. We investigated whether NfL provides non-redundant clinical value to previously identified predictors of COVID-19 mortality. METHODS: We measured serum or plasma NfL concentrations in a blinded fashion in 3 cohorts totaling 338 COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: In cohort 1, we found significantly elevated NfL levels only in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Longitudinal cohort 2 data showed that NfL is elevated late in the course of the disease, following the two other prognostic markers of COVID-19: decrease in absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Significant correlations between ALC and LDH abnormalities and subsequent rise of NfL implicate that the multi-organ failure is the most likely cause of neuronal injury in severe COVID-19 patients. The addition of NfL to age and gender in cohort 1 significantly improved the accuracy of mortality prediction and these improvements were validated in cohorts 2 and 3. INTERPRETATION: A substantial increase in serum/plasma NfL reproducibly enhanced COVID-19 mortality prediction. Combined with other prognostic markers, such as ALC and LDH that are routinely measured in ICU patients, NfL measurements might be useful to identify the patients at a high risk of COVID-19-associated mortality, who might still benefit from escalated care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Cohort Studies , Humans , Intermediate Filaments , Prognosis
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 841126, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775675

ABSTRACT

The antibody profile against autoantigens previously associated with autoimmune diseases and other human proteins in patients with COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) remains poorly defined. Here we show that 30% of adults with COVID-19 had autoantibodies against the lung antigen KCNRG, and 34% had antibodies to the SLE-associated Smith-D3 protein. Children with COVID-19 rarely had autoantibodies; one of 59 children had GAD65 autoantibodies associated with acute onset of insulin-dependent diabetes. While autoantibodies associated with SLE/Sjögren's syndrome (Ro52, Ro60, and La) and/or autoimmune gastritis (gastric ATPase) were detected in 74% (40/54) of MIS-C patients, further analysis of these patients and of children with Kawasaki disease (KD), showed that the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was largely responsible for detection of these autoantibodies in both groups of patients. Monitoring in vivo decay of the autoantibodies in MIS-C children showed that the IVIG-derived Ro52, Ro60, and La autoantibodies declined to undetectable levels by 45-60 days, but gastric ATPase autoantibodies declined more slowly requiring >100 days until undetectable. Further testing of IgG and/or IgA antibodies against a subset of potential targets identified by published autoantigen array studies of MIS-C failed to detect autoantibodies against most (16/18) of these proteins in patients with MIS-C who had not received IVIG. However, Troponin C2 and KLHL12 autoantibodies were detected in 2 of 20 and 1 of 20 patients with MIS-C, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that IVIG therapy may be a confounding factor in autoantibody measurements in MIS-C and that antibodies against antigens associated with autoimmune diseases or other human proteins are uncommon in MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Adenosine Triphosphatases , Adult , Autoantibodies , Autoantigens , Autoimmunity , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Ribonucleoproteins , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
6.
J Nephrol ; 35(3): 745-759, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dialysis and kidney transplant patients with moderate-severe COVID-19 have a high mortality rate, around 30%, that is similar in the two populations, despite differences in their baseline characteristics. In these groups, the immunology of the disease has been poorly explored. METHODS: Thirty-two patients on dialysis or with kidney transplant and SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospitalization (COV group) were included in our study. Lymphocyte subsets, dendritic cell (DC) counts and monocyte activation were studied. SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike/anti-nucleocapsid were monitored, and baseline cytokines and chemokines were measured in 10 patients. RESULTS: The COV group, compared to healthy subjects and uninfected dialysis/kidney transplant controls, showed lower numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, Natural-Killer (NK), B cells, plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs, while the proportion of terminally differentiated B-cells was increased. IL6, IL10, IFN-α and chemokines involved in monocyte and neutrophil recruitment were higher in the COV group, compared to uninfected dialysis/kidney transplant controls. Patients with severe disease had lower CD4 + , CD8 + and B-cell counts and lower monocyte HLA-DR expression. Of note, when comparing dialysis and kidney transplant patients with COVID-19, the latter group presented lower NK and pDC counts and monocyte HLA-DR expression. Up to 60 days after symptom onset, kidney transplant recipients showed lower levels of anti-spike antibodies compared to dialysis patients. CONCLUSIONS: During SARS-CoV-2 infection, dialysis and kidney transplant patients manifest immunophenotype abnormalities; these are similar in the two groups, however kidney transplant recipients show more profound alterations of the innate immune system and lower anti-spike antibody response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , HLA-DR Antigens , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
7.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S325-S326, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602651

ABSTRACT

Background Approximately 10-20% of patients with critical COVID-19 harbor neutralizing autoantibodies (auto-Abs) that target type I interferons (IFN), a family of cytokines that induce critical innate immune defense mechanisms upon viral infection. Studies to date indicate that these auto-Abs are mostly detected in men over age 65. Methods We screened for type I IFN serum auto-Abs in sera collected < 21 days post-symptom onset in a subset of 103 COVID-19 inpatients and 24 outpatients drawn from a large prospective cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients enrolled across U.S. Military Treatment Facilities. The mean age of this n = 127 subset of study participants was 55.2 years (SD = 15.2 years, range 7.7 – 86.2 years), and 86/127 (67.7%) were male. Results Among those hospitalized 49/103 (47.6%) had severe COVID-19 (required at least high flow oxygen), and nine subjects died. We detected neutralizing auto-Abs against IFN-α, IFN-ω, or both, in four inpatients (3.9%, 8.2% of severe cases), with no auto-Abs detected in outpatients. Three of these patients were white males over the age of 62, all with multiple comorbidities;two of whom died and the third requiring high flow oxygen therapy. The fourth patient was a 36-year-old Hispanic female with a history of obesity who required mechanical ventilation during her admission for COVID-19. Conclusion These findings support the association between type I IFN auto-antibody production and life-threatening COVID-19. With further validation, reliable high-throughput screening for type I IFN auto-Abs may inform diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment strategies for COVID-19, particularly in older males. Our finding of type I IFN auto-Ab production in a younger female prompts further study of this autoimmune phenotype in a broader population. Disclosures David A. Lindholm, MD, American Board of Internal Medicine (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Member of Auxiliary R&D Infectious Disease Item-Writer Task Force. No financial support received. No exam questions will be disclosed ., Other Financial or Material Support David Tribble, M.D., DrPH, Astra Zeneca (Other Financial or Material Support, HJF, in support of USU IDCRP, funded under a CRADA to augment the conduct of an unrelated Phase III COVID-19 vaccine trial sponsored by AstraZeneca as part of USG response (unrelated work)) Simon Pollett, MBBS, Astra Zeneca (Other Financial or Material Support, HJF, in support of USU IDCRP, funded under a CRADA to augment the conduct of an unrelated Phase III COVID-19 vaccine trial sponsored by AstraZeneca as part of USG response (unrelated work))

8.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S77-S77, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602523

ABSTRACT

Background T cells are central to the early identification and clearance of viral infections and support antibody generation by B cells, making them desirable for assessing the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccines. We combined 2 high-throughput immune profiling methods to create a quantitative picture of the SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response that is highly sensitive, durable, diagnostic, and discriminatory between natural infection and vaccination. Methods We deeply characterized 116 convalescent COVID-19 subjects by experimentally mapping CD8 and CD4 T-cell responses via antigen stimulation to 545 Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I and 284 class II viral peptides. We also performed T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire sequencing on 1815 samples from 1521 PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases and 3500 controls to identify shared public TCRs from SARS-CoV-2-associated CD8 and CD4 T cells. Combining these approaches with additional samples from vaccinated individuals, we characterized the response to natural infection as well as vaccination by separating responses to spike protein from other viral targets. Results We find that T-cell responses are often driven by a few immunodominant, HLA-restricted epitopes. As expected, the SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response peaks about 1-2 weeks after infection and is detectable at least several months after recovery. Applying these data, we trained a classifier to diagnose past SARS-CoV-2 infection based solely on TCR sequencing from blood samples and observed, at 99.8% specificity, high sensitivity soon after diagnosis (Day 3–7 = 85.1%;Day 8–14 = 94.8%) that persists after recovery (Day 29+/convalescent = 95.4%). Finally, by evaluating TCRs binding epitopes targeting all non-spike SARS-CoV-2 proteins, we were able to separate natural infection from vaccination with > 99% specificity. Conclusion TCR repertoire sequencing from whole blood reliably measures the adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 soon after viral antigenic exposure (before antibodies are typically detectable) as well as at later time points, and distinguishes post-infection vs. vaccine immune responses with high specificity. This approach to characterizing the cellular immune response has applications in clinical diagnostics as well as vaccine development and monitoring. Disclosures Thomas M. Snyder, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Rachel M. Gittelman, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Mark Klinger, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Damon H. May, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Edward J. Osborne, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Ruth Taniguchi, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) H. Jabran Zahid, PhD, Microsoft Research (Employee, Shareholder) Rebecca Elyanow, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Sudeb C. Dalai, MD, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Ian M. Kaplan, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Jennifer N. Dines, MD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Matthew T. Noakes, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Ravi Pandya, PhD, Microsoft Research (Employee, Shareholder) Lance Baldo, MD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder, Leadership Interest) James R. Heath, PhD, Merck (Research Grant or Support, Funding (from BARDA) for the ISB INCOV project, but had no role in planning the research or in writing the paper.) Joaquin Martinez-Lopez, MD, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Consultant) Jonathan M. Carlson, PhD, Microsoft Research (Employee, Shareholder) Harlan S. Robins, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Board Member, Employee, Shareholder)

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556902

ABSTRACT

Binding levels and neutralization activity of anti-type 1 interferon (T1IFN) autoantibodies peaked during acute COVID-19 and markedly decreased thereafter. Most patients maintained some ability to neutralize T1IFN into convalescence despite lower levels of binding IgG. Identifying these autoantibodies in healthy individuals before they develop critical viral disease may be challenging.

11.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Preprint in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: ppcovidwho-292804

ABSTRACT

T cells are involved in the early identification and clearance of viral infections and also support the development of antibodies by B cells. This central role for T cells makes them a desirable target for assessing the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we combined two high-throughput immune profiling methods to create a quantitative picture of the T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2. First, at the individual level, we deeply characterized 3 acutely infected and 58 recovered COVID-19 subjects by experimentally mapping their CD8 T-cell response through antigen stimulation to 545 Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I presented viral peptides (class II data in a forthcoming study). Then, at the population level, we performed T-cell repertoire sequencing on 1,015 samples (from 827 COVID-19 subjects) as well as 3,500 controls to identify shared "public" T-cell receptors (TCRs) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection from both CD8 and CD4 T cells. Collectively, our data reveal that CD8 T-cell responses are often driven by a few immunodominant, HLA-restricted epitopes. As expected, the T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 peaks about one to two weeks after infection and is detectable for several months after recovery. As an application of these data, we trained a classifier to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection based solely on TCR sequencing from blood samples, and observed, at 99.8% specificity, high early sensitivity soon after diagnosis (Day 3-7 = 83.8% [95% CI = 77.6-89.4];Day 8-14 = 92.4% [87.6-96.6]) as well as lasting sensitivity after recovery (Day 29+/convalescent = 96.7% [93.0-99.2]). These results demonstrate an approach to reliably assess the adaptive immune response both soon after viral antigenic exposure (before antibodies are typically detectable) as well as at later time points. This blood-based molecular approach to characterizing the cellular immune response has applications in vaccine development as well as clinical diagnostics and monitoring.

12.
Nat Immunol ; 23(2): 159-164, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475313

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infections display tremendous interindividual variability, ranging from asymptomatic infections to life-threatening disease. Inborn errors of, and autoantibodies directed against, type I interferons (IFNs) account for about 20% of critical COVID-19 cases among SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. By contrast, the genetic and immunological determinants of resistance to infection per se remain unknown. Following the discovery that autosomal recessive deficiency in the DARC chemokine receptor confers resistance to Plasmodium vivax, autosomal recessive deficiencies of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and the enzyme FUT2 were shown to underlie resistance to HIV-1 and noroviruses, respectively. Along the same lines, we propose a strategy for identifying, recruiting, and genetically analyzing individuals who are naturally resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Disease Resistance/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Genetic Heterogeneity , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Phenotype , Protective Factors , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
14.
Cell ; 181(6): 1194-1199, 2020 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385209

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection displays immense inter-individual clinical variability, ranging from silent infection to lethal disease. The role of human genetics in determining clinical response to the virus remains unclear. Studies of outliers-individuals remaining uninfected despite viral exposure and healthy young patients with life-threatening disease-present a unique opportunity to reveal human genetic determinants of infection and disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Resistance , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , Genetic Variation , Genome, Human , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Infections/genetics , Infections/immunology , Infections/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Journal of Clinical Investigation ; 131(15):1-1,1A, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1338047

ABSTRACT

[...]the power computation shown in their Figure 1 is based on an incorrect hypothesis about the odds ratio, which would be expected to be lower when using general population controls (as they did) than when using paucisymptomatic and asymptomatic infected individuals (as we did). (iv) The ethnic origin of the patients differs between the 2 studies: 58% of our 659 patients (and 8 of our 9 pLOF carriers) were European, versus only 10% of their 713 patients with severe disease (and the pLOF carrier was East Asian). (v) Age is a key factor neglected in their comparison: our sample was much younger (mean age, 51.8 years) than theirs (mean, 65.9 years), and 7 of our 9 pLOF carriers were younger than 60 years. Because the rates of pLOFs vary considerably across populations, adjustment for only 3 principal components of ancestry in rare-variant association tests of multiethnic cohorts does not provide adequate control for population structure. [...]none of the associations showed even marginal significance. [...]consistent with our study, these findings do not support substantial contributions of inborn errors in type I IFN immunity to COVID-19 severity.

16.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 99(9): 917-921, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325006

ABSTRACT

Type-I interferons (IFNs) mediate antiviral activity and have emerged as important immune mediators during coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Several lines of evidence suggest that impaired type-I IFN signaling may predispose to severe COVID-19. However, the pathophysiologic mechanisms that contribute to illness severity remain unclear. In this study, our goal was to gain insight into how type-I IFNs influence outcomes in patients with COVID-19. To achieve this goal, we compared clinical outcomes between 26 patients with neutralizing type-I IFN autoantibodies (AAbs) and 192 patients without AAbs who were hospitalized for COVID-19 at three Italian hospitals. The presence of circulating AAbs to type-I IFNs was associated with an increased risk of admission to the intensive care unit and a delayed time to viral clearance. However, survival was not adversely affected by the presence of type-I IFN AAbs. Our findings provide further support for the role of type-I IFN AAbs in impairing host antiviral defense and promoting the development of critical COVID-19 pneumonia in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-infected individuals.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19 , Interferon Type I/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy
18.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(4): 310, 2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1149708

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the ongoing world-wide pandemic which has already taken more than two million lives. Effective treatments are urgently needed. The enzymatic activity of the HECT-E3 ligase family members has been implicated in the cell egression phase of deadly RNA viruses such as Ebola through direct interaction of its VP40 Protein. Here we report that HECT-E3 ligase family members such as NEDD4 and WWP1 interact with and ubiquitylate the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. Furthermore, we find that HECT family members are overexpressed in primary samples derived from COVID-19 infected patients and COVID-19 mouse models. Importantly, rare germline activating variants in the NEDD4 and WWP1 genes are associated with severe COVID-19 cases. Critically, I3C, a natural NEDD4 and WWP1 inhibitor from Brassicaceae, displays potent antiviral effects and inhibits viral egression. In conclusion, we identify the HECT family members of E3 ligases as likely novel biomarkers for COVID-19, as well as new potential targets of therapeutic strategy easily testable in clinical trials in view of the established well-tolerated nature of the Brassicaceae natural compounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/antagonists & inhibitors , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport/metabolism , Female , Humans , Indoles/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle Aged , Nedd4 Ubiquitin Protein Ligases/genetics , Nedd4 Ubiquitin Protein Ligases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Ubiquitination , Vero Cells
19.
Cell ; 184(7): 1836-1857.e22, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077815

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 exhibits extensive patient-to-patient heterogeneity. To link immune response variation to disease severity and outcome over time, we longitudinally assessed circulating proteins as well as 188 surface protein markers, transcriptome, and T cell receptor sequence simultaneously in single peripheral immune cells from COVID-19 patients. Conditional-independence network analysis revealed primary correlates of disease severity, including gene expression signatures of apoptosis in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and attenuated inflammation but increased fatty acid metabolism in CD56dimCD16hi NK cells linked positively to circulating interleukin (IL)-15. CD8+ T cell activation was apparent without signs of exhaustion. Although cellular inflammation was depressed in severe patients early after hospitalization, it became elevated by days 17-23 post symptom onset, suggestive of a late wave of inflammatory responses. Furthermore, circulating protein trajectories at this time were divergent between and predictive of recovery versus fatal outcomes. Our findings stress the importance of timing in the analysis, clinical monitoring, and therapeutic intervention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Gene Expression/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Transcriptome/immunology , Young Adult
20.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066211

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever virus (YFV) live attenuated vaccine can, in rare cases, cause life-threatening disease, typically in patients with no previous history of severe viral illness. Autosomal recessive (AR) complete IFNAR1 deficiency was reported in one 12-yr-old patient. Here, we studied seven other previously healthy patients aged 13 to 80 yr with unexplained life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease. One 13-yr-old patient had AR complete IFNAR2 deficiency. Three other patients vaccinated at the ages of 47, 57, and 64 yr had high titers of circulating auto-Abs against at least 14 of the 17 individual type I IFNs. These antibodies were recently shown to underlie at least 10% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. The auto-Abs were neutralizing in vitro, blocking the protective effect of IFN-α2 against YFV vaccine strains. AR IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 deficiency and neutralizing auto-Abs against type I IFNs thus accounted for more than half the cases of life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease studied here. Previously healthy subjects could be tested for both predispositions before anti-YFV vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Interferon-alpha , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta , SARS-CoV-2 , Yellow Fever Vaccine , Yellow fever virus , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/deficiency , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/adverse effects , Yellow Fever Vaccine/genetics , Yellow Fever Vaccine/immunology , Yellow fever virus/genetics , Yellow fever virus/immunology
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