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2.
Radiology ; : 220543, 2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807536

ABSTRACT

Background Both temporal changes in imaging characteristics of lymphadenopathy on US following COVID-19 vaccination and expected duration of radiologically evident lymphadenopathy remain uncertain. Purpose To longitudinally evaluate COVID-19 vaccine-associated lymphadenopathy on axillary US at various time intervals, in both mRNA and vector vaccine recipients. Materials and Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted between March 2021 and January 2022. The participants were asymptomatic women without breast cancer who had received COVID-19 vaccination. Serial follow-up US was performed in women manifesting lymphadenopathy. Following variables were assessed: cortical thickness, number of lymph nodes, morphology, and Doppler signal. Temporal changes in cortical thickness and number of lymph nodes during follow-up were assessed using a linear mixed model. Results Ninety-one women with lymphadenopathy in the vaccinated arm had undergone a total of 215 serial US (mean age, 44 years ±13). Fifty-one participants had received vector vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine) and 40 mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 vaccine [n=37] and mRNA-1273 vaccine [n=3]). Except for three women with follow-up loss, eighty-eight women underwent serial US and complete resolution of axillary lymphadenopathy at median 6 weeks interval (range, 4-7 weeks) was observed in 26% (23 of 88) of women. Of 49 women with follow-up US at median 12 weeks interval (range, 8-14 weeks), persistent lymphadenopathy was observed in 51% (25 of 49). During the follow-up period, the cortical thickness gradually decreased (P < .001) over time regardless of vaccine type; however, values were higher in recipients of the mRNA vaccine than in recipients of the vector vaccine (P = .02). Conclusion COVID-19 vaccine-associated axillary lymphadenopathy frequently persisted over 6 weeks on US. Lymphadenopathy should be interpreted considering vaccine type and time elapsed since vaccination. Follow-up US examination at least 12 weeks after vaccination may be reasonable, particularly for recipients of the mRNA vaccine. © RSNA, 2022 See also the editorial by Moy and Kim.

3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1800382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is publicly known as a malignant tumor. Our previous study reported that plumbagin exhibits potent anti-cancer actions. Nevertheless, more mechanical details of plumbagin against NPC remain unknown. The present study aimed to unmask the core targets/genes and anti-NPC mechanisms involved in the signaling pathways of plumbagin prior to biochemical validation. METHODS: A network pharmacology approach was employed to respective identification of mutual and core targets/genes in plumbagin and/treating NPC. Molecular docking determination was used to identify core target proteins for biochemical validation using human and cell line samples. RESULTS: In total, 60 anti-NPC genes of plumbagin were screened out, and then nine core target genes of plumbagin against NPC were identified accordingly. The enrichment findings revealed detailed biological functions and pharmacological pathways of plumbagin against NPC. Moreover, in silico analysis using molecular docking had determined the core targets for further experimental validation, comprising protein kinase B (AKT1) and sarcoma gene (SRC). In human sample validation, clinical NPC sections showed increased positive expression of AKT1 and SRC. Additionally, plumbagin-treated NPC cells resulted in inactivated protein expression of AKT1 and SRC. CONCLUSION: The re-identified core targets/genes in the molecular docking report may function as plumbagin-related pharmacological targets for treating NPC via experimental validation. Furthermore, additional anti-NPC molecular mechanisms of plumbagin action were disclosed on the basis of enrichment findings. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.

4.
J Breast Cancer ; 25(2): 131-139, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776401

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the imaging and pathological findings in axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer who received concurrent ipsilateral coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. Of the 19 women with breast cancer who received concurrent COVID-19 vaccination shot in the arm ipsilateral to breast cancer, axillary lymphadenopathy was observed in 84.2% (16 of 19) of patients on ultrasound (US) and 71.4% (10 of 14) of patients on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 21.0% (4 of 19) of patients were diagnosed with metastasis. Abnormal US and MRI findings of cortical thickening, effacement of the fatty hilum, round shape, and asymmetry in the number or size relative to the contralateral side were noted in more than half of the non-metastatic and metastatic lymph nodes; however, statistical significance was not noted. Axillary lymphadenopathy is commonly observed in patients with breast cancer who receive concurrent ipsilateral COVID-19 vaccination without specific differential imaging features. Thus, understanding the limitations of axillary imaging and cautious interpretation is necessary to avoid overestimation or underestimation of the axillary disease burden.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690150

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccine production has taken us by storm. We aim to fill in the history of concepts and the work of pioneers and provide a framework of strategies employing structural vaccinology. Cryo-electron microscopy became crucial in providing three-dimensional (3D) structures and creating candidates eliciting T and B cell-mediated immunity. It also determined structural changes in the emerging mutants in order to design new constructs that can be easily, quickly and safely added to the vaccines. The full-length spike (S) protein, the S1 subunit and its receptor binding domain (RBD) of the virus are the best candidates. The vaccine development to cease this COVID-19 pandemic sets a milestone for the pan-coronavirus vaccine's designing and manufacturing. By employing structural vaccinology, we propose that the mRNA and the protein sequences of the currently approved vaccines should be modified rapidly to keep up with the more infectious new variants.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523992

ABSTRACT

The rapid increase in novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients also means a rapid increase in medical waste that could carry the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). How to safely dispose of medical waste caused by COVID-19 is a huge challenge that needs to be solved urgently. The outbreak of the COVID-19 has led to a significant increase in the daily generation of medical waste in China and has placed a severe test on the Chinese medical waste disposal system. Unlike ordinary wastes and garbage, medical waste that is untreated or incompletely treated will not only cause environmental pollution, but also directly or indirectly cause infections and endanger people's health. Faced with difficulties, the Chinese government formulated a policy for medical waste management and a response plan for the epidemic, which provides policy guarantee for the standardized disposal of epidemic medical waste. In addition, the government and medical institutions at all levels formed a comprehensive, refined, and standardized medical treatment process system during research and practice. China has increased the capacity of medical waste disposal in various places by constructing new centralized disposal centers and adding mobile disposal facilities. China has achieved good results in the fight against COVID-19, and the pressure on medical waste disposal has been relieved to a certain extent. However, the global epidemic situation is severe. How to ensure the proper and safe disposal of medical waste is related to the prevention and control of the epidemic situation. This study summarizes China's experience in the disposal of medical waste in the special case of COVID-19 and hopes to provide some reference for other countries in the disposal of medical waste.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medical Waste Disposal , Medical Waste , China/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 714909, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497067

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinically, evidence shows that uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma (UCEC) patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may have a higher death-rate. However, current anti-UCEC/coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment is lacking. Plumbagin (PLB), a pharmacologically active alkaloid, is an emerging anti-cancer inhibitor. Accordingly, the current report was designed to identify and characterize the anti-UCEC function and mechanism of PLB in the treatment of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 via integrated in silico analysis. Methods: The clinical analyses of UCEC and COVID-19 in patients were conducted using online-accessible tools. Meanwhile, in silico methods including network pharmacology and biological molecular docking aimed to screen and characterize the anti-UCEC/COVID-19 functions, bio targets, and mechanisms of the action of PLB. Results: The bioinformatics data uncovered the clinical characteristics of UCEC patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, including specific genes, health risk, survival rate, and prognostic index. Network pharmacology findings disclosed that PLB-exerted anti-UCEC/COVID-19 effects were achieved through anti-proliferation, inducing cytotoxicity and apoptosis, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, and modulation of some of the key molecular pathways associated with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating actions. Following molecular docking analysis, in silico investigation helped identify the anti-UCEC/COVID-19 pharmacological bio targets of PLB, including mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (PLAU). Conclusions: Based on the present bioinformatic and in silico findings, the clinical characterization of UCEC/COVID-19 patients was revealed. The candidate, core bio targets, and molecular pathways of PLB action in the potential treatment of UCEC/COVID-19 were identified accordingly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Endometrioid , Endometrial Neoplasms , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Calcium-Binding Proteins/drug effects , Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/complications , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/genetics , Computational Biology , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor/methods , Endometrial Neoplasms/complications , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Endometrial Neoplasms/drug therapy , Endometrial Neoplasms/genetics , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Gene Regulatory Networks/drug effects , Genetic Association Studies , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Membrane Proteins/drug effects , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Middle Aged , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Naphthoquinones/therapeutic use , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Uterus/drug effects , Uterus/metabolism , Uterus/pathology , Uterus/virology
8.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association / Taehan Uisa Hyophoe Chi ; 64(10):671-677, 2021.
Article in Korean | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1481110

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine-induced lymphadenopathy is a critical side effect that should be a concern to clinicians, patients, radiologists, and oncologists. Vaccine-induced lymphadenopathy causes a diagnostic dilemma, especially for breast radiologists who examine both axillary regions during breast ultrasound examinations. Appropriate imaging guidelines are needed to manage vaccine-induced lymphadenopathy for patients undergoing screening examinations or symptomatic patients, including cancer patients. Current Concepts: For patients with axillary lymphadenopathy in the setting of recent ipsilateral vaccination, clinical follow-up is recommended. In other scenarios, short-term follow-up axillary ultrasound examinations are recommended if the clinical concerns persist for more than 6 weeks after vaccination. To mitigate the diagnostic dilemma of vaccine-induced lymphadenopathy, patients should schedule screening imaging examinations before the first vaccination or at least six weeks following the second vaccination. For clinicians and radiologists, documenting the patients' vaccination status is critical to decreasing unnecessary follow-up imaging, biopsies, and patient's anxiety. Discussion and Conclusion: Our proposal can help reduce patient anxiety, provider burden, and costs of unnecessary evaluation of enlarged lymph nodes in the setting of recent COVID-19 vaccination. Further, it can avoid delays in vaccination and breast cancer screening during the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 116, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1478562
10.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1279-1290, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343635

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) may be susceptible to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, anti-CRC/COVID-19 treatment options are currently unavailable. Since niacin is a vitamin with cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory functions, this study aimed to evaluate the possible functional roles and underlying mechanisms of action of niacin as an anti-COVID-19 and -CRC therapy. INTERVENTIONS: We used a series of network pharmacology-based and computational analyses to understand and characterize the binding capacity, biological functions, pharmacological targets and therapeutic mechanisms of niacin in CRC/COVID-19. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We revealed the clinical characteristics of CRC patients and COVID-19 patients, including predisposing genes, survival rate and prognosis. Moreover, the results of molecular docking analysis indicated that niacin exerted effective binding capacity in COVID-19. Further, we disclosed the targets, biological functions and signaling pathways of niacin in CRC/COVID-19. The analysis indicated that niacin could help in treating CRC/COVID-19 through cytoprotection, enhancement of immunologic functions, inhibition of inflammatory reactions and regulation of cellular microenvironment. Furthermore, five core pharmacological targets of niacin in CRC/COVID-19 were also identified, including BCL2L1, PTGS2, IL1B, IFNG and SERPINE1. CONCLUSIONS: This study, for the first time, revealed the niacin-associated molecular functions and pharmacological targets for treating CRC/COVID-19, as COVID-19 remains a serious pandemic. But the findings were not validated in actual CRC patients infected with COVID-19, so further investigation is needed to confirm the potential use of niacin for treating CRC/COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology , Niacin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Docking Simulation , Niacin/pharmacology
11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(12): 15785-15800, 2021 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285613

ABSTRACT

Recent reports indicate that patients with hepatocholangiocarcinoma (CHOL) have a higher morbidity and mortality rate for coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Anti-CHOL/COVID-19 medicines are inexistent. Vitamin A (VA) refers to a potent nutrient with anti-cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory actions. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the potential functions and molecular mechanisms of VA as a potential treatment for patients with both CHOL and COVID-19 (CHOL/COVID-19). The transcriptome data of CHOL patients were obtained from the Cancer Genome Analysis database. Furthermore, the network pharmacology approach and bioinformatics analysis were used to identify and reveal the molecular functions, therapeutic biotargets, and signaling of VA against CHOL/COVID-19. First, clinical findings identified the medical characteristics of CHOL patients with COVID-19, such as susceptibility gene, prognosis, recurrence, and survival rate. Anti-viral and anti-inflammatory pathways, and immunopotentiation were found as potential targets of VA against CHOL/COVID-19. These findings illustrated that VA may contribute to the clinical management of CHOL/COVID-19 achieved by induction of cell repair, suppression of oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction, and amelioration of immunity. Nine vital therapeutic targets (BRD2, NOS2, GPT, MAPK1, CXCR3, ICAM1, CDK4, CAT, and TMPRSS13) of VA against CHOL/COVID-19 were identified. For the first time, the potential pharmacological biotargets, function, and mechanism of action of VA in CHOL/COVID-19 were elucidated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunity/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vitamin A/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Cholangiocarcinoma/genetics , Computational Biology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/etiology , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Male , Molecular Docking Simulation , Proportional Hazards Models , Signal Transduction/drug effects
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259480

ABSTRACT

Integration of digital technologies and public health (or digital healthcare) helps us to fight the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which is the biggest public health crisis humanity has faced since the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. In order to better understand the digital healthcare, this work conducted a systematic and comprehensive review of digital healthcare, with the purpose of helping us combat the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper covers the background information and research overview of digital healthcare, summarizes its applications and challenges in the COVID-19 pandemic, and finally puts forward the prospects of digital healthcare. First, main concepts, key development processes, and common application scenarios of integrating digital technologies and digital healthcare were offered in the part of background information. Second, the bibliometric techniques were used to analyze the research output, geographic distribution, discipline distribution, collaboration network, and hot topics of digital healthcare before and after COVID-19 pandemic. We found that the COVID-19 pandemic has greatly accelerated research on the integration of digital technologies and healthcare. Third, application cases of China, EU and U.S using digital technologies to fight the COVID-19 pandemic were collected and analyzed. Among these digital technologies, big data, artificial intelligence, cloud computing, 5G are most effective weapons to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Applications cases show that these technologies play an irreplaceable role in controlling the spread of the COVID-19. By comparing the application cases in these three regions, we contend that the key to China's success in avoiding the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic is to integrate digital technologies and public health on a large scale without hesitation. Fourth, the application challenges of digital technologies in the public health field are summarized. These challenges mainly come from four aspects: data delays, data fragmentation, privacy security, and data security vulnerabilities. Finally, this study provides the future application prospects of digital healthcare. In addition, we also provide policy recommendations for other countries that use digital technology to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Artificial Intelligence , China/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Digital Technology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 528-532, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217362

ABSTRACT

The situation of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to evolve, our study explored the significance of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) as a marker for patients with COVID-19. Sixty-two COVID-19 patients in the First Hospital of Hunan University of Chinese Medicine and Loudi Center for Diseases Prevention and Control, from January to March 2020, were sampled as the novel coronavirus pneumonia infected group. One hundred and thirty-one cases from the First Hospital of Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, including 67 healthy individuals and 64 non-COVID-19 inpatients, served as the noninfected group. Approximately every 5 days, sera from 20 cases were collected and analyzed three times, using an automatic biochemical analyzer, to detect serum MMP3 concentrations. Correlation was analyzed between MMP3 and other proinflammatory cytokines. Following normality tests, differences in serum MMP3 levels between the infected and noninfected group were analyzed via SPSS (version 25.0) software, using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The MMP3 concentration was 44.44 (23.46 ~ 72.12) ng/mL in the infected group and 32.42 (28.16 ~ 41.21) ng/mL in the noninfected group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (Z = -2.799, P = .005 < .05). A positive correlation was found between MMP3 and interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß; r = .681, P = .000 < .05), and IL-6 (r = .529, P = .002 < .05). Serum MMP3 concentration, measured over three separate time points, were 55.98 (30.80 ~ 75.97) ng/mL, 34.84 (0.00 ~ 51.84) ng/mL, and 5.71 (0.00 ~ 40.46) ng/mL, respectively. Detection of serum MMP3 levels may play an important role in the development of therapeutic approaches for COVID-19 and may indicate the severity of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/enzymology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 3/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 3/metabolism
14.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(2): 677-685, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944738

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to uncover the pharmacological function and underlying mechanism of puerarin as a potential treatment for COVID-19, using an in silico methodology, including network pharmacology and molecular docking. The pivotal targets of puerarin to treat COVID-19 were identified and included the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), tumour protein p53 (TP53), caspase 3 (CASP3), RELA proto-oncogene (RELA), Fos proto-oncogene (FOS), caspase 8 (CASP8), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), interleukin 2 (IL2), protein kinase CB (PRKCB), B cell lymphoma/leukaemia gene-2 (BCL2), protein kinase CA (PRKCA), nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG). Functionally, the anti-COVID-19 action of puerarin was associated with the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammatory cascades, and cell apoptosis. The signalling pathways of puerarin to treat COVID-19 included modulation of the pathways of apoptosis, IL-17 signalling, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling and TNF signalling. Molecular docking data illustrated the binding capacity of puerarin with COVID-19 and the effective anti-COVID-19 activity of puerarin. Taken together, our current network pharmacology-based findings revealed the pharmacological role of puerarin in the treatment of COVID-19. Furthermore, the bioinformatic findings elucidated that some of these pivotal targets might serve as potential molecular markers for detecting COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Isoflavones/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 728: 138915, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-101980

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is seriously threatening world public health security. Currently, >200 countries and regions have been affected by the epidemic, with the number of infections and deaths still increasing. As an extreme event, the outbreak of COVID-19 has greatly damaged the global economic growth and caused a certain impact on the environment. This paper takes China as a case study, comprehensively evaluating the dynamic impact of COVID-19 on the environment. The analysis results indicate that the outbreak of COVID-19 improves China's air quality in the short term and significantly contributes to global carbon emission reduction. However, in the long run, there is no evidence that this improvement will continue. When China completely lifts the lockdown and resumes large-scale industrial production, its energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to exceed the level before the event. Moreover, COVID-19 significantly reduces the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the atmosphere. The decline initially occurred near Wuhan and eventually spread to the whole country. The above phenomenon shows that the decreasing economic activities and traffic restrictions directly lead to the changes of China's energy consumption and further prevent the environment from pollution. The results in this study support the fact that strict quarantine measures can not only protect the public from COVID-19, but also exert a positive impact on the environment. These findings can provide a reference for other countries to assess the influence of COVID-19 on the environment.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/analysis , Coronavirus Infections , Environment , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Energy-Generating Resources/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
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