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ACS Nano ; 14(6): 7651-7658, 2020 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387149


Layered systems of commonly available fabric materials can be used by the public and healthcare providers in face masks to reduce the risk of inhaling viruses with protection that is about equivalent to or better than the filtration and adsorption offered by 5-layer N95 respirators. Over 70 different common fabric combinations and masks were evaluated under steady-state, forced convection air flux with pulsed aerosols that simulate forceful respiration. The aerosols contain fluorescent virus-like nanoparticles to track transmission through materials that greatly assist the accuracy of detection, thus avoiding artifacts including pore flooding and the loss of aerosol due to evaporation and droplet breakup. Effective materials comprise both absorbent, hydrophilic layers and barrier, hydrophobic layers. Although the hydrophobic layers can adhere virus-like nanoparticles, they may also repel droplets from adjacent absorbent layers and prevent wicking transport across the fabric system. Effective designs are noted with absorbent layers comprising terry cloth towel, quilting cotton, and flannel. Effective designs are noted with barrier layers comprising nonwoven polypropylene, polyester, and polyaramid.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Textiles , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Filtration , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Masks/supply & distribution , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Particle Size , Permeability , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Water
Geohealth ; : e2020GH000292, 2020 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1019739


The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 showed various transmission rate (R t ) across different regions. The determination of the factors affecting transmission rate is urgent and crucial to combat COVID-19. Here we explored variation of R t between 277 regions across the globe and the associated potential socioeconomic, demographic and environmental factors. At global scale, the R t started to decrease approximately two weeks after policy interventions initiated. This lag from the date of policy interventions initiation to the date when R t started to decrease ranges from 9 to 19 days, largest in Europe and North America. We find that proportion of elderly people or life expectancy can explain 50% of variation in transmission rate across the 277 regions. The transmission rate at the point of inflection (R I ) increases by 29.4% (25.2-34.0%) for 1% uptick in the proportion of people aged above 65, indicating elderly people face ~2.5 times higher infection risk than younger people. Air temperature is negatively correlated with transmission rate, which is mainly attributed to collinearities between air temperature and demographic factors. Our model predicted that temperature sensitivity of R I is only -2.7% (-5.2 - 0%) per °C after excluding collinearities between air temperature and demographic factors. This low temperature sensitivity of R I suggests that a warm summer is unlikely to impede the spread of COVID-19 naturally.