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2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322165

ABSTRACT

Following the UK’s approach to extend the COVID vaccination interval from 3-4 weeks to 12 weeks, there was considerable international debate about the optimal approach for vaccine deployment in countries experiencing surges in cases and pressures on health service utilisation.We found that adults aged ≥70 years mount robust antibody responses after a single dose of the Pfizer BioNtech vaccine, with significantly higher antibody concentrations in previously-infected vaccinees. Two doses of Pfizer BioNtech vaccine produced very high S-antibody levels across all age-groups, with significantly higher antibodies in those with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Antibody levels were significantly higher after two doses of vaccine in those aged 70 years and above when compared with convalescent sera from clinically mild to moderate PCR confirmed cases. Our findings provide additional support for the UK approach of prioritising the first dose of vaccine.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322164

ABSTRACT

Background: We investigated the effect of both doses of either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx-1 vaccine among residents of Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in England. This cohort is at particularly high risk for severe outcomes related to COVID-19 and is regularly tested regardless of symptoms.Methods: This observational study uses testing, immunisation and mortality data from 8 December 2020 to 25 June 2021 in LTCF residents aged 65 years and above. Cox proportional hazards models were used to derive adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for the risk of infection and death within 28 days of positive test result, adjusted for sex, age-group, previous infection, deprivation, and incidence rate in the local authority area. The impact of interval between first and second dose was also explored. Findings: Of 219733 LTCF residents, 41828 (19%) had a positive test and 10719 (4.9%) died within 28 days of a positive test during the study period. Relative to unvaccinated individuals, aHR for infection were lowest at 0.43 (95% CI 0.35-0.52) 36-49 days after first dose and 0.27 (0.20-0.38) at 29-60 days following second dose . Against death, aHR was lowest at 0.25 (0.20-0.31) 28-56 days after first dose and 0.13 (0-05-0.32) in the 1-14 days after second dose. As expected, some waning of protection against infection was observed after seven weeks from first dose which persisted to 2-4 weeks following second dose. Interpretation: Vaccination with one dose of BNT162b2 and ChAdOx-1 provides moderate protection against infection and death in residents in LTCFs. Protection is strong after two doses.Funding: None to declare.Declaration of Interest: None to declare. Ethical Approval: Vaccine effectiveness studies are undertaken by Public Health England as part of ongoing surveillance activities and did not require ethical approval.

4.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(11): 1529-1538, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in older adults living in long-term care facilities is uncertain. We investigated the protective effect of the first dose of the Oxford-AstraZeneca non-replicating viral-vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19; AZD1222) and the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA-based vaccine (BNT162b2) in residents of long-term care facilities in terms of PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection over time since vaccination. METHODS: The VIVALDI study is a prospective cohort study that commenced recruitment on June 11, 2020, to investigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission, infection outcomes, and immunity in residents and staff in long-term care facilities in England that provide residential or nursing care for adults aged 65 years and older. In this cohort study, we included long-term care facility residents undergoing routine asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 testing between Dec 8, 2020 (the date the vaccine was first deployed in a long-term care facility), and March 15, 2021, using national testing data linked within the COVID-19 Datastore. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated the relative hazard of PCR-positive infection at 0-6 days, 7-13 days, 14-20 days, 21-27 days, 28-34 days, 35-48 days, and 49 days and beyond after vaccination, comparing unvaccinated and vaccinated person-time from the same cohort of residents, adjusting for age, sex, previous infection, local SARS-CoV-2 incidence, long-term care facility bed capacity, and clustering by long-term care facility. We also compared mean PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values for positive swabs obtained before and after vaccination. The study is registered with ISRCTN, number 14447421. FINDINGS: 10 412 care home residents aged 65 years and older from 310 LTCFs were included in this analysis. The median participant age was 86 years (IQR 80-91), 7247 (69·6%) of 10 412 residents were female, and 1155 residents (11·1%) had evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. 9160 (88·0%) residents received at least one vaccine dose, of whom 6138 (67·0%) received ChAdOx1 and 3022 (33·0%) received BNT162b2. Between Dec 8, 2020, and March 15, 2021, there were 36 352 PCR results in 670 628 person-days, and 1335 PCR-positive infections (713 in unvaccinated residents and 612 in vaccinated residents) were included. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for PCR-positive infection relative to unvaccinated residents declined from 28 days after the first vaccine dose to 0·44 (95% CI 0·24-0·81) at 28-34 days and 0·38 (0·19-0·77) at 35-48 days. Similar effect sizes were seen for ChAdOx1 (adjusted HR 0·32, 95% CI 0·15-0·66) and BNT162b2 (0·35, 0·17-0·71) vaccines at 35-48 days. Mean PCR Ct values were higher for infections that occurred at least 28 days after vaccination than for those occurring before vaccination (31·3 [SD 8·7] in 107 PCR-positive tests vs 26·6 [6·6] in 552 PCR-positive tests; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Single-dose vaccination with BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 vaccines provides substantial protection against infection in older adults from 4-7 weeks after vaccination and might reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. However, the risk of infection is not eliminated, highlighting the ongoing need for non-pharmaceutical interventions to prevent transmission in long-term care facilities. FUNDING: UK Government Department of Health and Social Care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Incidence , Male , Mass Vaccination/methods , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7217, 2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565716

ABSTRACT

The UK prioritised delivery of the first dose of BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) and AZD1222 (AstraZeneca) vaccines by extending the interval between doses up to 12 weeks. In 750 participants aged 50-89 years, we here compare serological responses after BNT162b2 and AZD1222 vaccination with varying dose intervals, and evaluate these against real-world national vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates against COVID-19 in England. We show that antibody levels 14-35 days after dose two are higher in BNT162b2 recipients with an extended vaccine interval (65-84 days) compared with those vaccinated with a standard (19-29 days) interval. Following the extended schedule, antibody levels were 6-fold higher at 14-35 days post dose 2 for BNT162b2 than AZD1222. For both vaccines, VE was higher across all age-groups from 14 days after dose two compared to one dose, but the magnitude varied with dose interval. Higher dose two VE was observed with >6 week interval between BNT162b2 doses compared to the standard schedule. Our findings suggest higher effectiveness against infection using an extended vaccine schedule. Given global vaccine constraints these results are relevant to policymakers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Schedule , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , England , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2495-2497, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435933

ABSTRACT

Invasive meningococcal disease incidence in England declined from 1.93/100,000 persons (1,016 cases) in 2010-11 to 0.95/100,000 (530 cases) in 2018-19 and 0.74/100,000 in 2019-20 (419 cases). During national lockdown for the coronavirus disease pandemic (April-August 2020), incidence was 75% lower than during April-August 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meningococcal Infections , Meningococcal Vaccines , Neisseria meningitidis , Communicable Disease Control , England/epidemiology , Humans , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2495-2497, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291846

ABSTRACT

Invasive meningococcal disease incidence in England declined from 1.93/100,000 persons (1,016 cases) in 2010-11 to 0.95/100,000 (530 cases) in 2018-19 and 0.74/100,000 in 2019-20 (419 cases). During national lockdown for the coronavirus disease pandemic (April-August 2020), incidence was 75% lower than during April-August 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meningococcal Infections , Meningococcal Vaccines , Neisseria meningitidis , Communicable Disease Control , England/epidemiology , Humans , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Euro Surveill ; 26(12)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154193

ABSTRACT

Sera were collected from 185 adults aged ≥ 70 years in London to evaluate the immune response to COVID-19 vaccines. A single dose of Pfizer/BioNtech vaccine resulted in > 94% seropositivity after 3 weeks in naïve individuals using the Roche Spike antibody assay, while two doses produced very high spike antibody levels, significantly higher than convalescent sera from mild-to-moderate PCR-confirmed adult cases. Our findings support the United Kingdom's approach of prioritising the first dose and delaying the second dose of COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , London
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