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1.
Critical care explorations ; 4(3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1727724

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Acute respiratory failure is a common reason for ICU admission and imposes significant strain on patients and the healthcare system. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation and high-flow nasal oxygen are increasingly used as an alternative to invasive mechanical ventilation to treat acute respiratory failure. As such, there is a need to accurately cohort patients using large, routinely collected, clinical data to better understand utilization patterns and patient outcomes. The primary objective of this retrospective observational study was to externally validate our computable phenotyping algorithm for patients with acute respiratory failure requiring various sequences of respiratory support in real-world data from a large healthcare delivery network. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional observational study to validate our algorithm for phenotyping acute respiratory patients by method of respiratory support. We randomly selected 5% (n = 4,319) from each phenotype for manual validation. We calculated the algorithm performance and generated summary statistics for each phenotype and a priori defined clinical subgroups. SETTING: Data were extracted from a clinical data warehouse containing electronic health record data from 46 ICUs in the southwest United States. PATIENTS: All adult (≥ 18 yr) patient records requiring any type of oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation between November 1, 2013, and September 30, 2020, were extracted for the study. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Micro- and macroaveraged multiclass specificities of the algorithm were 0.902 and 0.896, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of phenotypes individually were greater than 0.90 for all phenotypes except for those patients extubated from invasive to noninvasive ventilation. We successfully created clinical subgroups of common illnesses requiring ventilatory support and provide high-level comparison of outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The electronic phenotyping algorithm is robust and provides a necessary tool for retrospective research for characterizing patients with acute respiratory failure across modalities of respiratory support.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(10): 1884-1894, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We described the demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities, and outcomes of patients with a history of cancer and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Second, we compared patients hospitalized with COVID-19 to patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and patients hospitalized with influenza. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study using eight routinely collected health care databases from Spain and the United States, standardized to the Observational Medical Outcome Partnership common data model. Three cohorts of patients with a history of cancer were included: (i) diagnosed with COVID-19, (ii) hospitalized with COVID-19, and (iii) hospitalized with influenza in 2017 to 2018. Patients were followed from index date to 30 days or death. We reported demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities, and 30-day outcomes. RESULTS: We included 366,050 and 119,597 patients diagnosed and hospitalized with COVID-19, respectively. Prostate and breast cancers were the most frequent cancers (range: 5%-18% and 1%-14% in the diagnosed cohort, respectively). Hematologic malignancies were also frequent, with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma being among the five most common cancer subtypes in the diagnosed cohort. Overall, patients were aged above 65 years and had multiple comorbidities. Occurrence of death ranged from 2% to 14% and from 6% to 26% in the diagnosed and hospitalized COVID-19 cohorts, respectively. Patients hospitalized with influenza (n = 67,743) had a similar distribution of cancer subtypes, sex, age, and comorbidities but lower occurrence of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a history of cancer and COVID-19 had multiple comorbidities and a high occurrence of COVID-19-related events. Hematologic malignancies were frequent. IMPACT: This study provides epidemiologic characteristics that can inform clinical care and etiologic studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(10): 1884-1894, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We described the demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities, and outcomes of patients with a history of cancer and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Second, we compared patients hospitalized with COVID-19 to patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and patients hospitalized with influenza. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study using eight routinely collected health care databases from Spain and the United States, standardized to the Observational Medical Outcome Partnership common data model. Three cohorts of patients with a history of cancer were included: (i) diagnosed with COVID-19, (ii) hospitalized with COVID-19, and (iii) hospitalized with influenza in 2017 to 2018. Patients were followed from index date to 30 days or death. We reported demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities, and 30-day outcomes. RESULTS: We included 366,050 and 119,597 patients diagnosed and hospitalized with COVID-19, respectively. Prostate and breast cancers were the most frequent cancers (range: 5%-18% and 1%-14% in the diagnosed cohort, respectively). Hematologic malignancies were also frequent, with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma being among the five most common cancer subtypes in the diagnosed cohort. Overall, patients were aged above 65 years and had multiple comorbidities. Occurrence of death ranged from 2% to 14% and from 6% to 26% in the diagnosed and hospitalized COVID-19 cohorts, respectively. Patients hospitalized with influenza (n = 67,743) had a similar distribution of cancer subtypes, sex, age, and comorbidities but lower occurrence of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a history of cancer and COVID-19 had multiple comorbidities and a high occurrence of COVID-19-related events. Hematologic malignancies were frequent. IMPACT: This study provides epidemiologic characteristics that can inform clinical care and etiologic studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(11): 2347-2357, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A detailed characterization of patients with COVID-19 living with obesity has not yet been undertaken. We aimed to describe and compare the demographics, medical conditions, and outcomes of COVID-19 patients living with obesity (PLWO) to those of patients living without obesity. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study based on outpatient/inpatient care and claims data from January to June 2020 from Spain, the UK, and the US. We used six databases standardized to the OMOP common data model. We defined two non-mutually exclusive cohorts of patients diagnosed and/or hospitalized with COVID-19; patients were followed from index date to 30 days or death. We report the frequency of demographics, prior medical conditions, and 30-days outcomes (hospitalization, events, and death) by obesity status. RESULTS: We included 627 044 (Spain: 122 058, UK: 2336, and US: 502 650) diagnosed and 160 013 (Spain: 18 197, US: 141 816) hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The prevalence of obesity was higher among patients hospitalized (39.9%, 95%CI: 39.8-40.0) than among those diagnosed with COVID-19 (33.1%; 95%CI: 33.0-33.2). In both cohorts, PLWO were more often female. Hospitalized PLWO were younger than patients without obesity. Overall, COVID-19 PLWO were more likely to have prior medical conditions, present with cardiovascular and respiratory events during hospitalization, or require intensive services compared to COVID-19 patients without obesity. CONCLUSION: We show that PLWO differ from patients without obesity in a wide range of medical conditions and present with more severe forms of COVID-19, with higher hospitalization rates and intensive services requirements. These findings can help guiding preventive strategies of COVID-19 infection and complications and generating hypotheses for causal inference studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 281: 198-202, 2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247791

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic introduced unique challenges for treating acute respiratory failure patients and highlighted the need for reliable phenotyping of patients using retrospective electronic health record data. In this study, we applied a rule-based phenotyping algorithm to classify COVID-19 patients requiring ventilatory support. We analyzed patient outcomes of the different phenotypes based on type and sequence of ventilation therapy. Invasive mechanical ventilation, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, and high flow nasal insufflation were three therapies used to phenotype patients leading to a total of seven subgroups; patients treated with a single therapy (3), patients treated with either form of noninvasive ventilation and subsequently requiring intubation (2), and patients initially intubated and then weaned onto a noninvasive therapy (2). In addition to summary statistics for each phenotype, we highlight data quality challenges and importance of mapping to standard terminologies. This work illustrates potential impact of accurate phenotyping on patient-level and system-level outcomes including appropriate resource allocation under resource constrained circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Data Accuracy , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(24): 2245-2255, 2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236214

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To provide evidence of serum potassium changes in individuals taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and/or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) concomitantly with spironolactone compared to ACEI/ARB therapy alone. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for studies including exposure to both spironolactone and ACEI/ARB therapy compared to ACEI/ARB therapy alone. The primary outcome was serum potassium change over time. Main effects were calculated to estimate average treatment effect using random effects models. Heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's Q and I2. Risk of bias was assessed using the revised Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS: From the total of 1,225 articles identified, 20 randomized controlled studies were included in the meta-analysis. The spironolactone plus ACEI/ARB group included 570 patients, while the ACEI/ARB group included 547 patients. Treatment with spironolactone and ACEI/ARB combination therapy compared to ACEI/ARB therapy alone increased the mean serum potassium concentration by 0.19 mEq/L (95% CI, 0.12-0.26 mEq/L), with intermediate heterogeneity across studies (Q statistic = 46.5, P = 0.004; I2 = 59). Sensitivity analyses showed that the direction and magnitude of this outcome did not change with the exclusion of individual studies, indicating a high level of reliability. Reporting risk of bias was low for 16 studies (80%), unclear for 3 studies (15%) and high for 1 study (5%). CONCLUSION: Treatment with spironolactone in combination with ACEI/ARB therapy increases the mean serum potassium concentration by less than 0.20 mEq/L compared to ACEI/ARB therapy alone. However, serum potassium and renal function must be monitored in patients starting combination therapy to avoid changes in serum potassium that could lead to hyperkalemia.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Spironolactone , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Humans , Potassium , Reproducibility of Results , Spironolactone/adverse effects
7.
BMJ ; 373: n1038, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223582

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of repurposed and adjuvant drugs in patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 across three continents. DESIGN: Multinational network cohort study. SETTING: Hospital electronic health records from the United States, Spain, and China, and nationwide claims data from South Korea. PARTICIPANTS: 303 264 patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 from January 2020 to December 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prescriptions or dispensations of any drug on or 30 days after the date of hospital admission for covid-19. RESULTS: Of the 303 264 patients included, 290 131 were from the US, 7599 from South Korea, 5230 from Spain, and 304 from China. 3455 drugs were identified. Common repurposed drugs were hydroxychloroquine (used in from <5 (<2%) patients in China to 2165 (85.1%) in Spain), azithromycin (from 15 (4.9%) in China to 1473 (57.9%) in Spain), combined lopinavir and ritonavir (from 156 (<2%) in the VA-OMOP US to 2,652 (34.9%) in South Korea and 1285 (50.5%) in Spain), and umifenovir (0% in the US, South Korea, and Spain and 238 (78.3%) in China). Use of adjunctive drugs varied greatly, with the five most used treatments being enoxaparin, fluoroquinolones, ceftriaxone, vitamin D, and corticosteroids. Hydroxychloroquine use increased rapidly from March to April 2020 but declined steeply in May to June and remained low for the rest of the year. The use of dexamethasone and corticosteroids increased steadily during 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple drugs were used in the first few months of the covid-19 pandemic, with substantial geographical and temporal variation. Hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir-ritonavir, and umifenovir (in China only) were the most prescribed repurposed drugs. Antithrombotics, antibiotics, H2 receptor antagonists, and corticosteroids were often used as adjunctive treatments. Research is needed on the comparative risk and benefit of these treatments in the management of covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Drug Repositioning/methods , Administrative Claims, Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Drug Combinations , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inpatients , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Safety , Spain/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Young Adult
8.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 8(2): e24860, 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181300

ABSTRACT

The extensive uptake of telehealth has considerably transformed health care delivery since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and has imposed tremendous challenges to its large-scale implementation and adaptation. Given the shift in paradigm from telehealth as an alternative mechanism of care delivery to telehealth as an integral part of the health system, it is imperative to take a systematic approach to identifying barriers to, opportunities for, and the overall impact of telehealth implementation amidst the current pandemic. In this work, we apply a human factors framework, the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model, to guide our holistic analysis and discussion of telehealth implementation, encompassing the health care work system, care processes, and outcomes.

9.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 8(2): e24860, 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156103

ABSTRACT

The extensive uptake of telehealth has considerably transformed health care delivery since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and has imposed tremendous challenges to its large-scale implementation and adaptation. Given the shift in paradigm from telehealth as an alternative mechanism of care delivery to telehealth as an integral part of the health system, it is imperative to take a systematic approach to identifying barriers to, opportunities for, and the overall impact of telehealth implementation amidst the current pandemic. In this work, we apply a human factors framework, the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model, to guide our holistic analysis and discussion of telehealth implementation, encompassing the health care work system, care processes, and outcomes.

10.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(SI): SI37-SI50, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135892

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with autoimmune diseases were advised to shield to avoid coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but information on their prognosis is lacking. We characterized 30-day outcomes and mortality after hospitalization with COVID-19 among patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, and compared outcomes after hospital admissions among similar patients with seasonal influenza. METHODS: A multinational network cohort study was conducted using electronic health records data from Columbia University Irving Medical Center [USA, Optum (USA), Department of Veterans Affairs (USA), Information System for Research in Primary Care-Hospitalization Linked Data (Spain) and claims data from IQVIA Open Claims (USA) and Health Insurance and Review Assessment (South Korea). All patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, diagnosed and/or hospitalized between January and June 2020 with COVID-19, and similar patients hospitalized with influenza in 2017-18 were included. Outcomes were death and complications within 30 days of hospitalization. RESULTS: We studied 133 589 patients diagnosed and 48 418 hospitalized with COVID-19 with prevalent autoimmune diseases. Most patients were female, aged ≥50 years with previous comorbidities. The prevalence of hypertension (45.5-93.2%), chronic kidney disease (14.0-52.7%) and heart disease (29.0-83.8%) was higher in hospitalized vs diagnosed patients with COVID-19. Compared with 70 660 hospitalized with influenza, those admitted with COVID-19 had more respiratory complications including pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and higher 30-day mortality (2.2-4.3% vs 6.32-24.6%). CONCLUSION: Compared with influenza, COVID-19 is a more severe disease, leading to more complications and higher mortality.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/mortality , Autoimmune Diseases/virology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(1): 184-189, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066359

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic response in the United States has exposed significant gaps in information systems and processes that prevent timely clinical and public health decision-making. Specifically, the use of informatics to mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2, support COVID-19 care delivery, and accelerate knowledge discovery bring to the forefront issues of privacy, surveillance, limits of state powers, and interoperability between public health and clinical information systems. Using a consensus-building process, we critically analyze informatics-related ethical issues in light of the pandemic across 3 themes: (1) public health reporting and data sharing, (2) contact tracing and tracking, and (3) clinical scoring tools for critical care. We provide context and rationale for ethical considerations and recommendations that are actionable during the pandemic and conclude with recommendations calling for longer-term, broader change (beyond the pandemic) for public health organization and policy reform.


Subject(s)
Bioethical Issues , COVID-19 , Contact Tracing/ethics , Medical Informatics/ethics , Public Health Surveillance , Public Health/ethics , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Information Dissemination/ethics , Privacy , Public Policy , United States
12.
J Biomed Inform ; 115: 103685, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039434

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 crisis led a group of scientific and informatics experts to accelerate development of an infrastructure for electronic data exchange for the identification, processing, and reporting of scientific findings. The Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR®) standard which is overcoming the interoperability problems in health information exchange was extended to evidence-based medicine (EBM) knowledge with the EBMonFHIR project. A 13-step Code System Development Protocol was created in September 2020 to support global development of terminologies for exchange of scientific evidence. For Step 1, we assembled expert working groups with 55 people from 26 countries by October 2020. For Step 2, we identified 23 commonly used tools and systems for which the first version of code systems will be developed. For Step 3, a total of 368 non-redundant concepts were drafted to become display terms for four code systems (Statistic Type, Statistic Model, Study Design, Risk of Bias). Steps 4 through 13 will guide ongoing development and maintenance of these terminologies for scientific exchange. When completed, the code systems will facilitate identifying, processing, and reporting research results and the reliability of those results. More efficient and detailed scientific communication will reduce cost and burden and improve health outcomes, quality of life, and patient, caregiver, and healthcare professional satisfaction. We hope the achievements reached thus far will outlive COVID-19 and provide an infrastructure to make science computable for future generations. Anyone may join the effort at https://www.gps.health/covid19_knowledge_accelerator.html.


Subject(s)
Bias , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Communication , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
13.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955714

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with autoimmune diseases were advised to shield to avoid COVID-19, but information on their prognosis is lacking. We characterised 30-day outcomes and mortality after hospitalisation with COVID-19 among patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, and compared outcomes after hospital admissions among similar patients with seasonal influenza. DESIGN: Multinational network cohort study. SETTING: Electronic health records data from Columbia University Irving Medical Center (CUIMC) (NYC, United States [US]), Optum [US], Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) (US), Information System for Research in Primary Care-Hospitalisation Linked Data (SIDIAP-H) (Spain), and claims data from IQVIA Open Claims (US) and Health Insurance and Review Assessment (HIRA) (South Korea). PARTICIPANTS: All patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, diagnosed and/or hospitalised between January and June 2020 with COVID-19, and similar patients hospitalised with influenza in 2017-2018 were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 30-day complications during hospitalisation and death. RESULTS: We studied 133,589 patients diagnosed and 48,418 hospitalised with COVID-19 with prevalent autoimmune diseases. The majority of participants were female (60.5% to 65.9%) and aged ≥50 years. The most prevalent autoimmune conditions were psoriasis (3.5 to 32.5%), rheumatoid arthritis (3.9 to 18.9%), and vasculitis (3.3 to 17.6%). Amongst hospitalised patients, Type 1 diabetes was the most common autoimmune condition (4.8% to 7.5%) in US databases, rheumatoid arthritis in HIRA (18.9%), and psoriasis in SIDIAP-H (26.4%).Compared to 70,660 hospitalised with influenza, those admitted with COVID-19 had more respiratory complications including pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and higher 30-day mortality (2.2% to 4.3% versus 6.3% to 24.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with autoimmune diseases had high rates of respiratory complications and 30-day mortality following a hospitalization with COVID-19. Compared to influenza, COVID-19 is a more severe disease, leading to more complications and higher mortality. Future studies should investigate predictors of poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients with autoimmune diseases. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Patients with autoimmune conditions may be at increased risk of COVID-19 infection andcomplications.There is a paucity of evidence characterising the outcomes of hospitalised COVID-19 patients with prevalent autoimmune conditions. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: Most people with autoimmune diseases who required hospitalisation for COVID-19 were women, aged 50 years or older, and had substantial previous comorbidities.Patients who were hospitalised with COVID-19 and had prevalent autoimmune diseases had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart disease, and Type 2 diabetes as compared to those with prevalent autoimmune diseases who were diagnosed with COVID-19.A variable proportion of 6% to 25% across data sources died within one month of hospitalisation with COVID-19 and prevalent autoimmune diseases.For people with autoimmune diseases, COVID-19 hospitalisation was associated with worse outcomes and 30-day mortality compared to admission with influenza in the 2017-2018 season.

14.
medRxiv ; 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955711

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who undergo dialysis, tracheostomy, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). DESIGN: A network cohort study. SETTING: Seven databases from the United States containing routinely-collected patient data: HealthVerity, Premier, IQVIA Hospital CDM, IQVIA Open Claims, Optum EHR, Optum SES, and VA-OMOP. PATIENTS: Patients hospitalized with a clinical diagnosis or a positive test result for COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Dialysis, tracheostomy, and ECMO. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: 842,928 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were included (22,887 from HealthVerity, 77,853 from IQVIA Hospital CDM, 533,997 from IQVIA Open Claims, 36,717 from Optum EHR, 4,336 from OPTUM SES, 156,187 from Premier, and 10,951 from VA-OMOP). Across the six databases, 35,192 (4.17% [95% CI: 4.13% to 4.22%]) patients received dialysis, 6,950 (0.82% [0.81% to 0.84%]) had a tracheostomy, and 1,568 (0.19% [95% CI: 0.18% to 0.20%]) patients underwent ECMO over the 30 days following hospitalization. Use of ECMO was more common among patients who were younger, male, and with fewer comorbidities. Tracheostomy was broadly used for a similar proportion of patients regardless of age, sex, or comorbidity. While dialysis was generally used for a similar proportion among younger and older patients, it was more frequent among male patients and among those with chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSION: Use of dialysis among those hospitalized with COVID-19 is high at around 4%. Although less than one percent of patients undergo tracheostomy and ECMO, the absolute numbers of patients who have undergone these interventions is substantial.

15.
medRxiv ; 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915971

ABSTRACT

Early identification of symptoms and comorbidities most predictive of COVID-19 is critical to identify infection, guide policies to effectively contain the pandemic, and improve health systems' response. Here, we characterised socio-demographics and comorbidity in 3,316,107persons tested and 219,072 persons tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 since January 2020, and their key health outcomes in the month following the first positive test. Routine care data from primary care electronic health records (EHR) from Spain, hospital EHR from the United States (US), and claims data from South Korea and the US were used. The majority of study participants were women aged 18-65 years old. Positive/tested ratio varied greatly geographically (2.2:100 to 31.2:100) and over time (from 50:100 in February-April to 6.8:100 in May-June). Fever, cough and dyspnoea were the most common symptoms at presentation. Between 4%-38% required admission and 1-10.5% died within a month from their first positive test. Observed disparity in testing practices led to variable baseline characteristics and outcomes, both nationally (US) and internationally. Our findings highlight the importance of large scale characterization of COVID-19 international cohorts to inform planning and resource allocation including testing as countries face a second wave.

17.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 2020 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327040

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates aerosol production with high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) compared to six liters per minute by low-flow nasal cannula. METHODS: Two healthy volunteers were randomized to control (six liters per minute by low-flow nasal cannula), NIPPV, or HFNC using block randomization. NIPPV conditions were studied using continuous positive airway pressures of 5, 10, and 15 cm H2O with an FiO2 of 1.0 delivered via full-face mask. HFNC conditions included flow rates of 30 and 40 liters per minute with an FiO2 of 1.0 with and without coughing. HFNC and low-flow nasal cannula conditions were repeated with and without participants wearing a surgical mask. Six aerosol sizes (0.3, 1.0, 2.5, 5, and 10 µm) and total aerosol mass were measured at two feet and six feet from the participant's nasopharynx. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in aerosol production between either HFNC or NIPPV and control. There was also no significant difference with the use of procedural mask over the HFNC. There was significant variation between the two participants, but in neither case was there a difference compared to control. There was an aerosol-time trend, but there does not appear to be a difference between either flow rate, pressure, or control. Furthermore, there was no accumulation of total aerosol particles over the total duration of the experiment in both HFNC and NIPPV conditions. CONCLUSIONS: HFNC and NIPPV did not increase aerosol production compared to six liters per minute by low-flow nasal cannula in this experiment involving healthy volunteers.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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