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Acta Trop ; 233: 106566, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930664


BACKGROUND: Rodents are known to be reservoirs of plague bacteria, Yesinia pestis in the sylvatic cycle. A preliminary investigation of the suspected plague outbreak was conducted in Madunga Ward, Babati District Council in Manyara Region December-2019-January 2020 Following reported two cases which were clinically suspected as showing plague disease symptoms. METHOD: The commensal and field rodents were live trapped using Sherman traps in Madunga Ward, where plague suspect cases were reported and, in the Nou-forest reserve areas at Madunga Ward, Babati District Council, to assess plague risk in the area. Fleas were collected inside the houses using light traps and on the rodents 'body after anaesthetizing the captured rodent to determine flea indices which are used to estimate the risk of plague transmission. Lung impression smears were made from sacrificed rodents to examine for possible bipolar stained Yersinia spp bacilli. RESULTS: A total of 86 rodents consisting of ten rodent species were captured and identified from the study sites. Nine forest rodent species were collected. Field/fallow rodent species were dominated by Mastomys natalensis. whereas domestic rodent species captured was Rattus rattus. Overall lung impression smear showed bipolar stain were 14 (16.28%) while House Flea Index (HFI) was 3.1 and Rodent Flea Index (RFI) was 1.8. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study have shown that, the presence of bipolar stained bacilli in lung impression smears of captured species of rodents indicates (not confirmed) possible circulation of Yesrsinia pests in rodents and the high flea indices in the area which included the most common flea species known to be plague vectors in Tanzania could have played transmission role in this suspected outbreak. The study recommends surveillance follow-up in the area and subject collected samples to the standard plague confirmatory diagnosis.

Plague , Siphonaptera , Animals , Disease Outbreaks , Forests , Plague/diagnosis , Plague/epidemiology , Plague/microbiology , Rats , Rodentia/microbiology , Siphonaptera/microbiology , Tanzania/epidemiology
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 174, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847712


Introduction: on 16th March 2020, Tanzania announced its first COVID-19 case. The country had already developed a 72-hour response plan and had enacted three compulsory infection prevention and control interventions. Here, we describe public compliance to Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) public health measures in Dar es Salaam during the early COVID-19 response and testing of the feasibility of an observational method. Methods: a cross sectional study was conducted between April and May 2020 in Dar es Salaam City. At that time, Dar es Salaam was the epi centre of the epidemic. Respondents were randomly selected from defined population strata (high, medium and low). Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and through observations. Results: a total of 390 subjects were interviewed, response rate was 388 (99.5%). Mean age of the respondents was 34.8 years and 168 (43.1%) had primary level education. Out of the 388 respondents, 384 (98.9%) reported to have heard about COVID-19 public health and social measures, 90.0% had heard from the television and 84.6% from the radio. Covering coughs and sneezes using a handkerchief was the most common behaviour observed among 320 (82.5%) respondents; followed by hand washing hygiene practice, 312 (80.4%) and wearing face masks, 240 (61.9%). Approximately 215 (55.4%) adhered to physical distancing guidance. Age and gender were associated with compliance to IPC measures (both, p<0.05). Conclusion: compliance to public health measures during the early phase of COVID-19 pandemic in this urban setting was encouraging. As the pandemic continues, it is critical to ensure compliance is sustained and capitalize on risk communication via television and radio.

COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , Tanzania/epidemiology