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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(2): e1010268, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753212

ABSTRACT

Next generation sequencing has revealed the presence of numerous RNA viruses in animal reservoir hosts, including many closely related to known human pathogens. Despite their zoonotic potential, most of these viruses remain understudied due to not yet being cultured. While reverse genetic systems can facilitate virus rescue, this is often hindered by missing viral genome ends. A prime example is Lloviu virus (LLOV), an uncultured filovirus that is closely related to the highly pathogenic Ebola virus. Using minigenome systems, we complemented the missing LLOV genomic ends and identified cis-acting elements required for LLOV replication that were lacking in the published sequence. We leveraged these data to generate recombinant full-length LLOV clones and rescue infectious virus. Similar to other filoviruses, recombinant LLOV (rLLOV) forms filamentous virions and induces the formation of characteristic inclusions in the cytoplasm of the infected cells, as shown by electron microscopy. Known target cells of Ebola virus, including macrophages and hepatocytes, are permissive to rLLOV infection, suggesting that humans could be potential hosts. However, inflammatory responses in human macrophages, a hallmark of Ebola virus disease, are not induced by rLLOV. Additional tropism testing identified pneumocytes as capable of robust rLLOV and Ebola virus infection. We also used rLLOV to test antivirals targeting multiple facets of the replication cycle. Rescue of uncultured viruses of pathogenic concern represents a valuable tool in our arsenal for pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
Ebolavirus/genetics , Filoviridae Infections/virology , Filoviridae/genetics , Virus Replication , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genetic Complementation Test , Genome, Viral , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/virology , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Inclusion Bodies/virology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Macrophages/virology , RNA, Viral , Reverse Genetics , Vero Cells , Virion/genetics
3.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750471

ABSTRACT

The most severe and fatal infections with SARS-CoV-2 result in the acute respiratory distress syndrome, a clinical phenotype of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that is associated with virions targeting the epithelium of the distal lung, particularly the facultative progenitors of this tissue, alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AT2s). Little is known about the initial responses of human lung alveoli to SARS-CoV-2 infection due in part to inability to access these cells from patients, particularly at early stages of disease. Here we present an in vitro human model that simulates the initial apical infection of the distal lung epithelium with SARS-CoV-2, using AT2s that have been adapted to air-liquid interface culture after their derivation from induced pluripotent stem cells (iAT2s). We find that SARS-CoV-2 induces a rapid global transcriptomic change in infected iAT2s characterized by a shift to an inflammatory phenotype predominated by the secretion of cytokines encoded by NF-kB target genes, delayed epithelial interferon responses, and rapid loss of the mature lung alveolar epithelial program. Over time, infected iAT2s exhibit cellular toxicity that can result in the death of these key alveolar facultative progenitors, as is observed in vivo in COVID-19 lung autopsies. Importantly, drug testing using iAT2s confirmed the efficacy of TMPRSS2 protease inhibition, validating putative mechanisms used for viral entry in human alveolar cells. Our model system reveals the cell-intrinsic responses of a key lung target cell to infection, providing a platform for further drug development and facilitating a deeper understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis.

4.
ACS Cent Sci ; 7(7): 1156-1165, 2021 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337094

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread, investigating the processes underlying the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and its hosts is of high importance. Here, we report the identification of CD209L/L-SIGN and the related protein CD209/DC-SIGN as receptors capable of mediating SARS-CoV-2 entry into human cells. Immunofluorescence staining of human tissues revealed prominent expression of CD209L in the lung and kidney epithelia and endothelia. Multiple biochemical assays using a purified recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) or S1 encompassing both N termal domain and RBD and ectopically expressed CD209L and CD209 revealed that CD209L and CD209 interact with S-RBD. CD209L contains two N-glycosylation sequons, at sites N92 and N361, but we determined that only site N92 is occupied. Removal of the N-glycosylation at this site enhances the binding of S-RBD with CD209L. CD209L also interacts with ACE2, suggesting a role for heterodimerization of CD209L and ACE2 in SARS-CoV-2 entry and infection in cell types where both are present. Furthermore, we demonstrate that human endothelial cells are permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and interference with CD209L activity by a knockdown strategy or with soluble CD209L inhibits virus entry. Our observations demonstrate that CD209L and CD209 serve as alternative receptors for SARS-CoV-2 in disease-relevant cell types, including the vascular system. This property is particularly important in tissues where ACE2 has low expression or is absent and may have implications for antiviral drug development.

5.
Virus Res ; 292: 198246, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-974719

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created an urgent need for therapeutics that inhibit the SARS-COV-2 virus and suppress the fulminant inflammation characteristic of advanced illness. Here, we describe the anti-COVID-19 potential of PTC299, an orally bioavailable compound that is a potent inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), the rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. In tissue culture, PTC299 manifests robust, dose-dependent, and DHODH-dependent inhibition of SARS-COV-2 replication (EC50 range, 2.0-31.6 nM) with a selectivity index >3,800. PTC299 also blocked replication of other RNA viruses, including Ebola virus. Consistent with known DHODH requirements for immunomodulatory cytokine production, PTC299 inhibited the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17A (also called IL-17), IL-17 F, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tissue culture models. The combination of anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, cytokine inhibitory activity, and previously established favorable pharmacokinetic and human safety profiles render PTC299 a promising therapeutic for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Carbamates/pharmacology , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/immunology , HeLa Cells , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/virology , Vero Cells
6.
Mol Cell ; 80(6): 1104-1122.e9, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933377

ABSTRACT

Human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causative pathogen of the COVID-19 pandemic, exerts a massive health and socioeconomic crisis. The virus infects alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AT2s), leading to lung injury and impaired gas exchange, but the mechanisms driving infection and pathology are unclear. We performed a quantitative phosphoproteomic survey of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived AT2s (iAT2s) infected with SARS-CoV-2 at air-liquid interface (ALI). Time course analysis revealed rapid remodeling of diverse host systems, including signaling, RNA processing, translation, metabolism, nuclear integrity, protein trafficking, and cytoskeletal-microtubule organization, leading to cell cycle arrest, genotoxic stress, and innate immunity. Comparison to analogous data from transformed cell lines revealed respiratory-specific processes hijacked by SARS-CoV-2, highlighting potential novel therapeutic avenues that were validated by a high hit rate in a targeted small molecule screen in our iAT2 ALI system.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Proteome/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Cytoskeleton , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/pathology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Protein Transport , Proteome/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction , Vero Cells
7.
Cell Stem Cell ; 27(6): 962-973.e7, 2020 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779662

ABSTRACT

A hallmark of severe COVID-19 pneumonia is SARS-CoV-2 infection of the facultative progenitors of lung alveoli, the alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AT2s). However, inability to access these cells from patients, particularly at early stages of disease, limits an understanding of disease inception. Here, we present an in vitro human model that simulates the initial apical infection of alveolar epithelium with SARS-CoV-2 by using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived AT2s that have been adapted to air-liquid interface culture. We find a rapid transcriptomic change in infected cells, characterized by a shift to an inflammatory phenotype with upregulation of NF-κB signaling and loss of the mature alveolar program. Drug testing confirms the efficacy of remdesivir as well as TMPRSS2 protease inhibition, validating a putative mechanism used for viral entry in alveolar cells. Our model system reveals cell-intrinsic responses of a key lung target cell to SARS-CoV-2 infection and should facilitate drug development.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Inflammation/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Drug Development , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Models, Biological , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , RNA-Seq , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Replication
8.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721075

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created an urgent need for therapeutics that inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 virus and suppress the fulminant inflammation characteristic of advanced illness. Here, we describe the anti-COVID-19 potential of PTC299, an orally available compound that is a potent inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), the rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway. In tissue culture, PTC299 manifests robust, dose-dependent, and DHODH-dependent inhibition of SARS CoV-2 replication (EC 50 range, 2.0 to 31.6 nM) with a selectivity index >3,800. PTC299 also blocked replication of other RNA viruses, including Ebola virus. Consistent with known DHODH requirements for immunomodulatory cytokine production, PTC299 inhibited the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17A (also called IL-17), IL-17F, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tissue culture models. The combination of anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, cytokine inhibitory activity, and previously established favorable pharmacokinetic and human safety profiles render PTC299 a promising therapeutic for COVID-19.

9.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637839

ABSTRACT

The most severe and fatal infections with SARS-CoV-2 result in the acute respiratory distress syndrome, a clinical phenotype of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that is associated with virions targeting the epithelium of the distal lung, particularly the facultative progenitors of this tissue, alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AT2s). Little is known about the initial responses of human lung alveoli to SARS-CoV-2 infection due in part to inability to access these cells from patients, particularly at early stages of disease. Here we present an in vitro human model that simulates the initial apical infection of the distal lung epithelium with SARS-CoV-2, using AT2s that have been adapted to air-liquid interface culture after their derivation from induced pluripotent stem cells (iAT2s). We find that SARS-CoV-2 induces a rapid global transcriptomic change in infected iAT2s characterized by a shift to an inflammatory phenotype predominated by the secretion of cytokines encoded by NF-kB target genes, delayed epithelial interferon responses, and rapid loss of the mature lung alveolar epithelial program. Over time, infected iAT2s exhibit cellular toxicity that can result in the death of these key alveolar facultative progenitors, as is observed in vivo in COVID-19 lung autopsies. Importantly, drug testing using iAT2s confirmed an antiviral dose-response to remdesivir and demonstrated the efficacy of TMPRSS2 protease inhibition, validating a putative mechanism used for viral entry in human alveolar cells. Our model system reveals the cell-intrinsic responses of a key lung target cell to infection, providing a physiologically relevant platform for further drug development and facilitating a deeper understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis.

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